WorldCat Identities

Gine, Xavier

Works: 141 works in 423 publications in 2 languages and 5,115 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses 
Roles: Author, Other
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Xavier Gine
Barriers to household risk management Evidence from India by Shawn Cole( )

17 editions published between 2009 and 2013 in English and Undetermined and held by 1,040 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Why do many households remain exposed to large exogenous sources of non-systematic income risk? We use a series of randomized field experiments in rural India to test the importance of price and non-price factors in the adoption of an innovative rainfall insurance product. Demand is significantly price sensitive, but widespread take-up would not be achieved even if the product offered a payout ratio comparable to U.S. insurance contracts. We present evidence suggesting that lack of trust, liquidity constraints and limited salience are significant non-price frictions that constrain demand. We s
Access to capital in rural Thailand : an estimated model of formal versus informal credit by Xavier Gine( )

18 editions published between 2001 and 2013 in English and Undetermined and held by 194 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The aim of this paper is to understand the mechanism underlying access to credit. Gine focuses on two important aspects of rural credit markets in Thailand. First, moneylenders and other informal lenders coexist with formal lending institutions such as government or commercial banks, and more recently, micro-lending institutions. Second, potential borrowers presumably face sizable transaction costs obtaining external credit. The author develops and estimates a model based on limited enforcement and transaction costs that provides a unified view of those facts. The results show that the limited ability of banks to enforce contracts, more than transaction costs, is crucial in understanding the observed diversity of lenders. This paper--a product of the Finance Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to understand access to credit"--World Bank web site
Evaluation of financial liberalization : a general equilibrium model with constrained occupation choice by Robert M Townsend( )

12 editions published between 2003 and 2016 in English and Undetermined and held by 165 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The objective of this paper is to assess both the aggregate growth effects and the distributional consequences of financial liberalization as observed in Thailand from 1976 to 1996. A general equilibrium occupational choice model with two sectors, one without intermediation, and the other with borrowing and lending, is taken to Thai data. Key parameters of the production technology and the distribution of entrepreneurial talent are estimated by maximizing the likelihood of transition into business given initial wealth as observed in two distinct datasets. Other parameters of the model are calibrated to try to match the two decades of growth as well as observed changes in inequality, labor share, savings, and the number of entrepreneurs. Without an expansion in the size of the intermediated sector, Thailand would have evolved very differently, namely, with a drastically lower growth rate, high residual subsistence sector, non-increasing wages, but lower inequality. The financial liberalization brings welfare gains and losses to different subsets of the population. Primary winners are talented would-be entrepreneurs who lack credit and cannot otherwise go into business (or invest little capital). Mean gains for these winners range from 17 to 34 percent of observed overall average household income. But liberalization also induces greater demand by entrepreneurs for workers resulting in increases in the wage and lower profits of relatively rich entrepreneurs of the same order of magnitude as the observed overall average income of firm owners. Foreign capital has no significant impact on growth or the distribution of observed income. This paper--a product of Finance, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to understand financial liberalization and its impact on growth
Group versus individual liability : a field experiment in the Philippines by Xavier Gine( )

19 editions published between 2006 and 2016 in English and Undetermined and held by 160 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: Group liability is often portrayed as the key innovation that led to the explosion of the microcredit movement, which started with the Grameen Bank in the 1970s and continues on today with hundreds of institutions around the world. Group lending claims to improve repayment rates and lower transaction costs when lending to the poor by providing incentives for peers to screen, monitor, and enforce each other's loans. However, some argue that group liability creates excessive pressure and discourages good clients from borrowing, jeopardizing both growth and sustainability. Therefore, it remains unclear whether group liability improves the lender's overall profitability and the poor's access to financial markets. The authors worked with a bank in the Philippines to conduct a field experiment to examine these issues. They randomly assigned half of the 169 pre-existing group liability 'centers' of approximately twenty women to individual-liability centers (treatment) and kept the other half as-is with group liability (control). We find that the conversion to individual liability does not affect the repayment rate, and leads to higher growth in center size by attracting new clients
Revising commitments : field evidence on the adjustment of prior choices by Xavier Gine( )

11 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 155 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The very poor in developing countries often make intertemporal choices that seem at odds with their individual self-interest. There are many possible reasons why. This paper investigates several of these reasons with a lab-in-the-field experiment in rural Malawi involving large stakes. It makes two contributions. First, it constructs a new dependent variable: revisions of prior choices regarding the allocation of future income. This allows us to directly examine intertemporal choice revision and its determinants. In particular, this dependent variable permits a novel test for the existence of self-control problems. It turns out revisions of money allocations toward the present are positively associated with measures of present-bias from an earlier baseline survey, as well as the (randomly assigned) closeness in time to the first possible date of money disbursement. Second, the paper investigates other potential determinants of revision, aside from self-control problems. It finds little evidence that revisions of money allocations toward the present are associated with spousal preferences for such revision, household shocks or the financial sophistication of respondents
Statistical Analysis of Rainfall Insurance Payouts in Southern India by Xavier Gine( )

6 editions published between 2007 and 2016 in English and Undetermined and held by 124 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: Using 40 years of historical rainfall data, this paper estimates a distribution for payouts on rainfall insurance policies offered to farmers in the State of Andhra Pradesh, India, in 2006. The authors find that the contracts primarily protect households against extreme tail events; half the expected value of indemnities paid by the insurance are generated by only 2 percent of rainfall realizations. Contract payouts are significantly correlated cross-sectionally, and also inversely associated with real GDP growth. The paper discusses the implications of these findings for the potential benefits of insurance to households, the risks facing a financial institution underwriting rainfall insurance contracts, and pricing
Microfinance games by Xavier Gine( )

13 editions published between 2006 and 2016 in 3 languages and held by 110 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Microfinance has been heralded as an effective way to address imperfections in credit markets. But from a theoretical perspective, the success of microfinance contracts has puzzling elements. In particular, the group-based mechanisms often employed are vulnerable to free-riding and collusion, although they can also reduce moral hazard and improve selection. The authors created an experimental economics laboratory in a large urban market in Lima, Peru and over seven months conducted 11 different games that allow them to unpack microfinance mechanisms in a systematic way. They find that risk-taking broadly conforms to predicted patterns, but that behavior is safer than optimal. The results help to explain why pioneering microfinance institutions have been moving away from group-based contracts."--World Bank web site
Credit constraints as a barrier to technology adoption by the poor : lessons from South-Indian small-scale fishery by Xavier Gine( )

11 editions published between 2005 and 2012 in English and held by 106 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

It is generally recognized that the adoption of a new technology plays a fundamental role in the development process. However, the benefits from the introduction of the technology may be unevenly distributed among the population, especially if the markets do not function properly. While the microeconomic literature on technology adopted and diffusion focuses on "who" and "when," the macroeconomic literature has focused on the overall impact of globalization on inequality. In this paper the authors bring these two strands of the literature together by studying the diffusion of plastic reinforced fiber boats in a fishing village in Tamil Nadu and by analyzing the dynamics of income inequality during this process
Do reorganization costs matter for efficiency? : evidence from a bankruptcy reform in Colombia by Xavier Gine( )

13 editions published between 2006 and 2016 in English and Undetermined and held by 105 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The authors study the effect of reorganization costs on the efficiency of bankruptcy laws. They develop a simple model that predicts that in a regime with high costs, the law fails to achieve the efficient outcome of liquidating unviable businesses and reorganizing viable ones. The authors test the model using the Colombian bankruptcy reform of 1999. Using data from 1,924 firms filing for bankruptcy between 1996 and 2003, they find that the pre-reform reorganization proceeding was so inefficient that it failed to separate economically viable firms from inefficient ones. In contrast, by substantially lowering reorganization costs, the reform improved the selection of viable firms into reorganization. In this sense, the new law increased the efficiency of the bankruptcy system in Colombia."--World Bank web site
Together We Will Experimental Evidence on Female Voting Behavior in Pakistan by Xavier Gine( )

10 editions published between 2011 and 2015 in English and Undetermined and held by 98 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: In many emerging democracies women are less likely to vote than men and, when they do vote, are more likely to follow the wishes of household males. The authors assess the impact of a voter awareness campaign on female turnout and candidate choice. Geographic clusters within villages were randomly assigned to treatment or control, and within treated clusters, some households were left untreated. Compared with women in control clusters, both treated and untreated women in treated clusters are 12 percentage points more likely to vote, and are also more likely to exercise independence in candidate choice, indicating large spillovers. Data from polling stations suggest that treating 10 women increased turnout by about 9 votes, resulting in a cost per vote of US
Finding Missing Markets (And A Disturbing Epilogue) Evidence From An Export Crop Adoption And Marketing Intervention In Kenya by Nava Ashraf( )

14 editions published between 2008 and 2016 in English and Undetermined and held by 88 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Farmers may grow crops for local consumption despite more profitable export options. DrumNet, a Kenyan NGO that helps small farmers adopt and market export crops, conducted a randomized trial to evaluate its impact. DrumNet services increased production of export crops and lowered marketing costs, leading to a 32% income gain for new adopters. The services collapsed one year later when the exporter stopped buying from DrumNet because farmers could not meet new EU production requirements. Farmers sold to other middlemen and defaulted on their loans from DrumNet. Such experiences may explain why farmers are less likely to adopt export crops
The economic effects of a borrower bailout evidence from an emerging market by Xavier Gine( )

4 editions published in 2014 in English and Undetermined and held by 86 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper studies the credit market implications and real effects of one the largest borrower bailout programs in history, enacted by the government of India against the backdrop of the 2008-2009 financial crisis. The study finds that the stimulus program had no effect on productivity, wages, or consumption, but led to significant changes in credit allocation and an increase in defaults. Post-program loan performance declines faster in districts with greater exposure to the program, an effect that is not driven by greater risk-taking of banks. Loan defaults become significantly more sensitive to the electoral cycle after the program, suggesting the anticipation of future credit market interventions as an important channel through which moral hazard in loan repayment is intensified
Credit market consequences of improved personal identification : field experimental evidence from Malawi by Xavier Gine( )

7 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 85 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We report the results of a randomized field experiment that examines the credit market impacts of improvements in a lender's ability to determine borrowers' identities. Improved personal identification enhances the credibility of a lender's dynamic repayment incentives by allowing it to withhold future loans from past defaulters and expand credit for good borrowers. The experimental context, rural Malawi, is characterized by an imperfect identification system. Consistent with a simple model of borrower heterogeneity and information asymmetries, fingerprinting led to substantially higher repayment rates for borrowers with the highest ex ante default risk, but had no effect for the rest of the borrowers. The change in repayment rates is driven by reductions in adverse selection (smaller loan sizes) and lower moral hazard (for example, less diversion of loan-financed fertilizer from its intended use on the cash crop)
Money or ideas? : a field experiment on constraints to entrepreneurship in rural Pakistan by Xavier Gine( )

4 editions published between 2014 and 2016 in English and Undetermined and held by 85 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper identifies the relative importance of human and physical capital for entrepreneurship. A subset of rural microfinance clients were offered eight full time days of business training and the opportunity to participate in a loan lottery of up to Rs. 100,000 (USD 1,700), about seven times the average loan size. The study finds that business training increased business knowledge, reduced business failure, improved business practices and increased household expenditures by about
Financial (Dis-)Information Evidence from an Audit Study in Mexico by Xavier Gine( )

3 editions published in 2014 in English and Undetermined and held by 84 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An audit study was conducted in peri-urban Mexico to understand the quality of information and products offered to low-income potential customers. Trained auditors visited multiple financial institutions seeking credit and savings products. Consistent with Gabaix and Laibson (2006), staff voluntarily provides little information about avoidable fees, especially to auditors trained to reveal little knowledge about the market. In addition, clients are almost never offered the cheapest product, most likely because staff is incentivized to offer more expensive products that are thus more profitable to the institution. This suggests that disclosure and transparency policies may be ineffective if they undermine the commercial interest of financial institutions
Put Your Money Where Your Butt Is A Commitment Contract for Smoking Cessation by Xavier Gine( )

7 editions published between 2009 and 2012 in English and Undetermined and held by 83 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The authors designed and tested a voluntary commitment product to help smokers quit smoking. The product (CARES) offered smokers a savings account in which they deposit funds for six months, after which they take a urine test for nicotine and cotinine. If they pass, their money is returned; otherwise, their money is forfeited to charity. Eleven percent of smokers offered CARES tookup, and smokers randomly offered CARES were 3 percentage points more likely to pass the 6-month test than the control group. More importantly, this effect persisted in surprise tests at 12 months, indicating that CARES produced lasting smoking cessation
Does a Picture Paint a Thousand Words? Evidence from a Microcredit Marketing Experiment by Xavier Gine( )

5 editions published between 2011 and 2012 in English and held by 82 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Female entrepreneurship is low in many developing economies partly because of constraints on women's time and mobility, which are often reinforced by social norms. This paper analyzes a marketing experiment designed to encourage women to adopt a new microcredit product. A brochure with the same content but two different covers was randomly distributed among male and female borrowing groups. One cover featured five businesses run by men, while the other showed identical businesses run by women. Men and women responded to psychological cues. Among men who were not business owners, had lower measured ability and whose wives were less educated, the responses to the female brochure were more negative, as did female business owners with low autonomy within the household. Women with relatively high levels of autonomy had a similar negative response to the male brochure, while there was no effect on female business owners with autonomy. Overall, these results suggest that women's response to psychological cues, such as positive role models, may be affected by their level of autonomy at home, and more intensive interventions may be required for more disadvantaged women
Microinsurance : a case study of the Indian rainfall index insurance market by Xavier Gine( )

5 editions published between 2010 and 2012 in English and held by 76 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Rainfall index insurance provides a payout based on measured local rainfall during key phases of the agricultural season, and in principle can help rural households diversify a key source of idiosyncratic risk. This paper describes basic features of rainfall insurance contracts offered in India since 2003, and documents stylized facts about market demand and the distribution of payouts. The authors summarize the results of previous research on this market, which provides evidence that price, liquidity constraints, and trust all present significant barriers to increased take-up. They also discuss potential future prospects for rainfall insurance and other index insurance products
Patterns of rainfall insurance participation in rural India by Xavier Gine( )

8 editions published between 2007 and 2016 in English and Undetermined and held by 76 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: This paper describes the contract design and institutional features of an innovative rainfall insurance policy offered to smallholder farmers in rural India, and presents preliminary evidence on the determinants of insurance participation. Insurance takeup is found to be decreasing in basis risk between insurance payouts and income fluctuations, increasing in household wealth and decreasing in the extent to which credit constraints bind. These results match with predictions of a simple neoclassical model appended with borrowing constraints. Other patterns are less consistent with the "benchmark" model; namely, participation in village networks and measures of familiarity with the insurance vendor are strongly correlated with insurance takeup decisions, and risk-averse households are found to be less, not more, likely to purchase insurance. We suggest that these results reflect household uncertainty about the product itself, given their limited experience with it
Facilitating savings for agriculture : field experimental evidence from Malawi by Lasse F Brune( )

5 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 75 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We implemented a randomized intervention among Malawian farmers aimed at facilitating formal savings for agricultural inputs. Treated farmers were offered the opportunity to have their cash crop harvest proceeds deposited directly into new bank accounts in their own names, while farmers in the control group were paid harvest proceeds in cash (the status quo). The treatment led to higher savings in the months immediately prior to the next agricultural planting season, and raised agricultural input usage in that season. We also find positive treatment effects on subsequent crop sale proceeds and household expenditures. Because the treatment effect on savings was only a small fraction of the treatment effect on the value of agricultural inputs, mechanisms other than alleviation of savings constraints per se are needed to explain the treatment's impact on input utilization. We discuss other possible mechanisms through which treatment effects may have operated
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Alternative Names
Gine Xavier

Xavier Gine economist (World Bank Group; Harvard University)

Xavier Gine Wirtschaftswissenschaftler/in (World Bank Group; Harvard University)

English (168)

Spanish (1)