Rotemberg, Julio
Overview
Works:  174 works in 653 publications in 1 language and 6,722 library holdings 

Genres:  Conference papers and proceedings 
Roles:  Author, Editor, Other 
Classifications:  HB1, 330 
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by
Julio Rotemberg
Perceptions of equity and the distribution of income by
Julio Rotemberg(
Book
)
12 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 73 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Abstract: This paper builds a simple model where there is a link between employees' perception of the fairness of employers and the actual distribution of income. Wages are based in part on employers' assessments of the productivity of individual employees. I show that the equilibrium distribution of income depends on the beliefs of employees concerning the accuracy of these evaluations. I give conditions under which the distribution of income across employees of the same vintage is more equal if employees believe that these evaluations are generally inaccurate (so that they are skeptical of capitalists in general) than when they believe that these evaluations are accurate. The model is consistent with the fact that, in a sample of seven countries, the distribution of income is more unequal in countries where people feel that income inequality is not too large
12 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 73 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Abstract: This paper builds a simple model where there is a link between employees' perception of the fairness of employers and the actual distribution of income. Wages are based in part on employers' assessments of the productivity of individual employees. I show that the equilibrium distribution of income depends on the beliefs of employees concerning the accuracy of these evaluations. I give conditions under which the distribution of income across employees of the same vintage is more equal if employees believe that these evaluations are generally inaccurate (so that they are skeptical of capitalists in general) than when they believe that these evaluations are accurate. The model is consistent with the fact that, in a sample of seven countries, the distribution of income is more unequal in countries where people feel that income inequality is not too large
Cyclical movements in wages and consumption in a bargaining model of unemployment by
Julio Rotemberg(
Book
)
11 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 73 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper considers a model where individual workers bargain with firms over their wages and where their bargaining power is so strong that some workers are unemployed. The result is that an increase in the elasticity of demand facing individual firms raises employment (as in the case where the labor market clears) but that wages rise only modestly. In fact, consistent with the findings of Wilson (1997), some jobspecific wages actually fall. Nonetheless, average wages may rise either because wages of nonrationed workers rise or because there is cyclical upgrading of jobs. Assuming that workers are also rationed in financial markets, the increase in employment that accompanies the increase in the demand elasticity for individual products also increases consumption substantially. Thus, the model rationalizes the finding that real wages rise less in booms than does consumption. At the same time, the model is consistent with a lack of secular movements in hours and unemployment as well as a secular proportionality of consumption and real wages
11 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 73 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper considers a model where individual workers bargain with firms over their wages and where their bargaining power is so strong that some workers are unemployed. The result is that an increase in the elasticity of demand facing individual firms raises employment (as in the case where the labor market clears) but that wages rise only modestly. In fact, consistent with the findings of Wilson (1997), some jobspecific wages actually fall. Nonetheless, average wages may rise either because wages of nonrationed workers rise or because there is cyclical upgrading of jobs. Assuming that workers are also rationed in financial markets, the increase in employment that accompanies the increase in the demand elasticity for individual products also increases consumption substantially. Thus, the model rationalizes the finding that real wages rise less in booms than does consumption. At the same time, the model is consistent with a lack of secular movements in hours and unemployment as well as a secular proportionality of consumption and real wages
The cyclical behavior of prices and costs by
Julio Rotemberg(
Book
)
14 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and held by 71 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Because inputs are scarce, marginal cost is an increasing function of output. Diminishing returns, costs of increasing employment as well as the increasing marginal disutility of working when hours worked and effort rise all contribute to make this function steep. Without changes in this function relating marginal cost to output, aggregate output can vary if and only if the markup of price to marginal cost (the inverse of real marginal cost for typical firms) varies. We first study whether, empirically, real marginal cost does rise in cyclical expansions. Average real labor cost is not very procyclical but, for several reasons, marginal labor cost is more procyclical than average labor cost. These include the presence of overhead labor and adjustment costs as well as differences between the marginal and average wage. These corrections results in procyclical measures of real marginal cost. Measures of marginal costs based on materials costs and inventories also appear procyclical. We show that these procyclical movements in marginal cost may, depending on how costs are modeled, account for a substantial fraction of cyclical output movements. Finally, we survey models of variable markups. These include both models of sticky prices (in which markups vary because firms cannot all costlessly charge the markup they desire) and models in which firms' desired markup varies over time. This set of models allows a rich set of variables to affect output even if these variables do not shift the marginal cost schedule
14 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and held by 71 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Because inputs are scarce, marginal cost is an increasing function of output. Diminishing returns, costs of increasing employment as well as the increasing marginal disutility of working when hours worked and effort rise all contribute to make this function steep. Without changes in this function relating marginal cost to output, aggregate output can vary if and only if the markup of price to marginal cost (the inverse of real marginal cost for typical firms) varies. We first study whether, empirically, real marginal cost does rise in cyclical expansions. Average real labor cost is not very procyclical but, for several reasons, marginal labor cost is more procyclical than average labor cost. These include the presence of overhead labor and adjustment costs as well as differences between the marginal and average wage. These corrections results in procyclical measures of real marginal cost. Measures of marginal costs based on materials costs and inventories also appear procyclical. We show that these procyclical movements in marginal cost may, depending on how costs are modeled, account for a substantial fraction of cyclical output movements. Finally, we survey models of variable markups. These include both models of sticky prices (in which markups vary because firms cannot all costlessly charge the markup they desire) and models in which firms' desired markup varies over time. This set of models allows a rich set of variables to affect output even if these variables do not shift the marginal cost schedule
Imperfect competition and the effects of energy price increases on economic activity by
Julio Rotemberg(
Book
)
14 editions published between 1992 and 1996 in English and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We show that modifying the standard neoclassical growth model by assuming that competition is imperfect makes it easier to explain the size of the declines in output and real wages that follow increases in the price of oil. Plausibly parameterized models of this type are able to mimic the response of output and real wages in the United States. The responses are particularly consistent with a model of implicit collusion where markups depend positively on the ratio of the expected present value of future profits to the current level of output
14 editions published between 1992 and 1996 in English and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We show that modifying the standard neoclassical growth model by assuming that competition is imperfect makes it easier to explain the size of the declines in output and real wages that follow increases in the price of oil. Plausibly parameterized models of this type are able to mimic the response of output and real wages in the United States. The responses are particularly consistent with a model of implicit collusion where markups depend positively on the ratio of the expected present value of future profits to the current level of output
Is the business cycle a necessary consequence of stochastic growth? by
Julio Rotemberg(
Book
)
13 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 64 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We compute the forecastable changes in output, consumption, and hours implied by a VAR that includes the growth rate of private value added, the share of output that is consumed, and the detrended level of private hours. We show that the size of the forecastable changes in output greatly exceeds that predicted by a standard stochastic growth model, of the kind studied by real business cycle theorists. Contrary to the model's implications, forecastable movements in labor productivity are small and only weakly related to forecasted changes in output. Also, forecasted movements in investment and hours are positively correlated with forecasted movements in output. Finally, and again in contrast to what the growth model implies, forecasted output movements are positively related to the current level of the consumption share and negatively related to the level of hours. We also show that these contrasts between the model and the observations are robust to allowance for measurement error and a variety of other types of transitory disturbances
13 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 64 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We compute the forecastable changes in output, consumption, and hours implied by a VAR that includes the growth rate of private value added, the share of output that is consumed, and the detrended level of private hours. We show that the size of the forecastable changes in output greatly exceeds that predicted by a standard stochastic growth model, of the kind studied by real business cycle theorists. Contrary to the model's implications, forecastable movements in labor productivity are small and only weakly related to forecasted changes in output. Also, forecasted movements in investment and hours are positively correlated with forecasted movements in output. Finally, and again in contrast to what the growth model implies, forecasted output movements are positively related to the current level of the consumption share and negatively related to the level of hours. We also show that these contrasts between the model and the observations are robust to allowance for measurement error and a variety of other types of transitory disturbances
A heuristic method for extracting smooth trends from economic time series by
Julio Rotemberg(
Book
)
12 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 61 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper proposes a method for separating economic time series into a smooth component whose mean varies over time (the trend') and a stationary component (the cycle'). The aim is to make the trends as smooth as possible while also producing cycles with plausible properties. While the main justification for the method is intuitive, the method does a good job of separating these two components in some artificial examples where the constructed series are indeed the sum of smooth (possibly stochastic) functions of time and a low order autoregressive process. When the true trends consist of low order polynomials, the proposed method obtains trends that are of similar accuracy than fitted polynomial trends. In other cases, the MSE of the proposed trends is much lower. Similarly, except in quite special cases, the MSE of the proposed trend is considerably smaller than that obtained by the HP filter. VARs that involve the cyclical variables constructed by this method yield accurate representations of the behavior of the underlying cycles of several variables. By contrast, VARs with the series in differences give poor descriptions of the effect of cyclical shocks, even though DickeyFuller tests do not reject the hypotheses that the artificial series have unit roots. I apply the method to some well known aggregate time series. The results suggest that real wages in the U.S. are strongly positively correlated with military purchases and that the reduction in the growth of trend GDP in the U.S. started well before 1973
12 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 61 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper proposes a method for separating economic time series into a smooth component whose mean varies over time (the trend') and a stationary component (the cycle'). The aim is to make the trends as smooth as possible while also producing cycles with plausible properties. While the main justification for the method is intuitive, the method does a good job of separating these two components in some artificial examples where the constructed series are indeed the sum of smooth (possibly stochastic) functions of time and a low order autoregressive process. When the true trends consist of low order polynomials, the proposed method obtains trends that are of similar accuracy than fitted polynomial trends. In other cases, the MSE of the proposed trends is much lower. Similarly, except in quite special cases, the MSE of the proposed trend is considerably smaller than that obtained by the HP filter. VARs that involve the cyclical variables constructed by this method yield accurate representations of the behavior of the underlying cycles of several variables. By contrast, VARs with the series in differences give poor descriptions of the effect of cyclical shocks, even though DickeyFuller tests do not reject the hypotheses that the artificial series have unit roots. I apply the method to some well known aggregate time series. The results suggest that real wages in the U.S. are strongly positively correlated with military purchases and that the reduction in the growth of trend GDP in the U.S. started well before 1973
Dynamic general equilibrium models with imperfectly competitive product markets by
Julio Rotemberg(
Book
)
14 editions published between 1992 and 2015 in English and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper discusses the consequences of introducing imperfectly competitive product markets into an otherwise standard neoclassical growth model. We pay particular attention to the consequences of imperfect competition for the explanation of fluctuations in aggregate economic activity. Market structures considered include monopolistic competition, the 'customer market' model of Phelps and Winter, and the implicit collusion model of Rotemberg and Saloner. Empirical evidence relevant to the numerical calibration of imperfectly competitive models is reviewed. The paper then analyzes the effects of imperfect competition upon the economy's response to several kinds of real shocks, including technology shocks, shocks to the level of government purchases, and shocks that change individual producers' degree of market power. It also discusses the role of imperfect competition in allowing for fluctuations due solely to selffulfilling expectations
14 editions published between 1992 and 2015 in English and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper discusses the consequences of introducing imperfectly competitive product markets into an otherwise standard neoclassical growth model. We pay particular attention to the consequences of imperfect competition for the explanation of fluctuations in aggregate economic activity. Market structures considered include monopolistic competition, the 'customer market' model of Phelps and Winter, and the implicit collusion model of Rotemberg and Saloner. Empirical evidence relevant to the numerical calibration of imperfectly competitive models is reviewed. The paper then analyzes the effects of imperfect competition upon the economy's response to several kinds of real shocks, including technology shocks, shocks to the level of government purchases, and shocks that change individual producers' degree of market power. It also discusses the role of imperfect competition in allowing for fluctuations due solely to selffulfilling expectations
Prices, output and hours : an empirical analysis based on a sticky price model by
Julio Rotemberg(
Book
)
11 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
I show that a simple sticky price model based on Rotemberg (1982) is consistent with a variety of facts concerning the correlation of prices, hours and output. In particular, I show that it is consistent with a negative correlation between the detrended levels of output and prices when the BeveridgeNelson method is used to detrend both the price and output data. Such a correlation, i.e., a negative correlation between the predictable movements in output and the predictable movements in prices is present (and very strong) in U.S. data. Consistent with the model, this correlation is stronger than correlations between prices and hours of work. I also study the size of the predictable price movements that are associated with predictable output movements as well as the degree to which there are predictable movements in monetary aggregates associated with predictable movements in output. These facts are used to shed light on the degree to which the Federal Reserve has pursued a policy designed to stabilize expected inflation
11 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
I show that a simple sticky price model based on Rotemberg (1982) is consistent with a variety of facts concerning the correlation of prices, hours and output. In particular, I show that it is consistent with a negative correlation between the detrended levels of output and prices when the BeveridgeNelson method is used to detrend both the price and output data. Such a correlation, i.e., a negative correlation between the predictable movements in output and the predictable movements in prices is present (and very strong) in U.S. data. Consistent with the model, this correlation is stronger than correlations between prices and hours of work. I also study the size of the predictable price movements that are associated with predictable output movements as well as the degree to which there are predictable movements in monetary aggregates associated with predictable movements in output. These facts are used to shed light on the degree to which the Federal Reserve has pursued a policy designed to stabilize expected inflation
The excess comovement of commodity prices by
Robert S Pindyck(
Book
)
13 editions published between 1987 and 1996 in English and No Linguistic content and held by 59 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
These data and/or computer programs are part of ICPSR's PublicationRelated Archive and are distributed exactly as they arrived from the data depositor. ICPSR has not checked or processed this material. Users should consult the INVESTIGATOR(S) if further information is desired
13 editions published between 1987 and 1996 in English and No Linguistic content and held by 59 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
These data and/or computer programs are part of ICPSR's PublicationRelated Archive and are distributed exactly as they arrived from the data depositor. ICPSR has not checked or processed this material. Users should consult the INVESTIGATOR(S) if further information is desired
Stochastic technical progress, nearly smooth trends and distinct business cycles by
Julio Rotemberg(
Book
)
14 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 59 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper investigates whether it is possible to entertain simultaneously two attractive views about US GDP. The first is that long term growth in US GDP is attributable to an empirically plausible specification of random technical progress. The second is that deviations of GDP from a fitted smooth 'trend' are mostly attributable to shocks that have only temporary effects, so that they are unrelated to the shocks to technical progress that lead to long term growth. The paper shows that these two views are not incompatible by constructing a model where stochastic technical progress (whose properties are calibrated to fit some features of US data) has essentially no effect on suitably detrended time series of GDP. The paper also studies variations in wedges between price and marginal cost that are capable of giving rise to these transitory movements
14 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 59 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper investigates whether it is possible to entertain simultaneously two attractive views about US GDP. The first is that long term growth in US GDP is attributable to an empirically plausible specification of random technical progress. The second is that deviations of GDP from a fitted smooth 'trend' are mostly attributable to shocks that have only temporary effects, so that they are unrelated to the shocks to technical progress that lead to long term growth. The paper shows that these two views are not incompatible by constructing a model where stochastic technical progress (whose properties are calibrated to fit some features of US data) has essentially no effect on suitably detrended time series of GDP. The paper also studies variations in wedges between price and marginal cost that are capable of giving rise to these transitory movements
Commercial policy with altruistic voters by
Julio Rotemberg(
Book
)
13 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Abstract: This paper considers a specific factor model with two sectors in which agents are altruistic towards domestic residents. I show that, even if the degree of altruism is small, direct democracy leads to commercial policies that are biased against trade as long as the mobile factor is unbiased in the sense of Jones and Ruffin (1977) and the income of the owners of the factor which is specific to the import competing sector is lower than the income of the owners of the other specific factor. Tariffs may be preferred to subsidies by the median voter if subsidies require that beneficiaries spend a fixed cost to demonstrate that they are entitled to these subsidies and there is heterogeneity in the size of producers. Lastly, I construct a model of indirect democracy where legislators can receive campaign contributions from potential lobbyists. Even if campaign contributions are positive in equilibrium, the tariffs that emerge from votes taken after lobbying can represent the wishes of the median voter. In this model, campaign contributions do not buy votes. Instead, consistent with what is claimed in the qualitative literature, they buy access to legislators' time. The model is also consistent with the evidence showing that campaign contributions and lobbying activity are directed mainly at legislators who already agree with their contributors and their lobbyists
13 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Abstract: This paper considers a specific factor model with two sectors in which agents are altruistic towards domestic residents. I show that, even if the degree of altruism is small, direct democracy leads to commercial policies that are biased against trade as long as the mobile factor is unbiased in the sense of Jones and Ruffin (1977) and the income of the owners of the factor which is specific to the import competing sector is lower than the income of the owners of the other specific factor. Tariffs may be preferred to subsidies by the median voter if subsidies require that beneficiaries spend a fixed cost to demonstrate that they are entitled to these subsidies and there is heterogeneity in the size of producers. Lastly, I construct a model of indirect democracy where legislators can receive campaign contributions from potential lobbyists. Even if campaign contributions are positive in equilibrium, the tariffs that emerge from votes taken after lobbying can represent the wishes of the median voter. In this model, campaign contributions do not buy votes. Instead, consistent with what is claimed in the qualitative literature, they buy access to legislators' time. The model is also consistent with the evidence showing that campaign contributions and lobbying activity are directed mainly at legislators who already agree with their contributors and their lobbyists
Energy taxes and aggregate economic activity by
Julio Rotemberg(
Book
)
12 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 57 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper shows that the output losses from energy taxes are significantly larger than usually computed when due account is taken of imperfect competition among energy using firms. Even with perfect competition among these firms, the loss in GNP is of the same order of magnitude as the revenue raised by these taxes. However, in the presence of imperfect competition the output losses are much higher. There are particularly large transitory losses in the immediate aftermath of energy price increases when firms act as implicitly colluding oligopolists. These losses become considerably smaller if energy taxes are phasedin. We also show that taxes that affect only household consumption of energy have much smaller effects. In particular, for the empirically plausible parameter values we consider, such taxes have no effect on employment or output in the nonenergy sector
12 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 57 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper shows that the output losses from energy taxes are significantly larger than usually computed when due account is taken of imperfect competition among energy using firms. Even with perfect competition among these firms, the loss in GNP is of the same order of magnitude as the revenue raised by these taxes. However, in the presence of imperfect competition the output losses are much higher. There are particularly large transitory losses in the immediate aftermath of energy price increases when firms act as implicitly colluding oligopolists. These losses become considerably smaller if energy taxes are phasedin. We also show that taxes that affect only household consumption of energy have much smaller effects. In particular, for the empirically plausible parameter values we consider, such taxes have no effect on employment or output in the nonenergy sector
Interestrate rules in an estimated sticky price model by
Julio Rotemberg(
Book
)
6 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 52 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper evaluates alternative rules by which the Fed may set interest rates using the small model of the U.S. economy estimated in Rotemberg and Woodford (1997). Our main substantive finding is that low and stable inflation together with stable interest rates can be achieved by letting the funds rate respond positively to inflation while also responding, with a coefficient bigger than one, to the lagged funds rate itself. A rule in which the interest rate is set in this extremely simple way does almost as well as a more complicated rule which is optimal in our setting, in the sense of maximizing expected utility to the representative household. Furthermore, when the funds rate responds to inflation only with a delay, due to delay in the availability of inflation data, performance under the rule is only slightly reduced
6 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 52 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper evaluates alternative rules by which the Fed may set interest rates using the small model of the U.S. economy estimated in Rotemberg and Woodford (1997). Our main substantive finding is that low and stable inflation together with stable interest rates can be achieved by letting the funds rate respond positively to inflation while also responding, with a coefficient bigger than one, to the lagged funds rate itself. A rule in which the interest rate is set in this extremely simple way does almost as well as a more complicated rule which is optimal in our setting, in the sense of maximizing expected utility to the representative household. Furthermore, when the funds rate responds to inflation only with a delay, due to delay in the availability of inflation data, performance under the rule is only slightly reduced
Customer anger at price increases, time variation in the frequency of price changes and monetary policy by
Julio Rotemberg(
Book
)
12 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 51 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
While much evidence suggests tha price rigidity is due to a concern with the reaction of customers, price increases do not seem to be typically associated with drastic reduction in purchases. To explain this apparent inconsistency, this paper develops a model where consumers care about the fairness of prices and react negatively only when they become convinced that prices are unfair. This leads to price rigidity, though the implications of the model are not identical to those of existing models of costly price adjustment. In particular, the frequency of price adjustment ought to depend on economywide variables observed by consumers. As I show, this has implications for the effects of monetary policy. It can, in particular, explain why inflation does not fall immediately after a monetary tightening
12 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 51 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
While much evidence suggests tha price rigidity is due to a concern with the reaction of customers, price increases do not seem to be typically associated with drastic reduction in purchases. To explain this apparent inconsistency, this paper develops a model where consumers care about the fairness of prices and react negatively only when they become convinced that prices are unfair. This leads to price rigidity, though the implications of the model are not identical to those of existing models of costly price adjustment. In particular, the frequency of price adjustment ought to depend on economywide variables observed by consumers. As I show, this has implications for the effects of monetary policy. It can, in particular, explain why inflation does not fall immediately after a monetary tightening
Cyclical markups : theories and evidence by
Julio Rotemberg(
Book
)
11 editions published between 1990 and 2015 in English and held by 43 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
If changes in aggregate demand were an important source of macroeconomic fluctuations, real wages would be countercyclical unless markups of price over marginal cost were themselves countercyclical. We thus examine three theories of markup variation at cyclical frequencies. The first assumes only that the elasticity of demand is a function of the level of output. In the second, firma face a tradeoff between exploiting their existing customers and attracting new customers. Markups then depend also on rates of return and future sales expectations; a high rate of return or expectations of low sales growth lead firms to assign a lower value to future revenues from new customers. Firma thus raise prices and markups. In the third theory, markups are chosen to ensure that no one deviates from an (implicitly) collusive understanding. Increases in rates of return or pessimistic expectations then lead firms to be less concerned with future punishments so that markups fall. Aggregate postwar data from the U.S. are moat consistent with the predictions of the implicit collusion model
11 editions published between 1990 and 2015 in English and held by 43 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
If changes in aggregate demand were an important source of macroeconomic fluctuations, real wages would be countercyclical unless markups of price over marginal cost were themselves countercyclical. We thus examine three theories of markup variation at cyclical frequencies. The first assumes only that the elasticity of demand is a function of the level of output. In the second, firma face a tradeoff between exploiting their existing customers and attracting new customers. Markups then depend also on rates of return and future sales expectations; a high rate of return or expectations of low sales growth lead firms to assign a lower value to future revenues from new customers. Firma thus raise prices and markups. In the third theory, markups are chosen to ensure that no one deviates from an (implicitly) collusive understanding. Increases in rates of return or pessimistic expectations then lead firms to be less concerned with future punishments so that markups fall. Aggregate postwar data from the U.S. are moat consistent with the predictions of the implicit collusion model
Fair pricing by
Julio Rotemberg(
Book
)
9 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 43 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
I suppose that consumers see a firm as fair if they cannot reject the hypothesis that the firm is somewhat benevolent towards them. Consumers that can reject this hypothesis become angry, which is costly to the firm. I show that firms that wish to avoid this anger will keep their prices rigid under some circumstances when prices would vary under more standard assumptions. The desire to appear benevolent can also lead firms to practice both thirddegree and intertemporal price discrimination. Thus, the observation of temporary sales is consistent with my model of fair prices. The model can also explain why prices seem to be more responsive to changes in factor costs than to changes in demand that have the same effect on marginal cost, why increases in inflation seem to affect mostly the frequency of price adjustment without having sizeable effects on the size of price increases and why firms often announce their intent to increase prices in advance of actually doing so
9 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 43 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
I suppose that consumers see a firm as fair if they cannot reject the hypothesis that the firm is somewhat benevolent towards them. Consumers that can reject this hypothesis become angry, which is costly to the firm. I show that firms that wish to avoid this anger will keep their prices rigid under some circumstances when prices would vary under more standard assumptions. The desire to appear benevolent can also lead firms to practice both thirddegree and intertemporal price discrimination. Thus, the observation of temporary sales is consistent with my model of fair prices. The model can also explain why prices seem to be more responsive to changes in factor costs than to changes in demand that have the same effect on marginal cost, why increases in inflation seem to affect mostly the frequency of price adjustment without having sizeable effects on the size of price increases and why firms often announce their intent to increase prices in advance of actually doing so
Cyclical wages in a searchandbargaining model with large firms by
Julio Rotemberg(
Book
)
17 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 39 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper presents a complete general equilibrium model with flexible wages where the degree to which wages and productivity change when cyclical employment changes is roughly consistent with postwar U.S. data. Firms with market power are assumed to bargain simultaneously with many employees, each of whom finds himself matched with a firm only after a process of search. When employment increases as a result of reductions in market power, the marginal product of labor falls. This fall tempers the bargaining power of workers and thus dampens the increase in their real wages. The procyclical movement of wages is dampened further if the posting of vacancies is subject to increasing returns
17 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 39 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper presents a complete general equilibrium model with flexible wages where the degree to which wages and productivity change when cyclical employment changes is roughly consistent with postwar U.S. data. Firms with market power are assumed to bargain simultaneously with many employees, each of whom finds himself matched with a firm only after a process of search. When employment increases as a result of reductions in market power, the marginal product of labor falls. This fall tempers the bargaining power of workers and thus dampens the increase in their real wages. The procyclical movement of wages is dampened further if the posting of vacancies is subject to increasing returns
Target zones with limited reserves by
Paul R Krugman(
Book
)
9 editions published between 1989 and 1990 in English and held by 38 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Abstract: viewed as a special case that emerges only when reserves are sufficiently
9 editions published between 1989 and 1990 in English and held by 38 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Abstract: viewed as a special case that emerges only when reserves are sufficiently
NBER macroeconomics annual 1998 by
Ben Bernanke(
Book
)
8 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 14 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
8 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 14 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
NBER macroeconomics annual 1999 by
Ben Bernanke(
Book
)
3 editions published in 2000 in English and Undetermined and held by 13 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
3 editions published in 2000 in English and Undetermined and held by 13 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
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Alternative Names
Julio Rotemberg American economist
Julio Rotemberg economista estadounidense
Rotemberg, J.
Rotemberg, J. 1953
Rotemberg, J. J. 1953
Rotemberg, J. (Julio)
Rotemberg, Julio J.
Rotemberg, Julio J. 1953
Rotemberg, Julio Jacobo 1953
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