WorldCat Identities

Nowak, Sarah

Overview
Works: 23 works in 43 publications in 1 language and 2,228 library holdings
Roles: Author
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Sarah Nowak
Effects of the Affordable Care Act on consumer health care spending and risk of catastrophic health costs by Sarah Nowak( )

4 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 531 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study examines the likely effects of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on average annual consumer health care spending and the risk of catastrophic medical costs for the United States overall and in two large states that have decided not to expand their Medicaid programs (Texas and Florida). The ACA will have varied impacts on individuals⁰́₉ and families⁰́₉ spending on health care, depending on income level and on estimated 2016 insurance status without the ACA. The authors find that average out-of-pocket spending is expected to decrease for all groups considered in the analysis, although decreases in out-of-pocket spending will be largest for those who would otherwise be uninsured. People who would otherwise be uninsured who transition to the individual market under the ACA will have higher total health care spending on average after implementation of the ACA because they will now incur the cost of health insurance premiums. The authors also find that risk of catastrophic health care spending will decrease for individuals of all income levels for the insurance transitions considered; decreases will be greatest for those at the lowest income levels. Case studies found that in Texas and Florida, Medicaid expansion would substantially reduce out-of-pocket and total health care spending for those with incomes below 100 percent of the federal poverty level, compared with a scenario in which the ACA is implemented without Medicaid expansion. Expansion would reduce the risk of high medical spending for those covered under Medicaid who would remain uninsured without expansion
Private health insurance exchanges : early evidence and implications for the future by Christine Buttorff( )

5 editions published in 2016 in English and held by 516 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Private exchanges offer employer health insurance, combining online shopping, increased plan choice, benefit administration, and cost-containment strategies. This report examines how private exchanges function, how they may affect employers and employees, and the possible implications for the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) Marketplaces. The authors conducted a literature review; held discussions with private exchange operators, insurers, and other experts; and used a microsimulation model to assess the potential implications of private exchanges. Among other things, the authors found that private exchanges could encourage employees to select less-generous plans. While this could expose employees to higher out-of-pocket costs, premium contributions drop substantially, for a net decrease in employee spending. On the other hand, employee spending may increase if, in moving to private exchanges, employers decrease their health insurance contributions. While many discussion respondents argued that private exchanges are seen as a mechanism for avoiding the ACA's "Cadillac tax" (a 40-percent excise tax on high-premium plans taking effect in 2018), most employers should be able to avoid this tax by reducing plan generosity or making other changes, regardless of whether they move to a private exchange. In general, we found little evidence to suggest that private exchanges will have a significant impact on the ACA's SHOP Marketplaces
The economic incidence of health care spending in Vermont by Christine Eibner( )

4 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 515 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Alternatives to the ACA's affordability firewall by Sarah Nowak( )

4 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 515 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Affordable Care Act and health insurance markets : simulating the effects of regulation by Christine Eibner( )

2 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 99 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Affordable Care Act changes the rating regulations governing the nongroup and small group markets while simultaneously encouraging enrollment through a combination of subsidies, tax credits, and tax penalties. In this report, the authors estimate the effects of the Affordable Care Act on health insurance enrollment and premiums for ten states (Florida, Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Texas) and for the nation overall, with a focus on outcomes in the nongroup and small group markets. The authors also consider the implications of two decisions confronting states: whether to expand their Medicaid programs to cover all adults with incomes below 138 percent of the federal poverty level and whether to merge or combine their small group and nongroup risk pools. The authors conclude that the Affordable Care Act will lead to an increase in insurance coverage and higher enrollment in the nongroup market. However, data limitations and uncertainties about insurer behavior make estimates uncertain, particularly when considering outcomes for the nongroup market. They find that the law has little effect on small group premiums and find large variation in the effects for nongroup premiums across states. The analysis suggests that comparisons of average premiums with and without the Affordable Care Act may overstate the potential for premium increases
Conforming and non-conforming peer effects in vaccination decisions by Elizabeth A Bodine-Baron( Book )

4 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Traditional economic models of vaccination assume that agents free-ride on the vaccination decision of others. These models show that private vaccination rates are always below the social optimal and even large subsidies cannot achieve disease eradication. In this paper, we build a model where in addition to the desire to free-ride, agents have a desire to conform to the vaccination decisions of their peers. In this model privately optimal vaccination rates can be higher or lower than the social optimal and thus subsidies for vaccination are not always optimal. However, in certain cases, even small subsidies can achieve disease eradication
Increasing cost-effective readiness for the U.S. Air Force by reducing supply chain variance : technical analysis of flying hour program variance by Patrick Mills( Book )

3 editions published in 2018 in English and held by 9 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The Air Force spends about $4 billion annually to buy and repair spare parts for aircraft. One way to reduce these costs is to improve the accuracy of demand forecasts: Demand that runs lower than forecast levels results in excess parts; demand that runs higher results in shortages and reduced readiness. One way to improve spare part demand forecasts is to reduce the flying hour variance -- the difference between the number of flying hours that are forecast and the number that are actually flown. RAND researchers were asked to gauge the potential effect of flying hour variance on cost and readiness and identify policy options to rectify problems identified. They determined that although flying hour program variance resulted in a substantial opportunity cost, its effect on enterprise-level financial cost and readiness was relatively small. The Air Force is taking steps to reduce variance in the flying hour program, and researchers endorsed that effort. However, they indicated that other factors had much greater influence and should be dealt with to make significant reductions in the overall variance."--Publisher's description
The impact of the coverage - related provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on insurance coverage and state health care expenditures in Texas : an analysis from Rand compare( )

1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) contains substantial new requirements aimed at increasing rates of health insurance coverage. Because many of these provisions impose additional costs on the states, officials need reliable estimates of the likely impact of the ACA in their state. To demonstrate the usefulness of modeling for state-level decision making, RAND undertook a preliminary analysis of the impact of the ACA on five states -- California, Connecticut, Illinois, Montana, and Texas -- using the RAND COMPARE microsimulation model. For Texas, the model predicts that, in 2016 (the year that all of the provisions in the ACA related to coverage expansion will be fully implemented), the uninsured rate in Texas will fall to 6 percent; without the law, it would remain at 28 percent, the highest in the nation. The model projects that total state government spending on health care will be 10 percent higher for the combined 2011-2020 period because of the ACA
The impact of the coverage - related provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on insurance coverage and state health care expenditures in Montana : an analysis from Rand compare( )

1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) contains substantial new requirements aimed at increasing rates of health insurance coverage. Because many of these provisions impose additional costs on the states, officials need reliable estimates of the likely impact of the ACA in their state. To demonstrate the usefulness of modeling for state-level decisionmaking, RAND undertook a preliminary analysis of the impact of the ACA on five states -- California, Connecticut, Illinois, Montana, and Texas -- using the RAND COMPARE microsimulation model. For Montana, the model predicts that, in 2016 (the year that all of the provisions in the ACA related to coverage expansion will be fully implemented), the uninsured rate in Montana will fall to 3 percent; without the law, it would remain at 18 percent. The model projects that total state government spending on health care will be 3 percent higher for the combined 2011-2020 period because of the ACA
The impact of the coverage - related provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on insurance coverage and state health care expenditures in Connecticut : an analysis from Rand compare( )

1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) contains substantial new requirements aimed at increasing rates of health insurance coverage. Because many of these provisions impose additional costs on the states, officials need reliable estimates of the likely impact of the ACA in their state. To demonstrate the usefulness of modeling for state-level decisionmaking, RAND undertook a preliminary analysis of the impact of the ACA on five states -- California, Connecticut, Illinois, Montana, and Texas -- using the RAND COMPARE microsimulation model. For Connecticut, the model predicts that, in 2016 (the year that all of the provisions in the ACA related to coverage expansion will be fully implemented), the uninsured rate in Connecticut will fall to 5 percent; without the law, it would remain at 11 percent. The model projects that total state government spending on health care will be 10 percent lower for the combined 2011-2020 period than it would be without the ACA, mostly because of federal subsidies for residents who would have been covered by Connecticut's state-run health insurance program (State-Administered General Assistance)
The impact of the coverage - related provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on insurance coverage and state health care expenditures in California : an analysis from Rand compare( )

1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) contains substantial new requirements aimed at increasing rates of health insurance coverage. Because many of these provisions impose additional costs on the states, officials need reliable estimates of the likely impact of the ACA in their state. To demonstrate the usefulness of modeling for state-level decisionmaking, RAND undertook a preliminary analysis of the impact of the ACA on five states -- California, Connecticut, Illinois, Montana, and Texas -- using the RAND COMPARE microsimulation model. For California, the model predicts that, in 2016 (the year that all of the provisions in the ACA related to coverage expansion will be fully implemented), the uninsured rate in California will fall to 4 percent; without the law, it would remain at 20 percent. The model projects that total state government spending on health care will be 7 percent higher for the combined 2011-2020 period because of the ACA
The effects of the American Health Care Act on health insurance coverage and federal spending in 2020 and 2026 by Christine Eibner( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this report, the authors analyzed a version of the American Health Care Act (AHCA), a bill proposed by the U.S. House of Representatives on March 6, 2017. The bill would have repealed many of the provisions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and replaced them with alternative reforms. The authors used RAND's COMPARE microsimulation model to assess how the AHCA would have affected such outcomes as health insurance enrollment, consumer out-of-pocket costs, and the federal deficit relative to the ACA. This analysis finds that the AHCA would have resulted in a reduction in health insurance enrollment of 14.2 million in 2020 and a reduction in health insurance enrollment of 19.7 million in 2026. While the magnitude of the estimated coverage reductions is smaller than those of the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), this analysis confirms CBO's general finding that the AHCA would have substantially reduced insurance enrollment relative to current law. Those without insurance under the AHCA would have tended to be older, sicker, and poorer than those currently uninsured
The impact of the coverage - related provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on insurance coverage and state health care expenditures in Illinois : an analysis from Rand compare( )

1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) contains substantial new requirements aimed at increasing rates of health insurance coverage. Because many of these provisions impose additional costs on the states, officials need reliable estimates of the likely impact of the ACA in their state. To demonstrate the usefulness of modeling for state-level decisionmaking, RAND undertook a preliminary analysis of the impact of the ACA on five states -- California, Connecticut, Illinois, Montana, and Texas -- using the RAND COMPARE microsimulation model. For Illinois, the model predicts that, in 2016 (the year that all of the provisions in the ACA related to coverage expansion will be fully implemented), the uninsured rate in Illinois will fall to 3 percent; without the law, it would remain near 15 percent. The model projects that total state government spending on health care will be 10 percent higher for the combined 2011-2020 period because of the ACA
A general agent-based model of social learning by Sarah Nowak( )

2 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

When engaging in behaviors that may entail risks or outcomes that are unknown or uncertain, individuals often look beyond their own experiences (including past behaviors and subsequent outcomes) to consider the experiences of others in their immediate social networks. This social influence at the micro-scale (i.e., the way in which individuals are influenced by their immediate social networks) can affect change in the greater social web in such a way that social networks may have profound effects on decisionmaking at the population level. Such micro-level social influence is central to many theories of individual decisionmaking and behavior. Observations of population-level dynamics at the macro-level demonstrate the end result of these processes--for example, over time, people's behavior tends to look more like that of their peers. This report describes a general agent-based model (ABM) for studying social influence, and uses that general ABM to explore the relationship between micro-influence and macro-dynamics for broad classes of problems. We also describe an approach to tailor the general ABM to model a specific behavior influenced by social learning, which we illustrate using surveys designed to inform the ABM. The framework we developed could be useful for studying any system in which social learning may occur. But while our general ABM can produce dynamics reminiscent of those that might result from many different types of behaviors, it will typically need to be tailored when used to model any particular behavior
Estimating the effects of a single-payer proposal in New York State by Jodi Liu( Book )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The New York Health Act could expand insurance coverage in New York without increasing overall health spending, if administrative costs are reduced and growth in provider payment rates is restrained. The program would be financed by new taxes
Evaluating the CARE Act : implications of a proposal to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act by Christine Eibner( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Patient Choice, Affordability, Responsibility, and Empowerment (CARE) Act is an alternative to the Affordable Care Act (ACA) offered by Sens. Richard Burr (R-N.C.) and Orrin Hatch (R-Utah) and Rep. Fred Upton (R-Mich.). It would eliminate the ACA's individual and employer mandates, loosen regulations on insurers, roll back funding for Medicaid expansion, eliminate taxes and fees, and offer tax credits to low-income individuals to help them purchase insurance. We analyzed the effects of the CARE Act on insurance enrollment, premiums, federal spending, and out-of-pocket costs, relative to current law. We estimate that, in 2018, the CARE Act would reduce federal spending but increase the deficit by $17 billion, relative to current law. It also would increase the number of uninsured individuals by 9 million, and leave some population segments, including low-income individuals and older adults, with substantially higher costs for health insurance and medical care
ABCs by Design : the Role of Alphabet Book Design and Children's Alphabetic Behaviours in Emergent Literacy Skill Acquisition by Sarah Nowak( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

PARENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF AND GOALS FOR ALPHABET BOOKS by Sarah Nowak( )

1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Impacts of the elimination of the ACA's individual health insurance mandate penalty on the nongroup market in New York State  by Preethi Rao( Book )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

How will elimination of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate penalty affect the nongroup insurance market in the state of New York? Researchers used RAND's COMPARE microsimulation model to estimate the effects, taking into account New York's unique health care landscape. New York is different from other states in that is has full community rating on the nongroup market and is one of two states to offer a Basic Health Program, called the Essential Plan (EP) in New York, to certain qualifying low-income individuals. These two features make New York's nongroup market particularly susceptible to adverse selection when the individual mandate penalty is removed in 2019. The authors estimate that, among the unsubsidized population, young, healthy individuals will leave the nongroup market in much higher numbers than their older, sicker counterparts, while subsidized individuals, including the young and healthy, will remain enrolled at high rates. This will lead to steep increases in premiums in 2019: a 23-25 percent increase in premiums in the nongroup market and a 37 percent reduction in enrollment in the nongroup market. The researchers also considered a scenario in which both the individual mandate penalty and the EP are eliminated, and found that premiums would increase by only 7-10 percent
Rethinking the Affordable Care Act's "Cadillac Tax" : a more equitable way to encourage "Chevy" consumption by Sarah Nowak( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Affordable Care Act's "Cadillac tax" will apply a 40 percent excise tax on total employer health insurance premiums in excess of $10,200 for single coverage and $27,500 for family coverage, starting in 2018. Employer spending on premiums is currently excluded from income and payroll taxes. Economists argue that this encourages overconsumption of health care, favors high-income workers, and reduces federal revenue. This issue brief suggests that the Cadillac tax is a "blunt instrument" for addressing these concerns because it will affect workers on a rolling timetable, does relatively little to address the regressive nature of the current exclusion, and may penalize firms and workers for cost variation that is outside their control. Replacing the current exclusion with tax credits for employer coverage that scale inversely with income might allow for regional adjustments in health care costs and eliminate aspects of the tax exclusion that favor high-income over low-income workers
 
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English (40)