WorldCat Identities

Crain, Robert L.

Works: 53 works in 179 publications in 1 language and 5,791 library holdings
Genres: Case studies  Longitudinal studies  Abstracts 
Roles: Author, Other, Redactor
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Robert L Crain
Stepping over the color line : African-American students in white suburban schools by Amy Stuart Wells( Book )

5 editions published between 1997 and 2000 in English and held by 1,271 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Stepping over the Color Line intertwines data on student achievement and racial isolation with stories of the people who participated in the St. Louis program. The authors set these individuals within a broad historical and social context and demonstrate how important linkages between the past and present help explain why efforts to overcome racial inequality - in St. Louis and in the larger society - are so difficult
The politics of school desegregation; comparative case studies of community structure and policy-making by Robert L Crain( Book )

23 editions published between 1968 and 1969 in English and Undetermined and held by 1,174 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Discrimination, personality, and achievement; a survey of northern Blacks by Robert L Crain( Book )

12 editions published between 1972 and 1973 in English and held by 707 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The politics of community conflict : the fluoridation decision by Robert L Crain( Book )

14 editions published between 1968 and 1969 in English and held by 567 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Making desegregation work : how schools create social climates by Robert L Crain( Book )

4 editions published in 1982 in English and held by 441 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This book is the result of a study conducted with 200 high schools in the South to determine what factors make schools effective in educating students and creating a healthy social environment. The book is particularly concerned with improving desegregated high schools and presents specific recommendations for doing so. Using survey data from school personnel and students as well as achievement test scores, the study examines the effects of : (1) various features of desegregation plans; (2) the racial attitudes and behavior of the schools' teaching staff; (3) special programs designed to improve race relations (such as black studies programs, in-service human relations training, biracial committees); (4) extracurricular activities; and (5) modifications of the structure of the school (including tracking, individualization, and cooperative learning). In general, the book argues for the importance of schools building a "social climate" which is favorable both to learning and adolescent development, including intergroup relations. Discussions of the methodology and technical considerations of the study are included throughout the book. (Cg)
Political strategies in northern school desegregation by David J Kirby( Book )

6 editions published in 1973 in English and Undetermined and held by 368 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This is a study of school desegregation as it was fought in 91 Northern and Western Cities between 1963 and 1969. In the summer of 1963, the de facto school segregation issue exploded in dozens of Northern cities; in the next 6 years school integration was front page news in most cities. What this book attempts to do in effect is to record a statistical social history of those six years. The authors hope that their analysis will provide more complete and accurate answers to replace the overly simple explanations of the birth and death of the desegregation issue. An analysis of the relative influence of the different actors in the controversy does give, it is held, a partial answer to why the issue died out when it did. One reason is that there is very little evidence here to suggest that civil rights activity had any impact on the decision the school system made; school systems which were the target of many demonstrations were not more likely to desegregate than those that never saw a picket sign. One of the clearest findings of this study is that white citizen groups opposed to desegregation were quite ineffective; white pro-integration groups were similarly ineffective. The authors' analysis makes school desegregation look like most community issues; decisions are made only when a great deal of pressure is brought to bear, and this did not happen very often. (Author/RJ)
The influence of high school racial composition on Black college attendance and test performance by Robert L Crain( Book )

8 editions published between 1978 and 1979 in English and held by 203 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Desegregation plans that raise Black achievement : a review of the research by Robert L Crain( Book )

7 editions published in 1982 in English and held by 144 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A meta analysis of 93 research reports on school desegregation and black achievement was conducted to determine (1) why the study results differed as to apparent desegregation effects; and (2) whether some desegregation plans produced greater achievement gains than others. An analysis indicated that inconsistencies in research findings were mainly due to two methodological flaws: the inability of most desegregation studies to focus on the earliest levels of schooling, where desegegation effects are most significant; and the absence of adequate control groups in most studies. Examination of reported desegregation effects showed that (1) desegregation produced greater gains for iq scores than for achievement test scores; (2) achievement gains in successful desegregated schools were greater in reading and language arts for elementary school pupils and in science and social studies for high school students; and (3) the most successful desegregation plans were those that resulted in schools with a majority and more than a token number of blacks. Implications for theory, public policy, and educational research were drawn from the analysis. (Author/MJL)
Design for a national longitudinal study of school desegregation : prepared for the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights by Robert L Crain( Book )

14 editions published between 1974 and 1975 in English and held by 137 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This is a final report to the United States Commission on Civil Rights, which requested The Rand Corporation to prepare a design for a research program on school desegregation. The report's audience is the group of policy-makers and research scientists who would be concerned with developing such a research program. This volume contains an overall summary of the proposed design. The body of the report is in two additional volumes; Volume 1 discusses the numerous theoretical and methodological issues involved in the deisgn and serves as a preamble to and rationale for Volume 2, which gives the detailed design. Rand has also prepared appendices containing a draft set of questionnaires and other research instruments. The research program is designed to accomplish two tasks: first to measure the effectiveness of different desegregation strategies in providing equality of educational experiences to black, Puerto Rican, Mexican-American, and Anglo students; second, to provide policy-makers with information about the problems that arise in school desegregation and with research results from which they can recommend national and local policies to help desegregation become more effective. From a research perspective it is efficient and practical to combine these two charges into a single research program. (Author/JM)
Vocational education for special populations : recommendations for improving state policy by L. Allen Phelps( Book )

2 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 90 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Three aspects of equity embedded in the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act of 1984 were examined through a review of the research literature: access, program effects, and student outcomes. The analysis suggested that access to vocational education programs for disabled students improved in recent years, disadvantaged and poor students continued to be significantly overrepresented in many programs, and limited-English-proficient students had very little access to vocational education. Little empirical evidence documented effects of different program approaches or components. A broadly defined list of "components" or "practices" that tended to be supported by case study data was developed, although studies frequently cautioned that much of what was observed was unique to the program setting. Administrative support and adequate financial support appeared to be important. In regard to student outcomes, the differentials in earnings and labor force participation between majority groups and special populations completing high school vocational education programs appeared to be reduced. The following strategies were outlined to enhance access to and attainment of equitable outcomes for vocational special needs students: (1) use of an access ratio; (2) development of guidelines that incorporate components of effective programs; (3) development of computer-based tracking systems; and (4) development of performance outcomes. (82 references) (ylb)
The effects of academic career magnet education on high schools and their graduates by Robert L Crain( Book )

4 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 90 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This book contains eight papers on a study of the effects of academic career magnetic education on high schools and their graduates. "Introduction" (Robert L. Crain) explains the study's objectives and methodology, which included an analysis of data files on 9,176 students who applied to 59 different academic career magnet education and interviews with 110 applicants to 4 different all-magnet high schools, 30 respondents to a survey of high school students, and 14 career magnet graduates. The titles of the remaining papers, which explore possible reasons why some career magnet programs promote academic achievement whereas others interfere with academics, are as follows: "Career Magnet Graduation Rates" (Robert L. Crain, Robert Thaler); "The Academic Effects of Career Magnets" (Robert Thaler, Robert L. Crain); "The Design of Career Magnet Programs and Students' Experience of High School" (Debora Sullivan, Judith Warren Little); "Career Magnet Schools: Effects on Student Behavior and Perceived Parental Support: Part One" (Gail L. Zellman, Denise D. Quigley); "Career Magnet Schools: Effects on Student Behavior and Perceived Parental Support: Part Two" (Robert L. Crain); "Placing the School-to-Work Transition in the Context of Adolescent Development" (Anna Allen); and "Conclusions" (Robert L. Crain). The book contains a total of 80 references and 32 tables/figures. Appended are additional notes on the study methodology and a discussion of using the experimental results to estimate the impact of career magnets on students. (Mn)
The politics of school integration : comparative case studies by Robert L Crain( Book )

2 editions published between 2010 and 2017 in English and held by 84 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This book discusses desegregation as a community decision, focusing on case studies from the 1960s. Crain uses comparative techniques based on fifteen northern and southern cities. The author seeks a "total" explanation for the decision to desegregate by determining its proximate causes and locating the roots of the decision in the economic, social, and political structure of the community. This work represents the first attempt to conduct a genuinely scientific analysis of the political process by which school systems were desegregated in this period. Robert L. Crain documents the way in which eight non-southern, big-city school systems met community demands to reduce segregation. Reactions varied from immediate compliance to months and years of stubborn resistance, some cities maintaining good relations with civil rights leaders and others becoming battlegrounds. Differences in these reactions are explained and focus is brought to desegregation in the South New Orleans in particular. The situation there is contrasted with six peacefully desegregated southern cities as well as the attitude of its powerful economic elite. The concluding part of the book is a general consideration of the civil rights movement in the cities studied, and the author considers the implications of his findings, both for the future of school desegregation and for studies of community politics. Employing comparative techniques and concentrating upon the outputs of political systems, this is a highly innovative contribution to the study of community power structures and their relationship to educational systems. It remains an effective supplement to courses in sociology, political science, and education, as well as an important source of data for everyone concerned with the history of efforts for national integration."--Provided by publisher
Desegregation and Black achievement by Robert L Crain( Book )

7 editions published between 1971 and 1978 in English and held by 80 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A majority of seventy-three studies dealing with the effect of desegregation on black achievement conclude that desegregation has a beneficial effect on black achievement scores. These findings are in agreement with various national surveys that have found black achievement higher in predominantly white schools. However, a number of desegregation studies have not found higher black test scores after desegregation. This may be accounted for by the following: (1) weaker studies are less likely to find positive desegregation effects; and (2) certain kinds of desegregation plans are less likely to have positive effects than are others. A comparison of the 73 studies does lead to the important conclusion that desegregation is more likely to have a positive impact on black test scores if it begins in the earliest grades, and effects are especially likely to be positive for first graders. Another finding suggested by the studies reviewed is that voluntary desegregation plans are less likely to yield results than are mandatory plans. (Author/EB)
The quality of American high school graduates : what personnel officers say and do about it by Robert L Crain( Book )

3 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Achievement prediction with school-level equations : a non-technical example using the public and private schools data by Robert L Crain( Book )

4 editions published in 1982 in English and held by 64 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To assess the effects of school traits on achievement, researchers reanalyzed the data used in "Public and Private Schools" (Coleman et al.) at the school level rather than the individual level. The data for the Coleman report and the present reanalysis are drawn from the "High School and Beyond" study, a 1980 national survey of 30 sophomores in each of 1,002 high schools. The researchers find that using regression equations on aggregate school-level data instead of individual-level data reduces the error in individual-level equations (caused by error in variable measurement) and controls for the contextual effects of student-body socioeconomic status. The reanalysis indicates that the apparent superiority of private schools in academic achievement is much smaller when computed at the school level rather than at the individual level. (Author/RW)
School desegregation and black occupational attainments : results from a long-term experiment by Robert L Crain( Book )

4 editions published in 1985 in English and held by 61 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The effects of attending desegregated schools on the occupational attainment of blacks were examined through a 1983 follow-up study of students who began desegregated schooling in early elementary school in 1966 as part of a randomized experiment (Project Concern, Hartford, Connecticut) and of students in a control group. The students were nearly all non-Hispanic American blacks, and a few were of Puerto Rican or West Indian ancestry. The main finding was that the desegregated black students obtained different types of employment than did the students in the control group. The desegregated students are now working in occupations which are less commonly held by blacks: for instance, men are salesmen rather than postmen, while women are secretaries rather than nurses' aides. In general, those who experienced desegregated schooling are more likely to be working in white collar and professional jobs in the private sector, while those from segregated schools are more likely to be working in government and in blue-collar jobs. (Kh)
Private schools and Black-White segregation : evidence from two big cities by Robert L Crain( Book )

4 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 59 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The public controversy surrounding recent government proposals for supporting private schools through tuition tax credits has prompted an interest in studying the impact of private schooling on racial segregation in education. This report examines the degree of black-white segregation in the Catholic schools in the Chicago and Cleveland metropolitan areas with a view to finding out whether the Catholic schools do or do not promote racial segregation. Elementary schools were found to be highly segregated, but Catholic high schools were less segregated than the public high schools were when traditional nearest-school student assignments were used. The accounting model used in the Coleman, Hoffer, and Kilgore study of the issue was analyzed, and after an examination of both sides of the argument, it is tentatively concluded that the accounting model researchers were overly optimistic and that the data from the present study gives little reason to believe with them that the impact of the private schools is simply benign. At the same time there is insufficient data to support what may be the more likely conclusion: namely, that private schools further school segregation under certain conditions and encourage integration under others. (Aa)
A longitudinal study of a metropolitan voluntary desegregation plan by Robert L Crain( Book )

4 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 53 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A long-term study of the effects of school desegregation, based on the tracing of students initially involved in a 1966 desegregation plan, is reported on in this document. The students, who were from Hartford, Connecticut, and were nearly all Black, were traced from their first desegregation in elementary school until after high school graduation. It is concluded that, compared with similar minority students who attended segregated Hartford city schools: male participants were more likely to graduate from high school (the effect on females was weaker); (2) male, but not female, participants completed more years of colleg; (3) male, but not female, participants perceived less discrimination in college and in other areas of adult life in Hartford; (4) male, though not female, participants have experienced less difficulty with the police and have gotton into fewer fights as adults; (5) participants have closer social contact with Whites as adults, are more likely to live in desegregated housing, and had more friends in college (the colleges were always predominantly White); and (6) female participants were less likely to have a child before 18. The last four conclusions serve to explain to some degree the positive effects of desegregation on educational attainment. (Author/RDN)
School desegregation in the North : eight comparative studies of community structure and policy making by Robert L Crain( Book )

8 editions published in 1966 in English and held by 35 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A preliminary, systematic picture (census) was developed of the status of school integration in eight northern cities of the united states in compliance with the 1954 "brown" decision of the supreme court. The purpose of the project was to correct the distorted views of school integration status, resulting primarily from news media reports over a period of years. Principal study data were gathered through interview responses and the personal files of approximately 200 persons, including school board members, school administrators, public officials, newspapermen, and heads of civil rights groups. These data were used to develop a case study for each city considered, describing how the desegregation issue was raised, how it was debated, and how it was (or will be) resolved. Cities covered in this investigation were st. Louis, lawndale, bay city, newark, buffalo, baltimore, san francisco, and pittsburgh. An overall review of the eight case studies was also made in order to develop a general picture of the typical integration decision, covering the demands of the civil rights movement, the responses of school boards and superintendents, and the reactions of the mass of white citizens. In three of the cities studied, school integration had been resolved, and demonstrations, if they ever occurred, were a thing of the past. Plans were being implemented in two others which showed promise of resolving the issue. In those remaining, work still needed to be done. No attempt was made in this study to recommend solutions for this latter group, as the project purpose was only to report facts and possible sociological explanations of these facts. (Jh)
School desegregation in New Orleans : a comparative study of the failure of social control by Robert L Crain( Book )

5 editions published in 1966 in English and held by 27 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The issue of school desegregation was studied as it occured in seven southern cities of the united states, resulting from the 1954 "brown" decision of the supreme court. These cities were columbus, jacksonville, new orleans, montgomery, atlanta, miami, and baton rouge. Case study data were gathered through interview responses and personal files of many individuals, including school board members, school administrators, public officials, and civil rights leaders. Primary emphasis was placed on a single case study, that of new orleans. At the time this study took place, there was a breakdown of social control over the problem of school integration, bringing on intense conflicts involving street demonstrations, school boycotts, and disputes between the louisiana state legislature and the federal courts. The main variable considered in the case studies about effective integration while maintaining social control was the degree of civic elite acquiescence--(1) willingness to desegregate and (2) ability to maintain law and order during the period of integration. In addition, two other factors were considered--(1) the local school board and its decision-making processes and (2) the civil rights movement with its demands and influences. All of this information was analyzed and some sociological conclusions were drawn, explaining ways in which different economic bases, populations, and governmental structures make cities different in their sytles of decision-making. The authors concluded that at the heart of conflicts over school desegregation are those who can control the degree of order or disorder in the social structure of a particular city. (Jh)
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Stepping over the color line : African-American students in white suburban schools
The politics of school integration : comparative case studies
English (140)