WorldCat Identities

Morton, Sally C.

Overview
Works: 29 works in 63 publications in 1 language and 2,659 library holdings
Genres: Case studies  Bibliography  Bibliographies 
Roles: Editor, Author
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Sally C Morton
Finding what works in health care : standards for systematic reviews by Institute of Medicine (U.S.)( )

3 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 1,491 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Healthcare decision makers in search of reliable information comparing health interventions increasingly turn to systematic reviews for the best summary of the evidence. Systematic reviews identify, select, assess, and synthesize the findings of similar but separate studies, and can help clarify what is known and not known about the potential benefits and harms of drugs, devices, and other healthcare services. Systematic reviews can be helpful for clinicians who want to integrate research findings into their daily practices, for patients to make well-informed choices about their own care, for professional medical societies and other organizations that develop clinical practice guidelines. Too often systematic reviews are of uncertain or poor quality. There are no universally accepted standards for developing systematic reviews leading to variability in how conflicts of interest and biases are handled, how evidence is appraised, and the overall scientific rigor of the process. In Finding What Works in Health Care the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends 21 standards for developing high-quality systematic reviews of comparative effectiveness research. The standards address the entire systematic review process from the initial steps of formulating the topic and building the review team to producing a detailed final report that synthesizes what the evidence shows and where knowledge gaps remain. Finding What Works in Health Care also proposes a framework for improving the quality of the science underpinning systematic reviews. This book will serve as a vital resource for both sponsors and producers of systematic reviews of comparative effectiveness research
Assessment of the national patient safety initiative : context and baseline : evaluation report 1( )

3 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 527 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In September 2002, RAND contracted with the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) to serve as the evaluation center for its national patient safety initiative. The evaluation center is responsible for performing a longitudinal evaluation of AHRQ's patient safety activities and for providing regular feedback to support the continuing improvement of this initiative over a four-year project period. This report presents findings on the history leading to the AHRQ patient safety initiative, the start-up of the initiative, and early activities through September 2003. It focuses on assessing the context and goals that were the foundation for the initiative and documents the baseline status of the activities being undertaken. The evaluation found the agency has done an impressive job in starting the patient safety initiative, despite unreasonable high expectations and insufficient funding. The evaluators identify four priorities for AHRQ that they believe will have the strongest positive impact on the future of the patient safety initiative: designing interim objectives to pull the health care system toward the long-term goal of reducing errors by 50 percent; developing a national patient safety data repository; participating in active public-private partnerships and supporting health care organizations in their implementation activities; and balancing research and adoption activities
Public policy and Statistics : case studies from RAND( Book )

9 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 240 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Improving childhood asthma outcomes in the United States : a blueprint for policy action by Will Nicholas( Book )

6 editions published between 2001 and 2002 in English and held by 164 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report describes the group process used to arrive at the policy recommendations proposed in Improving Childhood Asthma Outcomes in the United States: A Blueprint for Policy Action. The latter report summarizes the findings of an effort funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, to * Identify a range of policy actions in both the public and private sectors that could improve childhood asthma outcomes nationwide * Select a subset of policies to create a blueprint for national policy in this area * Outline alternatives to implement these policies that build on prior efforts. Over the course of 2000, RAND Health engaged an interdisciplinary committee of nationally recognized leaders in childhood asthma in a structured group process to identify the policy recommendations in the Blueprint. Appendix A provides a schematic of the group process, and this report describes the process in detail. The extensive appendices contain the essential "live" documents (lists, voting sheets, Power Point slides, Excel spreadsheets, etc.) that facilitated this process. This effort is part of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Pediatric Asthma Initiative. The purpose of this initiative is to address current gaps in national childhood asthma care through clinical and nonclinical approaches to improve the management of childhood asthma. It is the first national initiative that simultaneously addresses treatment, policy, and financing issues for children with asthma at the patient, provider, and institutional levels
Methods in comparative effectiveness research by Constantine Gatsonis( )

7 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 121 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Cover -- Half Title -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Contributors -- Introduction -- Section I: Causal Inference Methods -- 1. An Overview of Statistical Approaches for Comparative Effectiveness Research -- 2. Instrumental Variables Methods -- 3. Observational Studies Analyzed Like Randomized Trials and Vice Versa -- Section II: Clinical Trials: Design, Interpretation, and Generalizability -- 4. Cluster-Randomized Trials -- 5. Bayesian Adaptive Designs -- 6. Generalizability of Clinical Trials Results -- 7. Combining Information from Multiple Data Sources: An Introduction to Cross-Design Synthesis with a Case Study -- 8. Heterogeneity of Treatment Effects -- 9. Challenges in Establishing a Hierarchy of Evidence -- Section III: Research Synthesis -- 10. Systematic Reviews with Study-Level and Individual Patient-Level Data -- 11. Network Meta-Analysis -- 12. Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis for Multiple Endpoints -- 13. Mathematical Modeling -- Section IV: Special Topics -- 14. On the Use of Electronic Health Records -- 15. Evaluating Personalized Treatment Regimes -- 16. Early Detection of Diseases -- 17. Evaluating Tests for Diagnosis and Prediction -- Index
The empirical evidence of bias in trials measuring treatment differences by Nancy D Berkman( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 36 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively and systematically review and compare empirical evaluations of specific types of bias on effect estimates in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported in systematic reviews. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE(r), the Cochrane Library, and the Evidence-based Practice Center methods library located at the Scientific Resource Center. Additional studies were identified from reference lists and technical experts. We included meta-epidemiological studies (studies drawing from multiple meta-analyses), meta-analyses, and simulation studies (in relation to reporting bias only) intended primarily to examine the influence of bias on treatment effects in RCTs. REVIEW METHODS: Approaches to minimizing potential biases considered in the review included selection bias through randomization (sequence generation and allocation concealment); confounding through design or analysis; performance bias through fidelity to the protocol, avoidance of unintended interventions, patient or caregiver blinding and clinician or provider blinding; detection bias through outcome assessor and data analyst blinding and appropriate statistical methods; detection/performance bias through double blinding; attrition bias through intention-to-treat analysis or other approaches to accounting for dropouts; and reporting bias through complete reporting of all prespecified outcomes. Two people independently selected, extracted data from, and rated the quality of included studies. We did not pool the results quantitatively due to the heterogeneity of included studies. RESULTS: A total of 38 studies of trials (48 publications) met our inclusion criteria, from our review of 4,844 abstracts. Of these, 35 had usable evidence. Some studies concerned the effect of more than one type of bias on effect estimates. We reviewed 23 studies on allocation concealment, 14 studies on sequence generation, 2 studies on unspecified bias in randomization, 2 studies on confounding, 2 studies on fidelity to protocol and unintended interventions, 4 studies on patient and/or provider blinding, 8 studies on assessor blinding, 2 studies on appropriate statistical methods, 18 studies on double blinding, 15 studies on attrition bias, and 9 studies on selective outcome reporting. Although a trend toward exaggeration of treatment effects was seen across bodies of evidence for most biases, the magnitude and precision of the effect varied widely across studies. We generally found evidence that was precise and consistent in direction of effect for assessor and double blinding, specifically in relation to subjective outcomes, and for selective outcome reporting. Evidence was generally consistent in direction of effect but with variable precision across studies for allocation concealment, sequence generation, and assessor blinding of objective or mixed outcomes. In contrast, evidence was generally inconsistent and imprecise in relation to confounding, adequate statistical methods, fidelity to the protocol, patient/provider blinding, and attrition bias. Studies differed markedly on a number of dimensions including measures/scales used to measure biases, the thoroughness of reporting of trial conduct that was required, approaches to statistical modeling and adjustment for potential confounding, types of outcomes and stratification by treatment or condition. Within many epidemiological studies, the included meta-analyses or trials varied along these dimensions as well. CONCLUSIONS: Theory suggests that bias in the conduct of studies would influence treatment effects. Our review found some evidence of this effect in relation to some aspects of RCT study conduct. When the bias was present, commonly the treatment effect was increased, but rarely were the estimates precise in the individual studies. However, because this evidence is limited and uncertain with respect to the magnitude of the impact, this does not necessarily imply that systematic reviewers can eliminate assessment of risk of bias. Due to the complexity of evaluating precision in meta-epidemiological studies developed from potentially heterogeneous meta-analyses or trials, we cannot be sure that studies were sufficiently powered. We suggest that systematic reviewers consider subgroup analyses, with and without studies with flaws in relation to specific biases of importance for review questions. Future studies evaluating the impact of biases on treatment effect should follow the lead of the BRANDO study and use modeling approaches that include careful construction of large datasets of trials (and eventually observational studies) designed to look at the effect of specific aspects of study conduct and the interrelationship between bias concerns
Pharmaceutical technology assessment for managed care : current practice and suggestions for improvement by Samuel A Bozzette( )

3 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 23 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Powerful pharmaceuticals are of increasing clinical and economic importance to managed care organizations, which are often responsible for managing and paying for the increasing costs of pharmaceuticals. This creates an incentive for them to go beyond a focus on clinical effectiveness and safety to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of new drugs. This report describes the processes by which managed care organizations evaluate pharmaceutical technologies and suggests pathways for organizing improvement. It reviews current evaluation procedures, provides a framework for future evaluations, introduces evaluation approaches, and annotates resources for further research on each topic covered. The report finds that most managed care organizations have internal procedures for assessing new pharmaceutical technologies, but their medical directors commonly believe these procedures to be less rigorous and less systematic than are desirable. The decisionmaking framework outlined in the report and the techniques it incorporates describe an objective, reproducible process for assessing pharmaceutical technology in the managed care setting. It provides a "road map" that can help an organization expose hidden biases in current processes, build on its experiences with evaluation, and reduce the risk of illogical or poorly thought-through decisions
Uterine artery embolization : a systematic review of the literature and proposal for research( )

2 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 16 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The benign tumors known as uterine leiomyomata are a common cause of significant, often disabling symptoms among women. For women whose symptoms are not controlled by hormones or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, surgery--hysterectomy or myomectomy--is required. Over the long term, about 10 percent of women who have had a myomectomy will later require hysterectomy to control bleeding. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a minimally invasive radiologic technique for reducing symptoms caused by uterine leiomyomata. A literature review revealed that the short-term results for UAE are roughly comparable with those for abdominal myomectomy, and the risks of UAE are similar to those of more-established procedures. Based on the recommendations of the ten-member expert panel convened to examine the literature review, the report concludes that the current data on UAE, while promising, are inadequate to recommend its use outside of clinical trials. A randomized, controlled trial with careful measurement of short- and long-term outcomes is crucial to establish the comparative risks and benefits of UAE, myomectomy, and hysterectomy. In addition, the panel recommended careful study of the costs of UAE and the establishment of a registry of patients undergoing UAE to provide nonexperimental data on the procedure
Mental health and substance abuse issues among people with HIV : lessons from HCSUS( Book )

2 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This research brief describes findings from HIV Costs and Services Utilization Study surveys on the prevalence of mental health and substance abuse problems for persons with HIV, access to appropriate care, and ability to adhere to treatment
Issues in developing a resource-based relative value scale for physician work( )

2 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The authors' objective in this study was to establish panel procedures for revising the Medicare Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS). They conducted four pilot panels, composed of 46 physicians from different specialties (including primary care), to rate total physician work. One panel examined 80 urological services, another examined 80 ophthalmological services, and the last two considered the merit of appeals from five specialty and subspecialty societies to 68 and 48 services, respectively. All ratings were relative to a multispecialty reference set of established values. Measures included physicians' preliminary and final ratings and detailed notes of the group discussions conducted between the ratings. Results indicate that a panel process for refining RVWs is practical and reasonable, provided that panelists are provided with a valid reference set for comparison purposes and provided that care is taken that all members feel comfortable engaging in the discussion
Do people with HIV get the dental care they need? : results of the HCSUS study( Book )

1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Key findings: --Many patients who receive regular medical care for HIV do not get the dental care they need. --Many of those reporting unmet need for dental care--including Medicaid recipients whose state Medicaid program does not provide dental coverage--lack dental insurance. --HIV-infected patients are more likely to get dental care when it's provided by the clinic where they get their medical care
Bootstrap confidence intervals in a complex situation: a sequential paired clinical trial by Sally C Morton( Book )

4 editions published in 1988 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Interpretable projection pursuit by Sally C Morton( Book )

4 editions published in 1989 in English and Undetermined and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Statistics and public policy : case studies from RAND( Book )

1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

On the estimation of entropy by Peter Hall( Book )

1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Panel processes for revising relative values of physician work : a pilot study( Book )

1 edition published in 1996 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this study, a set of meetings was conducted to pilot a group-discussion-based method anchored by a reference set of services with agreed-on values for revising the Medicare Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS). The authors focused on the method as it evolved over the sequence of meetings, rather than on whether the relative values of work obtained were more or less valid than relative values of work obtained elsewhere. Four pilot panels, composed of 46 physicians from different specialties (including primary care), were conducted to rate total physician work. One panel examined 80 urologic services, another panel examined 80 ophthalmologic services, and the last two panels considered the merit of appeals from five specialty and subspecialty societies to 68 and 48 services, respectively. Rather than using the method of ratio estimation relative to a standard service, panelists were asked to estimate magnitudes relative to an established multispecialty reference set of values. Prominent members of that reference set were graphically displayed to panelists on a "ruler." Measures included physicians' preliminary and final ratings and detailed notes of the group discussions conducted between the ratings. The authors found that a panel process for refining relative values of work is practical, provided that panelists are provided with a valid reference set for comparison purposes and provided that care is taken that all members feel comfortable engaging in the discussion. In Summer 1992, the Health Care Financing Association conducted a series of multispecialty panels based on the methods presented here to produce the 1993 RBRVS; in addition, the RBRVS Update Committee of the American Medical Association is employing group processes and a reference set in determining the relative work values of new Current Procedural Terminology codes
An examination of the resource-based relative value scale cross-specialty linkage method by Sally C Morton( Book )

1 edition published in 1996 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) was developed by surveying panels of physicians from single specialties, then merging the specialty-specific results into a common work scale. The merging process involved two steps: (1) specification of links or equivalent services across specialties: and (2) use of links to align work values from each specialty onto a common scale. This study examines the sensitivity of physician relative values of work (RVWs) to changes in both the specification of links and in the method for aligning specialties. Using the same survey data employed in developing the RBRVS, the authors calculated new RVWs based on an alternative specification of links and an alternative method for aligning specialties. Total RVWs declined by almost 50 percent for anesthesiology, and increased by more than 20 percent for allergists, neurologists, and thoracic surgeons. Most of this change was attributable to the specification of links. The authors conclude that future use of the linkage procedure employed in developing the RBRVS is not warranted without further research. Instead, efforts to update and revise work values could be based on a common scale of work developed by cross-specialty panels, thus eliminating the need for a linkage procedure
A model for a smallpox-vaccination policy by Samuel A Bozzette( Book )

1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Statistics for social science and public policy : case studies from RAND( Book )

1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Ephedra--is it worth the risk? by Paul G Shekelle( )

1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Mr. Chairman, we welcome the opportunity to submit testimony for the New York State Senate Committee on Consumer Protection on the dietary supplement ephedra. Key findings from our research: ̂Ephedra and ephedrine promote modest short-term weight loss; their long-term effect is unknown. ̂Ephedrine plus caffeine moderately boosts performance for fit young men; there is no evidence that ephedra or ephedrine improves long-term physical performance of athletes or would work for the general public. ̂Ephedra and ephedrine increase the risk of nausea, vomiting, jitteriness, and palpitations. ̂These products may be linked to catastrophic events such as sudden death, heart attack, or stroke
 
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Public policy and Statistics : case studies from RAND Statistics and public policy : case studies from RAND Statistics for social science and public policy : case studies from RAND
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Assessment of the national patient safety initiative : context and baseline : evaluation report 1Public policy and Statistics : case studies from RANDImproving childhood asthma outcomes in the United States : a blueprint for policy actionPharmaceutical technology assessment for managed care : current practice and suggestions for improvementUterine artery embolization : a systematic review of the literature and proposal for researchStatistics and public policy : case studies from RANDStatistics for social science and public policy : case studies from RAND
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English (53)