WorldCat Identities

Laboratoire chrono-environnement (Besançon)

Overview
Works: 153 works in 242 publications in 2 languages and 299 library holdings
Genres: History  Conference papers and proceedings 
Roles: Other, Organizer of meeting, Editor, Degree grantor, 981
Classifications: TJ859, 609
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Laboratoire chrono-environnement (Besançon)
Les sanctuaires des eaux en Gaule de l'est : origine, organisation et évolution (Ier siècle av. J.-C. - IVe siècle après J.-C.) by Damien Vurpillot( )

2 editions published in 2016 in French and held by 17 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study aims to evaluate the importance of sacred water and cults connected with waters as part of eastern Gaul religious landscape, through the evolution of cult places and ritual practices. By extension, our goals is toprovide a better understanding of the transformations impacting religious activities and how it connects to the promotion of Romanitas by Gallic communities.The religious history of Gaul is well-known for conveying problematic concepts such as "naturist cults" or, in our case, "water cults". Therefore, we strived to study modern literary sources in order to deconstruct historiographical myths. Then, we completed this overview through a diligent re-reading of ancient sources. At this point, we were convinced that "water cult" was a flexible religious concept. Gallic communities would seize the idea of sacred water and cults connected with waters, and adapt it to their needs, even is shared religious norms seem to transcend time and cultures. In order to put this hypothesis to test, we challenged it against archaeological data through a selection of cult places from eastern Gaul, which, in return, allowed us to identify two main chronological phases forming the pattern of the evolution of water cults in Gallo-Roman religious landscape. The first chronological phase stretch from the first century B.C. to the first half of the first century A.D., when this new facet becomes an increasingly growing trend. Afterwards, that new religious discourse reaches a form of maturity starting from the second half of the first century
Dynamique spatio-temporelle et environnement des sites néolithiques précéramiques de Syrie intérieure by Marie-Laure Chambrade( )

2 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La Syrie intérieure est composée d'une mosaïque de milieux et de micromilieux dont les caractéristiques lithologiques, édaphiques et hydrologiques permettent de compenser l'aridité climatique, ou renforcent au contraire les contraintes imposées aux modes de vie et de subsistance, de nos jours comme par le passé. Cette étude multiscalaire - supra-régionale, régionale et microrégionale - de l'environnement des sites PPNA et PPNB (9 500-6 500 av. J.-C.) a permis de comprendre comment ont pu être opérés les choix d'implantation, définies les stratégies de subsistance et l'exploitation des ressources. Au-delà des critères évidents orientant les choix des lieux d'implantation, tel que l'accès à une ressource en eau, il a été démontré que les communautés néolithiques ont très tôt sélectionné des lieux d'installation bénéficiant de milieux propices aux pratiques agricoles et de terroirs complémentaires permettant de mettre en œuvre des stratégies culturales diversifiées. Leur capacité d'adaptation à un milieu contraignant, le développement progressif des activités agro-pastorales ainsi que leur maîtrise croissante de l'eau, leur ont permis de coloniser l'ensemble de la Syrie intérieure aux PPNB récent et final. Les prémices du nomadisme pastoral seraient nées dans ce contexte, et dès lors que l'élevage fut maîtrisé, d'une recherche par les groupes mobiles du mode de vie et de subsistance le plus adapté aux contraintes de la steppe. Cette étude a par ailleurs permis de tester à grande échelle - spatiale et temporelle - une méthode d'analyse microrégionale, s'inspirant de la démarche de type Site Exploitation Territory, et d'en faire l'analyse critique avec comme objectif l'élaboration ultérieure d'un modèle d'analyse plus abouti, si possible en concertation avec les spécialistes des disciplines concernées par ces problématiques
Epidémiologie de Staphylococcus aureus CC398 by Kévin Bouiller( Book )

2 editions published in 2020 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Introduction : Staphylococcus aureus (SA) est une bactérie ubiquitaire, faisant partie de la flore commensale humaine. SA est responsable d'infections communautaires et nosocomiales, parfois sévères comme les bactériémies, et les infections ostéo-articulaires. La colonisation est souvent une étape préalable à l'infection à SA. La muqueuse des fosses nasales antérieures représente le site privilégié de colonisation. Il existe de nombreuses souches de SA regroupées en complexes clonaux (CC) en fonction de leur diversité génétique. L'émergence de ces clones est parfois liée à des facteurs particuliers d'exposition. Ainsi, le clone ST398, appartenant au CC398, a ainsi été identifié initialement en France et aux Pays-Bas. Il est séparé en deux populations distinctes : une population SA résistant à la méticilline (SAMR) avec notion de contact avec les animaux (notamment les porcs) et une population SA sensible à la méticilline (SAMS) plus virulente que son homologue, isolée d'infections humaines graves et sans notion d'exposition à des animaux d'élevage. Le mode d'acquisition de cette dernière population demeure incertain. Plusieurs études suggèrent une augmentation de la fréquence des clones SA ST398 en France, responsables d'infections et/ou de colonisation ; cependant les chiffres sont variables en fonction des régions. De plus, plusieurs études suggèrent que ce clone pourrait avoir un tropisme ostéo articulaire.Objectifs : 1) Définir l'épidémiologie des bactériémies à SA ST398 au CHU de Besançon, 2) Définir les caractéristiques cliniques et les facteurs associés aux infections ostéo-articulaires à SA ST398, et 3) Définir l'épidémiologie de la colonisation nasale de SA ST398 en communautaire et en hospitalier afin notamment de déterminer le mode d'acquisition de ce clone.Résultats : Dans la première étude, nous avons inclus tous les patients hospitalisés au CHU de Besancon ayant au moins une hémoculture à SA entre 2010 et 2017 et nous avons recherché les SA appartenant au CC398. Au total 1496 cas incidents de bactériémies à SA ont été identifiés chez 1455 patients. La prévalence de SA CC398 parmi les bactériémies à SA est passée de 3,6% en 2010 à 20,2 % en 2017 (p < 0,05). Des souches de SAMR CC398 ont été identifiées à partir de 2015 mais restent très rare.Dans la seconde étude, nous nous sommes intéressés à la prévalence du clone SA ST398 dans les infections ostéo-articulaires ainsi qu'aux facteurs associés à sa présence dans ces infections au CHU de Besançon entre 2010 et 2017. Nous avons montré que ce clone augmentait également dans les infections ostéo-articulaires allant de 5% en 2010 à 25% en 2017. La répartition du type d'infection ostéo-articulaire due à SA CC398 n'était pas différente de celle dues à SA non CC398. L'âge (p = 0,034, OR = 3,9), le score de McCabe (p = 0,005, OR = 5) et le mécanisme d'inoculation (p = 0,020, OR = 3,7) étaient associés aux infections de prothèse articulaire à SA CC398, tandis que l'année de l'infection (p < 0,001, OR = 1,6), le score de Charlson (p = 0,001, OR = 1,5) et le grade 4 du groupe de travail international de la classification des infections de pied diabétique (p < 0,001, OR = 8,5) étaient associés aux infections de pied diabétique à SA CC398.Dans la dernière étude, nous avons collecté 1366 écouvillons nasaux parmi des donneurs sains et des patients hospitalisés de juin 2019 à juillet 2020. La colonisation nasale de SA était plus important chez les patients sains par rapport aux patients hospitalisés (29.0 vs 20.4; p<0.01) mais le taux de portage de SA CC398 n'était pas différent (7.3 vs 5.5; p=0.24).Conclusions : Ce travail confirme l'émergence et la diffusion du clone SAMS CC398 dans notre hôpital. La surveillance de ce clone particulier de SA adapté à l'homme est nécessaire. Nos données suggèrent également que ce clone diffuse dans la communauté. Les études génomiques sont nécessaires pour identifier les déterminants de sa diffusion
Analyse écologique des points chauds de choléra en Afrique. by Doudou Batumbo Boloweti( )

2 editions published in 2021 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Le choléra est une maladie diarrhéique aigue sévère causée par Vibrio cholerae, bactérie Gram négatif qui colonise les eaux de surface, chaudes, salines, alcalines, souvent en association avec le phyto ou le zooplancton. Après 50 ans d'introduction du choléra en Afrique, la maladie affecte de manière très forte les pays d'Afrique. Le travail de doctorat a eu pour objectif de tenter d'élucider les causes de l'endémicité du choléra en Afrique et à l'échelle d'un secteur du rift, le lac Kivu et la zone de santé de Katana, située en république démocratique du Congo.Une carte des espaces géographiques à risque a été élaborée pour le continent africain qui montre un plus grand nombre au niveau de la vallée du Rift et autour du bassin du lac Tchad. Cette première étude a mis en évidence la relation entre l'existence de masses d'eau salées (lagunes, lacs, cours d'eau) et l'endémicité de la maladie. Dans ces conditions environnementales, le risque cholérique est exacerbé dans les pays économiquement faibles, et instables. En Afrique continentale, l'étude a permis de montrer une bonne superposition entre les secteurs de forte activité volcano-tectonique (Vallée du Rift Africain, bassin du lac Tchad) et l'endémicité du choléra. L'étude de la dynamique du choléra dans une zone de santé de la vallée du Rift (province de Katana en RDC) a démontré que l'activité volcanique joue un grand rôle dans la survenue et le maintien des épidémies de choléra dans la vallée du Rift Africain. Ainsi, le travail a pu démontrer que l'activité volcano-tectonique (mesurée par la concentration en SO2 du panache de fumée du volcan Nyiragongo) régissait la température et la salinité des eaux du lac Kivu, et la présence du bacille dans l'eau du lac et les poissons. L'étude a pu montrer que la présence environnementale du bacille dans le lac était très fortement liée aux données épidémiologiques de la zone de Katana. Une étude portant sur les pratiques des habitants de Bukavu a pu démontrer que la contamination individuelle au choléra est liée à la manipulation et consommation des produits du lac (eau ou poissons).Ce travail de doctorat a permis de cibler des espaces à risque de choléra en Afrique, et l'impact de l'activité volcanique dans la dynamique du choléra en Afrique continentale, Ces informations sont nécessaires pour bâtir des stratégies efficaces et ciblés de lutte contre le choléra dans le continent Africain conformément à la feuille de route mondiale élaboré par le groupe de travail mondial sur la lutte contre le choléra en 2017
Améliorer la qualité agronomique d'un dépôt de gypse rouge résiduel par phytomanagement. by José Zapata Carbonell( )

2 editions published in 2020 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The industrial development may bring along significant environmental concern regarding the storage of residues. The residual red gypsum (RRG), which is the neutralization product of the TiO2 extraction effluent, is an alkaline substrate rich in Ca, Fe, S, Mg, Mn, among others. Such characteristics complicate the proper natural reclamation, therefore requiring adequate management for meeting the state regulations. This PhD dissertation focused on the study of the RRG landfill found at the Ochsenfeld site in Alsace, France. The general objective of this doctorate was to provide assistance on the plant reclamation of the Ochsenfeld site by following two virtual approaches or axes: the phytostabilization and the phytoextraction of Mn. The first specific objective was to characterize the study site. Then the second and third specific objectives were to evaluate the use of organic amendments and mycorrhizae as assistance for the plant development. The last objective was to evaluate a specialized plant species capable of developing in RRG with minimum assistance. In this work, it was found that some species of the Betulaceae and Salicaceae families established spontaneously in the site, whose characteristic was the resistance to poor agronomic quality and tolerance to trace elements. The application of crushed pine bark chips not only decreased significantly the pH of RRG for Betula pendula plants to accumulate in leaves up to five-fold the natural concentrations of Mn, but also induced some drawbacks in the plants. The application of raw digestate to RRG increased the growth and biomass production of Betula pendula over the short-term, whereas its inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi induced a similar out come only with visible effects over the medium- to long-term. Finally, the assays using Lupinus albus indicated that few was the assistance needed in order to allow its growth and development. Furthermore, the plant's mechanism that allowed the Mn phytoextraction provided some insight on the potential use of this species for further field-scale applications in seasonal co-cultures next to other Mn accumulating species in order to recover Mn from the RRG. From an applied point of view, this PhD research allowed to determine the limiting factors that prevented the natural installation of vegetation in the RRG landfill. Furthermore, it allowed the generation of pertinent information on solutions to the encountered problematic. Treatment recommendations are made in order to meet the needs required by the French state, which would avoid possible impacts to the ecosystem and public health. Additionally, the management hereby mentioned may also provide insight for an alternative revalorization method for the RRG with an economically interesting perspective
Identification de marqueurs épidémiologiques par spectrométrie de masse de type MALDI-TOF : application aux principales espèces bactériennes responsables d'infections nosocomiales by Marlène Sauget( )

2 editions published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Le typage bactérien est une mesure de contrôle essentielle pour lutter contre la diffusion des bactéries multirésistantes, mais les techniques actuelles sont longues et coûteuses. L'objectif de cette thèse était d'évaluer la capacité de la technique MALDI-TOF MS à typer les 3 principales espèces bactériennes responsables d'infections nosocomiales - Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus et Pseudomonas aeruginosa. L'analyse par MALDI-TOF MS permet d'identifier les souches de E. coli appartenant au phylogroupe B2, souches les plus virulentes parmi les souches extra-intestinales, et au STI 31, clone très impliqué dans la dissémination des P-lactamases à spectre étendu. Chez S. aureus, cette technique reconnait les souches appartenant au CC398, impliquées dans une proportion importante d'infections graves chez des personnes fragiles. La technique MALDI-TOF MS identifie également cinq clones de P. aeruginosa à haut risque épidémique - STI 11, STI 75, ST235, ST253, ST395. Si nous avons confirmé des pics caractéristiques du phylogroupe B2 décrit également par d'autres auteurs, les pics biomarqueurs identifiant E. coli ST131 ou des clones épidémiques de S. aureus varient suivant les études. Différents paramètres peuvent influencer les résultats de typage par MALDI-TOF MS et doivent donc être standardisés. La technique MALDI-TOF MS permet d'identifier certains clones épidémiques. En gardant à l'esprit que le choix d'une méthode de typage doit être fait en fonction des objectifs mais aussi des performances des différents systèmes disponibles, la technique MALDI-TOF MS pourrait se positionner comme un outil de typage de première ligne
Interactions entre processus géodynamiques, tectonique régionale et climat : l'exemple des Andes australes au Néogène by Méline Salze( )

2 editions published in 2019 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The aim of this thesis is to better understand the processes at the origin of the evolution and present-day topography of the Fitz Roy region, located in the Southern Andes, at the border between Chile and Argentina (49°S). This region is characterized by a particular geodynamic context that may play a major role on surface processes. Indeed, the Chile Ridge separating the Nazca and Antarctic oceanic plates, is being subducted beneath the South American plate since 14 My. The obliquity between the ridge and the subduction trench is responsible for a continuous northward migration of the triple junction that is located today at 46°30'S. Furthermore, the Southern Andes is covered by the 3rd largest ice sheet, that constitutes the relict of a much broader glacier formed during the late Miocene. Nowadays, Patagonia is affected by a strong climatic contrast, with a semi-arid climate on the eastern side chain, while the core and the western side of the chain are covered by glaciers and subject to strong precipitations. The tectonic/climatic setting is unique in the world and constitutes a natural laboratory to study of the interactions between ridge subduction, regional tectonics and climatic conditions on topographic evolution through time.To explore the impact of spreading ridge subduction on the overlying continental plate, analogue modeling of subduction of a ridge were conducted. The models highlight direct effects on the geometry of the slab et thus on the position of the magmatic arc. The arrival of the spreading ridge at trench, when the overriding plate moves rapidly trenchwards, induces a decrease of the superficial dip of the slab. This flattening results in an increase of the distance between the trench and the magmatic arc, prior to the ridge subduction. The eastwards migration of the magmatic arc is consistent with the observed magmatic activity migration in Patagonia during the early Miocene, a few million years before the arrival of the Chile Ridge at trench around 14 My. These models also suggest that the subduction of the ridge induces a horizontal shortening of the overriding plate, as observed in Patagonia during the early-middle Miocene. Shortening ceases when the ridge subducts.To explore the role and of tectonic and climate (glaciation) on the topography and exhumation rates, thermochronological data have been acquired in two localities: the Fitz Roy granitic massif, emplaced during the lower Miocene around 16,5 My at a depth of about 8 km and the overlying Cretaceous sandstones located to the East. Apatite fission track data (AFT) from granites provides a mean signal of 14,8 My. This suggests that the pluton cooled rapidly after its intrusion below 110 °C. The signal obtained in sandstones is younger at 12,5 My. We suggest that the fast denudation is related to the arrival of the ridge at trench and precedes its subduction, which take places at about 12 My at the latitude 49°S. Although we have not been able to constrain the exact timing of shortening in the fold and thrust belt, related to ridge subduction. We suggest that this deformation related to the ridge subduction may have ceased between the lower and the middle Miocene, based on other studies realized to the North and to the South of our study area.The (U-Th)/He data in apatite (AHe) present a signal between 7 and 6 My, that highlights the effect of the first glaciations of Patagonia that induced an acceleration of the relief denudation. We suggest that glacial erosion play a major role on the topography and relief denudation during the late Miocene. Glaciers of Patagonia at the latitude 49°S did not have a protector role of the relief, as suggested by Thomson et al. (2010).To conclude, evolution of relief in Patagonia is the result of both tectonic and climatic processes. In our study area, at a 49°S latitude, the effect of each process has been highlighted because they are not contemporaneous but separated by about 6 to 7 My
Modélisation mathématique de la dynamique des communautés herbacées des écosystèmes prairiaux by Thibault Moulin( )

2 editions published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La modélisation dynamique des systèmes écologiques constitue une méthode incontournable pour comprendre,prédire et contrôler la dynamique des écosystèmes semi-naturels, qui fait intervenir des processuscomplexes. Le principal objectif de cette thèse est de développer un modèle permettant de simuler la dynamiqueà moyen terme de la végétation herbacée dans les prairies permanentes, en tenant compte à lafois de la productivité et de la biodiversité. Les prairies sont des réservoirs présentant une forte biodiversitévégétale, qui soutiennent de nombreux services écosystémiques. Sur le plan agricole, cette importantediversité contribue à la qualité de la production fourragère, et de plus, elle permet une plus grande résistancede la végétation face à des changements climatiques (réchauffement moyen, vagues de chaleur etde sécheresse).Pourtant, cette notion clé de biodiversité n'est que faiblement prise en considération dans la modélisationde l'écosystème prairial : elle est souvent absente ou alors présente sous une forme très simplifiée. Enréponse à ces considérations, ces travaux de thèse présentent la construction d'un modèle de successionbasé sur des processus, décrit par un système d'équations différentielles ordinaires, qui représente ladynamique de la végétation aérienne des prairies tempérées. Ce modèle intègre les principaux facteursécologiques impactant la croissance et la compétition des espèces herbacées, et peut s'ajuster à n'importequel niveau de diversité, par le choix du nombre et de l'identité des espèces initialement présentes dansl'assemblage. Ce formalisme mécaniste de modélisation nous permet alors d'analyser les relations qui lientdiversité, productivité et stabilité, en réponse à différentes conditions climatiques et différents modes degestion agricole.[...]Ces résultats soulignent alors le besoin de prendre en compte le rôle clé joué par la biodiversité dansles modèles de l'écosystème prairial, de par son impact sur le comportement des dynamiques simulées.De plus, pour rendre correctement compte des interactions au sein de la végétation, le nombre d'espècesconsidéré dans le modèle doit être suffisamment important. Enfin, nous comparons les simulations devégétation de ce modèle à des mesures issues de deux sites expérimentaux, la prairie de fauche d'Oensingen,et le pâturage de Laqueuille. Les résultats de ces comparaisons sont encourageants et soulignentla pertinence du choix et de la représentation des processus écologiques clés qui composent ce modèlemécaniste.Ce travail de thèse propose donc un modèle, en total adéquation avec les besoins actuels en terme demodélisation de l'écosystème prairial, qui permet de mieux comprendre la dynamique de la végétationherbacée et les interactions entre productivité, diversité et stabilité
Diversité et caractérisation fonctionnelle des communautés microbiennes inféodées au peuplier et issues d'une friche industrielle enrichie en mercure by Alexis Durand( Book )

2 editions published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Soil has a natural capital that gives it the capacity to produce ecosystem services, cultural as well as regulation or supply, it is essential to the Life as we know it and the development of human activities. However, anthropogenic activities and pollution, in particular by trace elements (ETs) such as mercury (Hg), disrupt the soil and modify in depth the organization of ecosystems. Facing these challenges, remediation and management projects for polluted sites and soils have emerged during the last decades with a view to future re-exploitation of these soils. This thesis is part of the ANR-BIOFILTREE and EC2CO FREIDI-Hg projects managed by the Chrono-Environnement laboratory. My Ph-D work explored the diversity of microorganism communities associated with a poplar plantation at a Hg-contaminated site managed by phytomanagement, combining approaches such as very high-throughput sequencing and conventional culture-based techniques. These combined methods revealed i) the diversity of the bacterial and fungal communities of the poplar plantation; ii) the groups of microorganisms particularly resistant to Hg (Trichoderma and Pseudomonas); and iii) plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). In addition, understanding the cellular mechanisms related to the accumulation of Hg by microorganisms was one of my objectives carried out in collaboration with the LIEC (University of Lorraine). The eukaryotic models Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Podospora anserina were used to test the potential role of some ion transporters in the entry of Hg into fungal cells. The results showed that the magnesium transporter Alr1 located on the plasma membrane could participate in the transport of Hg. In addition, a transcriptomic approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after a short exposure to Hg of mutant and wild strains has been implemented. To conclude, this work aims to be a reference work for future phytomanagement projects in Hg-contaminated environments, which highlights micro-organism communities and their fundamental roles
La mémoire du paysage : structuration des espaces protohistoriques de l'interfluve Seine-Yonne (France) et de l'Istrie-Kvarner (Croatie) by Zoran Čučković( )

2 editions published in 2021 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Habiter un espace revient à habiter son histoire. C'est une histoire subie, l'héritage des développements antérieurs, mais c'est aussi une histoire transmise, une mémoire collective activement entretenue.Cette thèse examine le rôle de la mémoire collective dans la création des paysages et des territoires de la Protohistoire européenne (fin IIIe - Ier millénaire av. n. e.). Quatre études sont présentées, portant sur deux zones spécifiques, l'une dans le Bassin parisien (interfluve Seine-Yonne) et l'autre au bord de la mer Adriatique (presqu'île d'Istrie et baie du Kvarner).Les études sont regroupées dans deux thématiques majeures. La première porte sur les ancrages mémoriels, en l'occurrence les nécropoles. Comment entretient-on ces lieux de mémoire, dans quel but ? Il s'agit de comprendre non seulement leur emploi pour la commémoration du passé ancestral, mais aussi leur rôle dans la constitution du temps social.La seconde thématique se focalise sur le territoire en tant qu'institution sociale. Durant la Protohistoire, l'appropriation de l'espace, bien qu'intimement liée aux pratiques, au mode de vie, est souvent exprimée par la gestion des nécropoles : l'emprise sur le présent passe par l'emprise sur le passé. Quel est le caractère du territoire ainsi instauré, par quelles pratiques a-t-il été mis en place ? Les études de cette partie font appel à l'analyse de visibilité afin d'évaluer l'impact visuel des structures dans le paysage et, par-là, d'étudier le « discours paysager » qui se déploie au travers des interventions dans le paysage
Contribution à l'étude des microalgues épiphytes dans les eaux côtières du golfe de Tunis : Cas des espèces du genre Ostreopsis Schmidt, J. (1901). by Mohamed Amine Hachani( )

2 editions published in 2019 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Gulf of Tunis, under high anthropogenic pressure, is a favorable terrain for harmful benthic dinoflagellate blooms (BHABs). Seasonal monitoring of the spatial and temporal distribution of epiphytic and planktonic microalgae coupled with environmental factors was studied for one year from october 2013 to october 2014 at 6 stations in the Gulf of Tunis. Harmful microalgae assemblages were dominated by three toxic epiphytic dinoflagellates: Ostreopsis sp., Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis. They were observed both in macrophytes and in the water column. The proliferation of Ostreopsis sp. is widespread in summer and blooms of P. lima and C. monotis were mainly recorded in spring. The morphometric analysis of Ostreopsis cells revealed a large variability in cell size at the different sampling stations of the Gulf. The dorso-ventral to antero-posterior diameter (DV/AP) ratio also varies from station to another. A weekly monitoring of the spatial and temporal distribution of Ostreopsis cf. ovata epiphytic and planktonic coupled with environmental factors was studied during 2015 and 2016 summer seasons at 5 stations in the Gulf of Tunis. The blooms were mainly detected between July and August. The concentrations of Ostreopsis cf. ovata measured are the highest ever recorded on the Tunisian coasts (9,91 × 105 cell. g-1 MF on macroalgae ; 5,11 × 105 cell. dm-3 in the water column). Ostreopsis cf. ovata peaks were observed when salinity and water temperature reached their high values, and when nitrites, nitrates, total nitrogen and silicates concentrations were low. Spatial variation is observed along the Gulf coast, suggesting that some sampling stations appear more favorable to the development of Ostreopsis cf. ovata than others. The alternative counting approaches MOL and OPR of Ostreopsis cf. ovata, implemented during the M3-HABs project and tested in this study, are in good agreement with the manual counting results. A predictive model of Quantile Random Forests type was used and could describe the abundance of Ostreopsis cf. ovata in the water column and macrophytes in response to 10 meteorological variables used within this model
Transfert des terres rares à l'interface géosphère-biosphère : répartition, transfert sol-végétation, et effet sur la physiologie des plantes by Laure Brioschi( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Background and aims Rare Earth Elements (REE) are widely used to trace naturalgeochemical processes. They are also increasingly used by man (electronics industry, medicine,agriculture) and therefore considered as emerging pollutants. The present documents studies REEmobility in non-polluted natural soil-plant systems in order to characterize their environmentalavailability for future anthropogenic pollution. The first part of this thesis is based on a fieldapproach in non-polluted natural sites with contrasting geological environments (limestone, granite,and carbonatite) and highly variable REE contents. The second part consist in an experimentalapproach under controlled conditions, in order to study REE's effect on vegetation.REE concentrations in soils do not directly reflect bedrock concentrations, but dependlargely on pedogenetic processes and on the mineralogy of bedrock and soil. The soils of all sitesare with respect to bedrock enriched in heavy REE. The REE uptake by plants is not primarilycontrolled by the plant itself, but depends on the concentration and the speciation in the soil and theadsorbed soil water pool. REE uptake by plant roots are linked with those of Fe. Roots absorbpreferentially the light REE. Before translocation, REE are retained by the Casparian strip leadingto much lower concentrations in the aerial parts. The transport of the REE within the xylem isassociated with the general nutrient flux. This nutrient flux could be affected by the addition of highREE concentrations. Thus, the presence of high REE concentrations in the environment has anegative effect on the germination and the roots growth
Caractérisation du charbonnage moderne et contemporain bisontin (Franche-Comté, France) et de son impact sur les peuplements forestiers : le cas de la forêt de Chailluz by Aurore Dupin( )

2 editions published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Franche-Comté forest, in particular the forest of Besançon, suffered heavily from its exploitation during the 18th and 19th centuries, causing a wood shortage in the territory. In many historiographical sources and research, the reasons of this shortage appear to be complex and manifold. The discovery of nearly a thousand charcoal platforms in the Chailluz forest has led to a series of questions concerning the function of this forest and the role of charcoal production in the wood shortage. The first fruits of an archival study made it possible to identify and characterize the major consumers of wood in the territory of Besançon during the 18th and 19th centuries other than the charcoal production, because rarely mentioned in the literature. The archaeometric study of the Chailluz charcoal platforms made it possible to characterize the charcoal production at the end of the modern age, providing the image of the 18th century forest stands and the impact of this practice on Chailluz
Ecologie comportementale des stratégies d'incubation des bécasseaux arctiques : contraintes et conséquences dans un écosystème en mutation by Nicolas Meyer( )

2 editions published in 2021 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To help predict the effects of climate change on the biosphere, this work offers an original approach inspired from a behavioural ecology framework: studying parental care behaviour of sandpipers (genus Calidris), their constraints and their consequences on reproductive success. These long-distance migrants move to the Arctic, which currently experiences rapid changes, to breed during the short summer season. Under those latitudes, abiotic conditions as well as resource availability are highly variable and predation is the main cause of reproductive failure. Therefore, sandpipers' reproductive success depends on adults' ability to initiate reproduction and to provide their young with the care required for their survival and development. As sandpipers must forage, parental effort that enhances current reproductive success is traded-off against foraging that enhances adult's survival. Adults' behaviour hence results from the management of this steady trade off. Since incubation prevents the adult from foraging, sandpipers evolved two incubation strategies, defined as the partitioning of incubation duties between partners, which resolve this trade-off in different ways. The biparental strategy relies on the cooperation of both parents who take turns at the nest, while a single adult incubates in the uniparental strategy.The first chapter of my thesis aims at discussing the main evolutionary hypotheses formulated to explain the emergence of such a diversity of strategies in sandpipers and describes the incubation behaviour variability between strategies.The next two chapters rely on the monitoring of hundreds of nests (provide estimated laying date and nest fate as successful or predated) from a diversity of sandpiper species (from 7 to 9 species), which incubation behaviour was monitored using a standardized protocol (recording of nest temperature), at the circumpolar scale (12-15 study sites) and over several years (from 2016 to 2018 and from 2016 to 2019).The second chapter is devoted to the study of the relationships between incubation behaviour and two environmental variables: ground-surface temperature and primary productivity used as a proxy of terrestrial arthropods' abundance. From this work, we demonstrate that uniparental species show strong relationships between these variables and incubation behaviour, whereas biparental species do not.The third chapter deals with the relationships between incubation strategy, incubation behaviour, and the risk of nest predation. This work shows that the risk of nest predation varies with incubation behaviour. Moreover, the uniparental strategy constrains adults to adopt a riskier incubation behaviour.Finally, the fourth chapter discusses, in the form of a literature review, the relative advantages and drawbacks of each parental care strategy with regard to the abiotic and biotic changes predicted in the Arctic. Since parental care determines the number and quality of young recruited in the population, this review links the original results presented in my thesis with broader concerns in conservation biology.In summary, my work shows that incubation strategies, which result from a complex evolutionary history in extreme environments, determine incubation behaviour, influence the risk of nest predation and constrain adults' ability to buffer environmental conditions to enhance their offspring survival and development. Hence, my work questions the conservation of sandpipers and their reproductive strategies in arctic ecosystems that currently experience rapid changes
Deformation conditions and 40Ar/39Ar dating of fault activity registered by phyllosilicates (clay minerals) in a sedimentary environment : examples of the south-verging thrust faults in the Pyrenees by Ahmed Abd Elmola( )

2 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Pyrenees belt features well-exposed deformation structures and well preserved syntectonic sedimentary rocksthat make it ideally suited to study thrust faults. The texture, structure and chemical-isotopic compositions of synkinematicphyllosilicates are widely used to estimate the deformation conditions-mechanisms and timing of fault activities. Therefore, inthe present thesis, three thrusts from the Pyrenean orogen have been studied to better understand the mechanical, chemical andisotopic behavior of phyllosilicates from deformed sediments of Eocene-Triassic age that have been involved in large southvergingshear zones. This work combined petrographic observation, chemical analyses, and thermodynamic modeling with40Ar/39Ar geochronology on muscovite/illite and chlorite. The first studied fault is the Pic de Port Vieux thrust (PPVT), a secondorderthrust related to the major Gavarnie thrust (GT) in the south-western part of the Pyrenees Axial Zone. The dissolutionrecrystallization,pressure solution mechanisms, and interaction with highly reductive fluids are the main parameters responsiblefor the mineralogical and chemical changes in the fault core zone. The Kübler index and chlorite thermometry suggest upperanchizoneto epizone conditions with a temperature of 285°C ± 28°C for the PPVT activity. Moreover, the 40Ar/39Ar step-heatingdating of synkinematic muscovite indicates that the fault activity occurred at 36.9 ± 0.2 Ma which coincides with the activity ofthe GT. The two other faults are: Lakora thrust that is located on the southern edge of the North Pyrenean Zone, and the MontePerdido thrust (Torla location) situated on the western part of the South Pyrenean Zone. The two thrust are affected (deformed)by the emplacement of the Gavarnie thrust. The petrographic-microstructural analyses on these faults demonstrated thatdeformation is marked by folding, boudinage, intense cleavage, shear surfaces/veins and enrichment of phyllosilicates in thefault zone of both thrusts. Similar to the PPVT, pressure-solution and dissolution-recrystallization mechanisms are the mainmechanisms that control deformation and enhanced the enrichment of the newly-formed phyllosilicates in the fault zones ofboth thrusts. Based on the Kübler index measurements, the deformation in the Lakora and Torla faults occurred at relativelylower temperature compared to the PPVT. The youngest total gas ages obtained by the 40Ar/39Ar technique are very old for theactivity time of both thrusts as they are older than the depositional ages of the sediments in the fault zones. Further investigationsare proposed at the end of this dissertation in order to better understand this anomaly in age and to successfully obtain the rightage of the two thrusts activity.Based on the results of this thesis, phyllosilicate minerals proved to be reliable thermochronological tools for fault activity atlow-grade metamorphism, when such tools are combined with careful sample preparations and detailed sample characterization
50 000 ans d'histoire de la végétation et du climat en Europe occidentale : étude pollinique et approche multi-proxy sur la séquence sédimentaire du Bergsee (Forêt Noire, Allemagne) by Fanny Duprat-Oualid( )

2 editions published in 2019 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Bergsee Lake provides a terrestrial and continuous sediment record of environmental changes in Western Europe for the last 50 ka.A continuous pollen record established at secular resolution allow to reconstruct the vegetation and climate variability of the Last Glacial period.Contrasted climate/vegetation is recorded between Marine Isotope Stages 3 and 2 (more steppic for the second one), and the north-Atlantic stadial/interstadial succession is also reflected by alternating steppe (i.e. cold/dry climate) and short forested episodes (i.e. warming). Moreover, Heinrich Stadials are evidenced as pronounced glacial phases by the Bergsee record.These results are supported by 1) comparison with other European records and 2) the multi-proxy approach (chironomids, alkanes, sedimentary data) applied on key climatic periods.Finally, comparison with archaeological data highlights the great potential contribution of the Bergsee record to the understanding of society changes of the Late Palaeolithic
Détermination des facteurs du sol modulant la biodisponibilité et l'accumulation des métaux pour l'escargot (cantareus aspersus) by Benjamin Pauget( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

[...] The aim of this thesis is to study the mechanisms that modulate metal bioavailabilityfor the garden snail Cantareus aspersus (= Helix aspersa) a soil invertebrate living at the interfacesoil-plant-air (saprophagous and phytophagous intermediate link in the food chain).[...] These data underline the necessity to take into account the factors and mechanisms that modulate themetal bioavailability for snails to better model accumulation and assimilation of metal by snails. As nounique chemical method to assess metal bioavailability was determined, we recommend the use ofbiological measures that identify the real metal bioavailability rather than the use of chemical measures
Les salines de Tourmont et de Montmorot au comté de Bourgogne (Franche-Comté) sous Marguerite d'Autriche ou l'échec d'une souveraine à rebours de ses prédécesseurs by Cédric Mottier( )

2 editions published in 2020 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This doctoral thesis has as its object the two saltworks which Margaret of Austria, as a new countess of Burgundy from 1509, had built at Tourmont (France, Jura), from 1510, and Montmorot (France, Jura), from 1514 ; in the same year she authorized the exploitation of the salty springs of the castellany of Poligny (France, Jura) other than that of Tourmont. In doing so, she returned to the policy of her predecessors, who, since the middle of the 14th century, by the closure of salt-works and the non-exploitation of new salty springs, had gradually concentrated in Salins (France, Jura) the production of salt from their county of Burgundy.Why Margaret of Austria did this ? How did she implement her princely project ? And which results did she achieve in the end ?Answering these questions made it possible to develop new, numerous and varied elements of knowledge, in connection with these different objectives : to contribute to the history of salt and saltworks of Franche-Comté at the hinge of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, addressed under a technical, political and economic side, and through the fully new study of two small saltworks, while Salins has carved out the lion's share in the studies carried out since the 1960s ; dialogue with archeology, by comparing the contribution of handwritten and even iconographic sources with field observations from the collective research project Les sources salées du Jura, 6000 years of exploitation (1996-2001) ; enlighten the principate of Margaret of Austria in Franche-Comté (1509-1530), very little studied to this day, through the salt production policy that she led, breaking with that of her predecessors (1509-1522) ; and more generally, to see how these facts tell us about the way she exercised her power in Franche-Comté
 
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Alternative Names
Centre national de la recherche scientifique

Centre national de la recherche scientifique France Laboratoire Chrono-environnement

Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France) Laboratoire de chrono-écologie

Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France). UMR (6249)

Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France). UMR 6249 (Laboratoire Chrono environnement, Besançon)

Centre national de la recherche scientifique France Unité mixte de recherche 6249

Chrono-environment Laboratory

Chrono-environnement

CNRS. 6249

CNRS. Laboratoire chrono-environnement

INRA USC 1379

Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement

Laboratoire Chrono environnement, Besançon

Laboratoire de Biologie Environnementale

Laboratoire de Chrono-Ecologie

LBE

UMR 6249

UMR 6249 CNRS-UFC

UMR 6565

Unité de recherche "Chrono-environnement"

Université de Franch-Comté Laboratoire de chrono-écologie

Université de Franche-Comté Laboratoire Chrono-environnement

Université de Franche-Comté. Laboratoire de biologie environnementale

Université de Franche-Comté. Laboratoire de chimie physique et rayonnement Alain Chambaudet

Université de Franche-Comté, Laboratoire de chrono-écologie

Université de Franche-Comté. Laboratoire Géosciences Déformation, écoulement, transfert

Université de Franche-Comté. LBE

Languages
French (35)

English (4)