WorldCat Identities

Schochet, Peter Z.

Works: 51 works in 84 publications in 1 language and 2,621 library holdings
Roles: Author
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Peter Z Schochet
Economic patterns of single mothers following their poverty exits : final report by Quinn Moore( )

2 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 298 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Characteristics of low-wage workers and their labor market experiences : evidence from the mid- to late 1990s : final report by Peter Z Schochet( )

3 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 295 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

National Job Corps study and longer-term follow-up study : impact and benefit-cost findings using survey and summary earnings records data : final report by Peter Z Schochet( )

1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 293 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Partially nested randomized controlled trials in education research : a guide to design and analysis by Sharon L Lohr( )

2 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 243 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Suppose an education researcher wants to test the impact of a high school drop-out prevention intervention in which at-risk students attend classes to receive intensive summer school instruction. The district will allow the researcher to randomly assign students to the treatment classes or to the control group. Half of the students (the treatment group) are assigned to one of four summer classes being offered. The other half (the control group) are not assigned to receive any services during the summer. Thus, the researcher knows there are four clusters in the treatment group: students in the same class share the same teacher and environment and, therefore, are expected to have more similar outcomes than students from different classes. The students in the control group, however, are not assigned to any classes. How are data for the treatment and control group students to be treated in the analysis? This scenario is an example of a Partially Nested Randomized Controlled Trial (PN-RCT) where treatment students receive intervention services in groups but where this grouping does not occur for control students. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance to education researchers on how to recognize, design, and analyze data from PN-RCTs to rigorously assess whether an intervention (such as a curriculum, policy, or tutoring program) is effective. In the Introduction, the authors define PN-RCTs, with specific examples that are described in the broader context of the choices for research designs, and provide a roadmap to the rest of the paper and a summary of their take-away messages. Chapters 1 and 2 of the paper are written primarily for applied education researchers with an introductory knowledge of quantitative impact evaluation methods. The goal is to help these researchers negotiate key concerns when proposing and conducting research using PN-RCT designs. The paper addresses design issues such as possibilities for random assignment, cluster formation, statistical power, and confounding factors that may mask the contribution of the intervention. Chapter 3 is intended for education researchers interested in estimating treatment effects for PN-RCT designs; it discusses basic statistical models that adjust for the clustering of treatment students within intervention clusters, associated computer code for estimation, and a step-by-step guide, using examples, on how to estimate the models and interpret the output. Chapter 4 and the technical appendices discuss more advanced statistical topics pertaining to PN-RCTs and are written primarily for an audience with a strong statistical background. The following are appended: (1) Mixed Model Theory for PN-RCTs; (2) Degrees of Freedom for PN-RCTs; (3) Analyzing PN-RCT Data Using R Software; (4) Analyzing Basic PN-RCTs Using HLM Software; and (5) Full SAS Code for Examples
Analysis of associations between contemporaneous Job Corps performance measures and impact estimates from the National Job Corps study : executive summary by Jane Garrison Fortson( )

1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 240 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

National Job Corps study : methodological appendixes on the impact analysis by Peter Z Schochet( )

4 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 214 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A study involving random assignment of all youth eligible for Job Corps to either a Job Corps program or to a control group was conducted to assess the impact of Job Corps on key participant outcomes. Participants in the study were nationwide youth eligible for Job Corps who applied for enrollment for the first time between November 16, 1994, and December 17, 1995. The study sought to determine the following:(1) how effectively Job Corps improves the employability of disadvantaged participants, (2) whether Job Corps impacts differ for youths with different baseline characteristics, and (3) how effective the residential and nonresidential components of Job Corp are. Findings over the first 4 years after random assignment include the following: (1) Job Corps provided extensive education, training, and other services to the program group and improved their educational attainment; (2) Job Corps generated positive employment and earnings impacts by the beginning of the third year after random assignment and the impacts persisted through the fourth year; (3) employment and earnings gains were found broadly across most subgroups of students; (4) the resident and nonresidential programs were each effective for the youths they served; (5) Job Corps significantly reduced youths' involvement with the criminal justice system; (6) Job Corps had small beneficial impacts on the receipt of public assistance and self-assessed health status, but no impacts on illegal drug use; and (7) Job Corps had no impacts on fertility or custodial responsibility, but it slightly promoted independent living and mobility. (The report include numerous tables and charts, 31 references, and five appendixes concerning the study methodology.) (Kc)
National Job Corps study : assessing program effects on earnings for students achieving key program milestones( Book )

2 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 175 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

National Job Corps study : the impacts of Job Corps on participants' employment and related outcomes by Peter Z Schochet( Book )

2 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 167 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The determinants of public-sector and private-sector training by James J Heckman( Book )

2 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 153 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Comparing impact findings from design-based and model-based methods : an empirical investigation by Tim Kautz( )

2 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 145 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A new design-based theory has recently been developed to estimate impacts for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and basic quasi-experimental designs (QEDs) for a wide range of designs used in social policy research (Imbens & Rubin, 2015; Schochet, 2016). These methods use the potential outcomes framework and known features of study designs to connect statistical methods to the building blocks of causal inference. They differ from model-based methods that have commonly been used in education research, including hierarchical linear model (HLM) methods and robust cluster standard error (RCSE) methods for clustered designs. In comparison to model-based methods, the design-based methods tend to make fewer assumptions about the nature of the data and also more explicitly account for known information about the experimental and sampling designs. While these theoretical differences suggest the corresponding estimates might differ, it is unclear how much of a practical difference it makes to use design-based methods versus more conventional model-based methods. This study addresses this question by re-analyzing nine past RCTs in the education area using both design- and model-based methods. The study uses real data, rather than simulated data, to better explore the differences that would arise in practice. In order to investigate the full scope of differences between the methods, the study uses data generated from different types of randomization designs commonly used in social policy research: (1) non-clustered designs in which individuals are randomized; (2) clustered designs in which groups are randomized; (3) non-blocked designs in which randomization is conducted for a single population; and (4) blocked (stratified) designs in which randomization is conducted separately within partitions of the sample. The study conducts the design-based analyses using "RCT-YES," a free software package funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) that applies design-based methods to a wide range of RCT designs ( This report focuses on two analyses that compare model- and design-based methods, both of which suggest there is little substantive difference in the results between the two methods. For both analyses, the study uses a reference model-based method that is similar to the one used in the original evaluation. In the first analysis, the study compares the reference model-based method to a design-based method with underlying assumptions that most closely align with those of the reference model-based method. In the second analysis, the report presents a sensitivity check that compares the reference model-based method to an alternative design-based method. In particular, the alternative method is based on the default settings in the" RCT-YES" software, which correspond to an alternative set of plausible assumptions. The findings from both analyses suggest that model- and design-based methods yield very similar results in terms of the magnitude of impact estimates, statistical significance of the impact estimates, and implications for policy. To contextualize the differences in impact estimates between design- and model-based methods, the report also presents a third analysis, which compares estimates from two commonly used model-based methods: (1) HLM methods; and (2) linear models with ordinary least squares (OLS) assumptions and RCSE to account for clustering. Importantly, this analysis suggests that the differences between the design- and model-based methods (with similar assumptions) are no greater than the differences that would arise between commonly used, model-based methods. The study suggests that researchers should select estimators with assumptions that best suit the goals of their study regardless of whether they use a design- or model-based approach. Moreover, researchers should consider the trade offs between different assumptions, and how these assumptions affect the interpretation of findings. Appended are: (1) Hierarchical linear model methods; and (2) Detailed description of studies and results. [For related reports see: "What Is Design-Based Causal Inference for RCTs and Why Should I Use It? NCEE 2017-4025" (ED575014)and "Multi-Armed RCTs: A Design-Based Framework. NCEE 2017-4027 (ED575022).]
National Job Corps study : the impacts of Job Corps on participants' literacy skills : final report by Steven Glazerman( Book )

1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 137 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

National Job Corps study : the short-term impacts of Job Corps on participants' employment and related outcomes : final report by Peter Z Schochet( Book )

8 editions published between 2000 and 2001 in English and held by 36 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A national study estimated the short-term impacts of Job Corps (JC) on participants' employment and related outcomes during the 30 months after random assignment. Results for the short-term impact analysis were based on a comparison of eligible program participants randomly assigned to a program group (n=9,409) or a control group (n=5,977) that did not participate in JC. The analysis relied primarily on interview data. Findings indicated most program group participants stayed in JC for a substantial period of time; program group enrollees participated extensively in the core JC activities; differences in subgroups' JC experiences were small; JC substantially increased the education and training that program participants received; similar percentages of program and control group members were enrolled in education and training programs toward the end of the 30-month period; JC participation led to substantial increases in the receipt of General Educational Development and vocational certificates; JC generated positive earnings impact by 2 years after random assignment; and program group members secured higher-paying jobs with slightly more benefits. JC participation reduced receipt of public assistance benefits; significantly reduced arrest and conviction rates; had no impacts on the self-reported use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs; had no impact on family formation; and had no impact on mobility. (Appendixes include 20 references and supplementary tables.) (YLB)
National Job Corps study : impacts by center characteristics by John A Burghardt( Book )

3 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The question of whether the Job Corps's impacts on students' employment and related outcomes differ according to the characteristics of the Job Corps center attended was examined. The study sample consisted of approximately 9,400 program group members and 6,000 control group members who were randomly selected from among the nearly 81,000 applicants nationwide who applied for Job Corps services for the first time between November 17, 1994, and December 16, 1995, and were found eligible for services by February 1996. Study participants were interviewed shortly after their random assignment and 12, 30, and 48 months thereafter. Job Corps impacts were similar for contract centers and Civilian Conservation Centers. Impacts were similar in large, medium, and small centers. The beneficial impacts of the Job Corps program overall were broadly distributed throughout the country and not confined to a few regions. Impacts were similar for centers rated as high-performing, medium-performing, and low-performing centers based on the Job Corps performance measurement system. As expected, outcomes of the program group were better among the high-performing centers. However, so too were the outcomes of the control group who would have attended the high-performing centers. (Twenty-eight tables/figures are included. Eight supplementary tables are appended.) (MN)
Employment experiences of welfare recipients who find jobs : is targeting possible? by Anu Rangarajan( Book )

2 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Are They in Any Real Danger? What Research Does--and Doesn't--Tell Us about Child Care Quality and Children's Well-Being. Child Care Research and Policy Papers by John M Love( Book )

2 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Recent research suggests that quality of experience in child care centers and family child care homes in the United States is mediocre. The research literature over the past 20 years indicates how variations in quality of care in center-based and family child care affect children's development. Higher levels of quality across a wide range of child care settings are associated with enhanced social skills, reduced behavior problems, increased cooperation, and improved language in children. There appear to be no detrimental effects of infants' attachment relations with their mothers as long as mothers provide adequate attention to infants at home. Longitudinal studies have found that some benefits in the social and cognitive domains persist into elementary school. The dimensions of quality most strongly related to child well-being include structural features of the child care setting such as lower child-staff ratios and smaller group sizes and caregiver-child dynamics, especially the caregiver's sensitivity and responsiveness in interactions with children. Structural features of child care settings provide the foundation for higher-quality dynamics, justifying increased costs that smaller ratios and group sizes entail. The research base for these findings includes studies using experimental and nonexperimental designs. Stronger designs and analytic techniques are needed to understand the contribution of child care quality and family characteristics on children's development. Not enough is currently known to guide policy by specifying the point at which lower levels of quality are clearly detrimental to children. Defining thresholds of quality along its critical dimensions is the next research challenge. (Contains approximately 75 references.) (KB)
National evaluation of the Trade Adjustment Assistance program : methodologial appendices regarding the baseline survey (covering workers eligible under the 2002 program) : final report by Peter Z Schochet( )

2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In a series of appendices, this report provides an overview of methodological issues on the sample design and baseline survey for the Evaluation of the Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) Program. The methodological appendices complement the TAA evaluation report entitled, "The Characteristics of the Workers Eligible Under the 2002 TAA Program and Their Early Program Experiences."
Statistical power for random assignment evaluations of education programs by Peter Z Schochet( Book )

2 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines issues related to the statistical power of impact estimates for experimental evaluations of education programs. The focus is on "group-based" experimental designs, because many studies of education programs involve random assignment at the group level (for example, at the school or classroom level) rather than at the student level. The clustering of students within groups (units) generates design effects that considerably reduce the precision of the impact estimates, because the outcomes of students within the same schools or classrooms tend to be correlated (that is, are not independent of each other). This, statistical power is a concern for these evaluations. The report is organized into five sections. First, it discusses general issues for a statistical power analysis, including procedures for assessing appropriate precision levels. Second, it discusses reasons that a clustered design reduces the statistical power of impact estimates and provides a simple mathematical formulation of the problem. Third, it presents procedures that can be used to reduce design effects. Fourth, it provides power calculations for impact estimates under various design options and parameter assumptions, and finally, it presents conclusions. Appended is: Values for Factor (.) in Equation (2). (Contains 8 tables.) [This report was submitted by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. to the Institute of Education Sciences.]
Standards for regression discontinuity designs by P Schochet( Book )

3 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Regression discontinuity (RD) designs are increasingly used by researchers to obtain unbiased estimates of the effects of education-related interventions. These designs are applicable when a continuous "scoring" rule is used to assign the intervention to study units (for example, school districts, schools, or students). Under an RD design, the effect on an intervention can be estimated as the difference in mean outcomes between treatment and comparison group units, adjusting statistically for the relationship between the outcomes and the variable used to assign units to the intervention, typically referred to as the "forcing" or "assignment" variable. This document presents criteria under RD designs "Meet WWC Evidence Standards" and "Meet WWC Evidence Standards with Reservations," and which are used as basis in assessing whether a study qualifies as an RD study. (Contains 1 footnote.)
Making a Difference in the Lives of Infants and Toddlers and Their Families The Impacts of Early Head Start. Volumes I-III: Final Technical Report [and] Appendixes [and] Local Contributions to Understanding the Programs and Their Impacts by John M Love( Book )

2 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Early Head Start was designed in 1994 as a 2-generation program to enhance children's development and health, strengthen family and community partnerships, and support the staff delivering new services to low-income families with pregnant women, infants, or toddlers. This document contains the final technical report, appendixes, and local contributions to understanding the programs and their impacts. The final technical report examines the impact of Early Head Start on 3,001 families from 17 research programs from all U.S. regions in both rural and urban settings. A consistent pattern of statistically significant, modest, favorable impacts across a range of outcomes when children were 2 and 3 years old, with larger impacts in several subgroups was found. There was evidence that effects on children when they were 3 years old were associated with effects on parenting when children were 2. The impact findings suggest several lessons for programs, including the importance of the performance standards and the need to see new or alternative strategies for families with many risk factors. The second part of this document includes the appendices for the technical report. The appendixes acknowledge the contributions of individuals and organizations in conducting the study over 6 years and present information on the methods for data collection, sources of nonresponse, and the father study response rates; provide supplementary information on measures used in the evaluation for the impact and implementation analyses; describe details of analyses conducted to test assumptions underlying the analytic approach taken in the assessment of Early Head Start's impact on children and families; and present supplemental data tables. The third part of this document contains brief write-ups of 21 site-specific local research studies from 9 of the local research teams and from staff in 2 of the programs. The write-ups cover topics such as parent responsiveness and children's developmental outcomes; mothers' socialization of toddler conflict resolution; coping strategies of low-income mothers; functions of language use in mother-toddler communication; father-child interactions; a pattern of Early Head Start participation; and Early Head Start support of families in obtaining services for children with disabilities. Each write-up contains references. (KB)
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