WorldCat Identities

Shapiro, Norman Zalmon 1932-

Works: 58 works in 202 publications in 1 language and 2,240 library holdings
Roles: Author, Contributor
Classifications: AS36, 515.35
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Norman Zalmon Shapiro
The RAND-ABEL programming language : reference manual by Rand Corporation( Book )

8 editions published between 1985 and 1988 in English and held by 146 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This Note describes the RAND-ABEL programming language, which was designed to be suitable for (1) large rule-based systems, (2) war gaming and multiscenario sensitivity analysis, and (3) use by any of several governmental gaming and analysis organizations. It is designed to be readable by analysts and other subject matter specialists without much preparation. The Note documents the RAND-ABEL language as it existed in March 1988. RAND-ABEL can be ported to any computer that has a C compiler. It is very fast in execution time compared with other languages of similar readability. The RAND-ABEL language provides a number of unique capabilities. For example, it supports tables within the source code, for use as decision tables or to govern an iterative execution, and it is a strongly typed language, permitting certain types of errors in complex programs to be uncovered early."--Rand Abstracts
Toward an ethics and etiquette for electronic mail by Norman Zalmon Shapiro( Book )

7 editions published in 1985 in English and held by 133 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report discusses some important general attributes of electronic mail and message systems, and the effects of those attributes on the quality and appropriateness of communication. The authors discuss the "etiquette" of sending and receiving electronic mail, drawing on personal observation of inappropriate or counterproductive uses of these systems. By presenting some initial guidelines, the authors attempt to accelerate the process by which social customs and behavior appropriate to electronic mail become established, and thereby to accelerate the effective use of such systems
Design considerations for computer-based interactive map display systems by Robert H Anderson( Book )

8 editions published between 1976 and 1979 in English and held by 112 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A discussion of the key features of an interactive map display system that affect both the usefulness of the system and the design and architecture of its hardware and software. Recent developments in computer graphics offer the possibility of creating interactive map display systems having many of the advantages of traditional paper maps, but significant additional advantages as well. This report presents observations and guidelines for developers of interactive map systems. The techniques and design principles discussed are applicable to command and control systems ranging from support of a field commander through systems tailored to the needs of the National Command Authority. (Author)
The RAND-ABEL programming language : history, rationale, and design by Norman Zalmon Shapiro( Book )

8 editions published in 1985 in English and Undetermined and held by 93 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report describes the motivations behind the development of the RAND-ABEL programming language and some of its novel features. RAND-ABEL was designed to meet the needs of the RAND Strategy Assessment Center, which is building a large system for automated war gaming in which separate rule-based models represent the behavior of the United States, the USSR, and a third country. To satisfy the requirements for speed and transparency, the language was designed to be: (1) rapidly compilable and executable; (2) self-documenting; (3) understandable by nonprogrammer domain experts after modest instruction; (4) reasonably easy to learn and use, especially for modifying or incrementally extending existing code; (5) portable across different computers; and (6) well suited to development of large and complex rule-based simulations. Certain of its features are unique: the ability to express directly in RAND-ABEL source code such natural structures as decision tables (isomorphic with decision trees) and order tables, which lay out orders to be executed sequentially, and its novel declaration-by-example feature, which is useful for rule-based programs with enumerated variables and many distinct data types. RAND-ABEL has built-in support for a data dictionary for communication between separate modules
Interactive information environments : a plan for enabling interdisciplinary research by Lee R Talbert( Book )

4 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 78 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This Note is an adaptation of a proposal submitted to the National Science Foundation for the development of a research methodology to study the process of implementing interactive information environments in information-intensive organizations. It describes early ideas about the methodology and current plans for the establishment of an Institute for Interactive Information Environments. The objectives of the institute will be to provide the much needed interdisciplinary research on the implementation of computer and communications systems and to make the resulting knowledge widely available. This Note describes the early planning for the institute as well as the current views of its organization and the research methodology it will employ."--Rand abstracts
Assessing the Forest Service's implementation of an agency-wide information system : an exploratory study by Cathleen Stasz( Book )

4 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 77 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This Note describes the implementation of a new agency-wide information system in the United States Forest Service (USFS) and explores the impact of the system on individuals and the organization by analyzing the contributions of three major factors--characteristics of the organization, characteristics of the technology, and characteristics of the implementation process. The study identifies the following effects of the new USFS information system: (1) clerical and computer staffs have been reduced, and information tasks redistributed across jobs; (2) the system has changed the performance of information tasks; (3) electronic mail has improved communication within and across organizational units; and (4) the top-down implementation process has produced varying local systems
Beyond user friendly by Robert H Anderson( Book )

5 editions published in 1989 in English and Undetermined and held by 77 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

What is meant when the interface to a computer software program is called user-friendly? In the Note, we describe six easy to ... dimensions for use-computer interfaces that distinguish among aspects of a program's behavior often confused within the 'user-friendly' rubric. Some of these dimensions are mutually antagonistic, so priorities and choices must be made depending on the user's context. We apply the six dimensions to aid in understanding the love/hate relationship some software interfaces engender. Through categorizations of user interface traits, such as the example proposed here, we hope to aid both the design and procurement of effective user-computer interfaces for software products
Overview of RSAC system software : a briefing by H. Edward Hall( Book )

4 editions published in 1985 in English and held by 76 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This Note gives an overview of the RAND Strategy Assessment Center's (RSAC) software design and summarizes characteristics of the automated war gaming system. It reviews basic concepts and requirements and examines three different aspects of the RSAC software design: (1) System interface, including the complex communication among the RSAC system's various software modules; (2) the communication mechanism which promotes modularity, thus simplifying system integration, evolution, and maintenance; and (3) system control, which treats game phenomena with extensive use of co-routines managed by a coordinating program. The Note discusses interactive gaming with human teams, identifying several classes of interaction and describing techniques that promote it. Finally, it discusses the overall computing milieu characterized by operations on VAX 11-750 or VAX 11-780 computers, the C programming language, UNIX operating system, a computer code requiring about two megabytes of random access memory, and the potential for eventual operations on geographically separated microprocessors."--Rand abstracts
Clarify, an on-line guide for revising technical prose by Mary E Vaiana( Book )

4 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 76 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The MH message handling system : user's manual by Bruce S Borden( Book )

6 editions published between 1976 and 1984 in English and held by 75 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A detailed description of MH, a message handling system built on the UNIX time-sharing system that enables users to compose, send, receive, store, retrieve, forward, and reply to messages. The design of MH is based on a different approach than is usually used for large systems. The command interface to MH is the UNIX 'shell' (the standard UNIX command interpreter), and each message handling activity is a separate command. Each program is driven from and updates a private user environment which contains information permitting MH to be custom tailored. MH stores each message as a separate file and utilizes the tree-structured UNIX file system to organize groups of files into directories, or 'folders.' All UNIX facilities for dealing with files and directories are applicable to messages and folders, obviating the need for code that duplicates the supporting-system facilities. This report will familiarize non-users with the general features of message handling systems, and it provides a complete user's manual for system users. (Author)
A "propagative" approach to sensitivity analysis by Jeff Rothenberg( Book )

5 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 75 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Large-scale simulations often involve huge numbers of parameters, making it prohibitive to run more than a tiny fraction of all potentially relevant cases. Sensitivity analysis attempts to show how sensitive the results of a simulation are to changes in it parameters; this is an important tool for promoting confidence in a simulation and making its results credible. However, the computational cost of traditional approaches to sensitivity analysis prevents its use in many cases. We show that this cost is logically unnecessary and can be largely avoided by propagating and combining sensitivities during a computation, rather than recomputing them. We describe this propagative approach to sensitivity analysis and present the algorithm we have implemented to explore its potential
Prospects and problems for a general modeling methodology by Malcolm Davis( Book )

5 editions published in 1982 in English and held by 73 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The study reported in this Note represents a first step toward alleviating some of the problems inherent in current computer modeling techniques. It suggests a form for a new modeling methodology free of many of the constraints of existing methods. This discussion should be of interest to researchers in modeling and simulation and to those responsible for the planning or sponsoring of such research. It may also be useful to persons who conduct, plan, or fund research in other activities that employ modeling
Stiff differential equations by David Garfinkel( Book )

4 editions published between 1976 and 1978 in English and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A Method for solving certain stiff differential equations by R. J Clasen( Book )

3 editions published between 1976 and 1978 in English and held by 66 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Values of large games, I : a limit theorem by Norman Zalmon Shapiro( Book )

8 editions published between 1960 and 1977 in English and held by 65 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An analysis of what happens in a weighted majority game when a block of votes is broken up and distributed among a large number of players. It is shown that the value of the game to the other players converges to a limit as the size of the largest fragment tends to zero. An explicit expression is given for the limit
Implicit function theorems for optimization problems and for systems of inequalities : a report by J. H Bigelow( Book )

4 editions published between 1974 and 1975 in English and held by 65 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Implicit function formulas for differentiating the solutions of mathematical programming problems satisfying the conditions of the Kuhn-Tucker theorem are motivated and rigorously demonstrated. The special case of a convex objective function with linear constraints is also treated with emphasis on computational details. An example, an application to chemical equilibrium problems, is given. Implicit function formulas for differentiating the unique solution of a system of simultaneous inequalities are also derived
A scaling theorem and algorithms by J. H Bigelow( Book )

4 editions published between 1976 and 1978 in English and held by 65 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Uncrackable data banks by Norman Zalmon Shapiro( Book )

3 editions published between 1973 and 1975 in English and held by 63 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Privacy and security in databank systems : measures of effectiveness, costs, and protector-intruder interactions by Rein Turn( Book )

8 editions published between 1969 and 1972 in English and Undetermined and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The problem of providing cost-effective data security safeguards in personal information databanks is addressed. A structural model of databank systems is formulated, the role of its elements in providing, or threatening, of data privacy and security are discussed, and a suitable classification system is established. Within this framework, a model of the economic interactions of the databank protector and potential intruders is developed. The variables of this model are the value of information to the subjects, protector and intruders; expenditures by the protector and the intruder; and effectiveness of data security as well as intrusion techniques. Various relevant characteristics of these variables and their relationships are discussed. (Author)
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Audience level: 0.61 (from 0.58 for Toward an ... to 0.68 for Privacy an ...)

Alternative Names
Norman Shapiro American logician

Norman Shapiro Amerikaans wiskundige

Shapiro, N. Z.

Shapiro, N. Z. 1932-

Shapiro, N. Z. (Norman Zalmon), 1932-

Shapiro, Norman 1932-

Shapiro, Norman Zalmon

Shapiro, Norman Zalmon 1932-

Zalmon Shapiro, Norman 1932-

English (99)