WorldCat Identities

Johnson, A. Ross

Works: 89 works in 297 publications in 2 languages and 6,762 library holdings
Genres: History  Conference papers and proceedings  Handbooks and manuals 
Roles: Author, Editor, Creator
Classifications: AS36, 327.47
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works about A. Ross Johnson
Most widely held works by A. Ross Johnson
Cold war broadcasting : impact on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe : a collection of studies and documents by A. Ross Johnson( )

15 editions published between 2009 and 2010 in English and held by 1,722 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Examines the role of Western broadcasting to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe during the Cold War, with a focus on Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. It includes chapters by radio veterans and by scholars who have conducted research on the subject in once-secret Soviet bloc archives and in Western records. It also contains a selection of translated documents from formerly secret Soviet and East European archives, most of them published here for the first time. --Book Jacket
Communicating with the world of Islam by A. Ross Johnson( )

6 editions published between 2007 and 2013 in English and held by 600 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Communicating with the World of Islam draws from the lessons learned in the cold war broadcasting experience to suggest the best ways of organizing U.S. efforts to communicate with Islamic people around the globe." "Drawn from discussions at the seminar "Communicating with the Islamic World," this report examines the impact that Voice of America, Radio Liberty, the BBC, Radio Free Europe, and other broadcasting tools had and suggests how the United States can use these instruments today to counter extremism effectively, promote democracy, and improve understanding of the United States in the Islamic world. It details current broadcasting efforts into Islamic countries and the Muslim communities of Europe and explains each of the critical factors necessary to influence the world of Islam in a positive direction, such as stressing women's content programming, maintaining pressure on the rulers of Qatar over the content and programming of Al Jazeera, and keeping news content candid, tailored to local audiences, and unsparingly accurate."--Jacket
The transformation of Communist ideology; the Yugoslav case, 1945-1953 by A.Ross Johnson( Book )

14 editions published in 1972 in English and held by 550 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

East European military establishments : the Warsaw Pact Northern Tier by A. Ross Johnson( Book )

18 editions published between 1976 and 1982 in English and held by 390 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Commonly accepted scenarios of Warsaw Pact warfare against NATO assume that over half of initial Pact offensive forces would consist of Czechoslovak, East German, and Polish units. These Northern Tier military institutions and their roles domestically and within the Warsaw Pact are examined in this study. The officer corps of all three military establishments are outwardly committed to a Soviet-defined 'lightning war' strategy. This strategy may constitute the principal Soviet lever for ensuring Northern Tier participation in a Warsaw Pact offensive, but how reliably the conscript armies would in fact fulfill that intended roll is another question. In any case, Pact preparations for 'coalition warfare' imply weaknesses and vulnerabilities that deserve careful attention in light of the distinctive individual characteristics of the respective Northern Tier military establishments. (Author)
The study of Soviet foreign policy : decision-theory-related approaches by Arnold Lawrence Horelick( Book )

18 editions published between 1973 and 1976 in English and held by 334 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Scholarly literature on decisionmaking and Soviet foreign policy is reviewed for utility to practicing foreign affairs analysts. The cybernetic paradigm can serve as an alternative to the established analytic paradigm in generating multiple perspectives on foreign policy decisionmaking. Knowledge of organizational and bureaucratic context and theories involving cognitive operations and motivational forces permit generation of additional perspectives. New directions in Sovietology have been little affected by decision theory. Expanded knowledge about the context of Soviet foreign policy decisionmaking in forms susceptible to disciplined inquiry will permit development of middle-range decision theories specific to the Soviet context. Future research should explore Soviet "interest groups," Soviet organizational behavior on its own terms, "operational code" and elite studies of top Soviet decisionmakers, a set of case studies of Soviet foreign policy decisions as a necessary base for generalization, and Soviet media as a vehicle of intra-elite political communication
Yugoslavia, in the twilight of Tito by A. Ross Johnson( Book )

9 editions published in 1974 in English and held by 291 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty : the CIA years and beyond by A. Ross Johnson( Book )

8 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 272 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The study concludes with an analysis of the factors that accounted for RFE/RL's effectiveness, which may offer lessons today as the United States tries to "win the hearts and minds" of foreign elites and populations and promote positive political change, particularly in the Muslim world. --Book Jacket
The media and intra-elite communication in Poland : summary report by Jane Leftwich Curry( Book )

7 editions published between 1980 and 1981 in English and held by 148 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Summarizes the major features of the Polish media system, describes the specific roles and editorial processes of major types of media, and analyzes the relationship between divergences of view that appear in the media and intra-elite discussion, debate, and controversy. Conclusions are presented for Western analysts, whose understanding of Polish affairs is based at least partly on a reading of the open Polish media. The report emphasizes the process by which politically significant material appears in the media of a Communist country, in contrast to earlier studies, which are generally based on content analysis. The principal data source is information obtained from extensive interviews with emigres formerly involved in the media process, as writers, journalists, editors, censors, and government and Party officials. Detailed analyses and documentation of the research are presented in companion Notes N-1514/1, N-1514/2, N-1514/3, N-1514/4, N-1514/5
Challenges to Soviet control in eastern Europe : an overview by J. F Brown( Book )

7 editions published between 1984 and 1985 in English and held by 140 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

SCOTT (Copy 1): From the John Holmes Library Collection
The media and intra-elite communication in the USSR by Lilita Dzirkals( Book )

8 editions published between 1981 and 1982 in English and held by 140 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report tests basic assumptions used by Western analysts in interpreting the Soviet media by bringing to bear new information, derived from emigre interviews, about the structure and inner workings of Soviet media and the political mechanisms by which the media are controlled. Section II reviews the mechanism of Party and state control over Soviet media, in which formal censorship in fact plays a secondary role. Section III looks at the crucial role of the chief editor and the editorial processes he presides over. Section IV analyzes types of discussions, debates, and controversies in Soviet media and considers their relationship to institutional, personal, and policy conflict. Appendix A contains a fuller description of the study approach. Appendix B provides a selective review of media-related assumptions in a variety of Western Sovietological writings. Appendix C examines a presumptive "doctored photograph" incident. Appendix D provides a profile of one of the seemingly unorthodox Soviet journals, Literaturnaia Gazeta
United States policy toward Poland : a conference report by A. Ross Johnson( Book )

9 editions published in 1987 in English and Undetermined and held by 133 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

On January 14-15, 1987, in Washington, D.C., The RAND Corporation convened a workshop conference on U.S. policy toward Poland. The purpose of the workshop was to assemble a group of academic specialists on Poland, present and former government officials, and representatives of the Polish emigre community to assess the Polish domestic situation and to consider premises and objectives of future policy toward Poland. This report summarizes the initial presentations and the ensuing discussions for each of the five workshop sessions
The impact of eastern Europe on Soviet policy toward western Europe by A. Ross Johnson( Book )

3 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 130 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report presents results of a study of the diffusion of an expensive new medical diagnostic technology, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The study was conducted during the early 1980s, when diffusion was just beginning to occur. There were many uncertainties about the ultimate clinical benefits of MR, the technical configuration of the equipment that would prove to be most advantageous (i.e., the characteristics of the magnet), the regulatory environment in which MR would operate, third-party reimbursement for MR use, and the effects of an increasingly competitive health care market on the financial soundness of investment in this expensive new equipment. Some of these uncertainties persist, but MR has nonetheless diffused rapidly into the medical care system. Although the ultimate utility of MR cannot yet be assessed, there is cause for concern about the process by which diffusion occurred. This study illuminates issues in the efficient diffusion of new medical technologies and suggests changes that might improve the process
East European military reliability : an émigré-based assessment by Alex Alexiev( Book )

3 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 122 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This report presents the results of a study based on RAND interviews with former East European servicemen now in the West. The study examined the prospective wartime reliability for the Soviet Union of the East European armies incorporated in the Warsaw Pact, in particular those of Poland, East Germany, and Czechoslovakia. It focuses on specific factors (such as organizational and operational incentives and alliance constraints) that would enhance or detract from reliability and considers whether and how they have changed over time. The findings suggest that, while many features of non-Soviet Warsaw Pact (NSWP) militaries have remained constant over the past 25 years, this reliability is fragile, for it rests in part on the containment and suppression of group and individual dissatisfactions that are likely to reemerge in times of political turmoil or crisis. Moreover, the changes that have taken place in NSWP armies over the past 25 years have been in the direction of reducing rather than enhancing reliability."--Rand abstracts
Soviet and East European forecasts of European security : papers from the 1972 Varna conference( Book )

5 editions published in 1973 in English and held by 102 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The report is a collection of original short summaries of Soviet and East European papers that forecast future security arrangements for Europe. The full papers, including those from Western Europe, were published in December 1972. Key themes, compared by country in a table composed by the editors, include military balance, general character of East-West relations, political-security system, role of alliances, role of USSR, role of U.S., role of European community, role of non-Soviet Eastern Europe, MBFR, forthcoming Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, German question, neutral and nonaligned states, East-West economic relations, potential crises, and potential causes of revival of tension. The papers generally present first an analysis of the current situation and then a ten-year forecast
Poland in crisis by A. Ross Johnson( Book )

7 editions published in 1982 in English and held by 101 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This Rand Note analyzes the rise of the Solidarity trade union in Poland, its suppression by martial law, and the effect on Soviet interests in Eastern Europe. The Note concludes that the martial law regime established in Poland in December 1981 is not a stable system of rule. The Soviets can hardly consider the Polish crisis over. The Jaruzelski regime has made little progress in developing a viable normalized political system. The Polish crisis has further undermined the legitimacy of Soviet-style political systems elsewhere in Eastern Europe. The Polish military has overshadowed the Polish Communist Party while being distracted from its external Warsaw Pact missions. And the Polish crisis has increased the potential for violent instability in the Eastern part of Europe. (Author)
The Polish military after martial law : report of a Rand conference, October 14, 1982 by A. Ross Johnson( Book )

9 editions published between 1983 and 1984 in English and held by 93 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

On October 14, 1982, The Rand Corporation held a workshop confernece in Washington, D.C., on 'The Polish Military'. The workshop was convened as part of the research on Poland and the Warsaw Pact being conducted for a Project AIR FORCE study, 'Soviet Vulnerabilities in Eastern Europe'. The aim of the meeting was to consider the role of the Polish military after the proclamation of martial law on December 13, 1981; the military and political background to the events of 1981; and the implications for the future of the Polish armed forces, both in the Polish Communist system and in the Warsaw Pact. The workshop discussion provided information and views on the past, present, and possible future roles of the Polish military, both domestically in Poland and in the Warsaw Pact. The body of this Note contains a summary of the discussion, including differences of view. Six major theses emerged from the discussion. These theses may serve to enrich current appraisals of developments in Poland and the Warsaw Pact and to guide subsequent research
The Warsaw pact's campaign for "European security" by A. Ross Johnson( Book )

6 editions published in 1970 in English and held by 83 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A European Security Conference (ESC) was first proposed by the USSR in 1954-1955 as part of an effort to block the rearmament of West Germany. In 1969-1970, just as in the 1966-1967 phase of the ESC campaign, the Soviet leadership seemed to be motivated by the desire to gain political and diplomatic leverage to consolidate its control over Eastern Europe, to exploit frictions within NATO, and reduce American influence in Western Europe. However, the ESC proposal became an instrument that individual Warsaw Pact member states used for the pursuit of autonomous policies. Romania and Poland exploited the campaign to strengthen their independence. East Germany unsuccessfully sought to use it to preserve something of the old unyielding Warsaw Pact stance toward Bonn. Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria played more passive roles in the campaign. Professed Soviet interest in regional disarmament has declined, as a consequence of the enhanced internal security role of Soviet forces in Eastern Europe
The Warsaw Pact : Soviet military policy in Eastern Europe by A. Ross Johnson( Book )

6 editions published in 1981 in English and Polish and held by 77 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The USSR may wish to rely more in the 1980s on East European military forces to maintain or increase the present level of Soviet-controlled military power in Europe while minimizing the commitment of additional Soviet military resources to this region. Soviet military forces are subjected to increased competing demands while domestic Soviet economic tradeoffs between military and civilian production are posed more sharply. Yet in fact, the USSR will have to rely less, rather than more, on East European military forces. Operational, institutional, and socioeconomic factors that make a greater or even undiminished East European military contribution unlikely are discussed. The Polish crisis of 1980-1981 has dramatized the vulnerabilities inherent in the present level of Soviet reliance on East European military forces. Development of East European armies for "coalition warfare," emphasized by Khrushchev at the turn of the 1960s as a "quick fix," has reached the point of diminishing returns, irrespective of the outcome of the Polish crisis. The Soviet leadership must either dedicate relatively more of its own increasingly scarce military resources to Europe or permit a relative decline in Soviet-controlled military power in the region
The role of the military in communist Yugoslavia : an historical sketch by A. Ross Johnson( Book )

4 editions published between 1971 and 1978 in English and held by 74 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Eastern Europe's "time of troubles" by A. Ross Johnson( Book )

5 editions published in 1985 in English and held by 72 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Eastern Europe faces a 'time of troubles' more serious than at any time since 1956. The proximate causes are economic. To be sure, we have heard dire economic predictions about Eastern Europe before. But the fact remains that economic growth in the region declined from 7.3 percent yearly in the first half of the 1970s to 4 percent yearly in the second half of the decade to negative growth after 1980. It has been argued that the East European economic slowdown would have occurred much more precipitously had it not been for three factors: periodic investment campaigns at lower stages of development; Soviet trade and other subsidies beginning in the 1960s; and cheap Western credits in the 1970s. By the end of the 1970s, these palliatives lost much of their effectiveness. The East European economies had, by and large, exhausted the potential of extensive development, and thus a boost in investment (a proven instrument for improving the performance of centrally planned economies at lower levels of development) was less effective than it had been in earlier economic downturns. The associated rigidities of the East European economic mechanisms hampered (in comparison with other economic systems at comparable stages of economic development) adjustment to the second international economic 'shock' of the late 1970s. Soviet trade subsidies, especially for energy imports, were reduced. And Western credits became more expensive and then dried up
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Cold war broadcasting : impact on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe : a collection of studies and documents
Communicating with the world of IslamRadio Free Europe and Radio Liberty : the CIA years and beyond
Alternative Names
Johnson, A.

English (172)

Polish (1)