WorldCat Identities

Schroeder, David J.

Works: 62 works in 190 publications in 1 language and 5,480 library holdings
Genres: Examinations  Longitudinal studies 
Roles: Author
Classifications: RC1054.U5, 387.740426092
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by David J Schroeder
Screening air traffic control specialists for psychopathology using the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 by Raymond E King( )

4 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 261 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper models and documents the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) as a psychological screening tool for conditionally selected Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialists (ATCSs). A sample of 1,014 ATCSs in training voluntarily completed the MMPI-2 as part of a research program. The data is used to estimate the number of future candidates that will be referred for follow-up psychological evaluations, given varying MMPI-2 scale cut-scores.--P. i
A longitudinal study of Meyers-Briggs personality types in air traffic controllers by Carolyn Dollar( )

4 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 239 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Over the past decade, there has been increased interest in determining the role of personality factors in attracting and retaining individuals in various occupations. This study was designed to look at the role of personality types as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The instrument assesses personality on four broad, dichotomous categories (e.g., extroversion vs. introversion) as well as 16 distinct combinations of the four major classifications. The study investigated the relationship between MBTI types and initial success in the Air Traffic Control Academy Screen Program, subsequent field training outcomes, and transition to a supervisory or managerial position about 20 years later. The 300-item MBTI was administered to 5,588 males (87%) and 832 females upon their entry into Academy training between 1982 and 1985. Information maintained at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute and in the Federal Aviation Administration's personnel system allowed the authors to track these individuals from initial selection to their current positions and determine their supervisory status. Comparisons were made of the prevalent MBTI types at each career stage. Results showed that 59% of the entrants successfully completed Academy training. Of those graduates, 83% became Certified Professional Controllers (CPCs), and 17% of the CPCs eventually became supervisors/managers. A higher percentage of entrants fell within the Sensing-Thinking-Judging combinations (whether extroverted or introverted) when compared with normative MBTI data. Those who became supervisors were more Thinking- (versus Feeling- ) oriented. Chi-square statistics revealed several statistically significant differences at each career stage. However, most of those differences were of limited practical significance. Consistent with data from other personality measures, the MBTI results suggest that those attracted to the ATCS profession differ from the normal population on several dimensions
Relationship of air traffic control specialist age to en route operational errors by Dana Broach( )

4 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 232 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Public Law 92-297, passed in 1971, requires that air traffic control specialists (ATCSs) hired after May 16, 1972 retire at age 56. The underlying rationale was that as controllers aged, the cumulative effects of stress, fatigue (from shift work), and age-related cognitive changes created a safety risk (U.S. House of Representatives, 1971). This hypothesis has been considered in two recent studies of en route operational errors (OEs). The Center for Naval Analyses (CNA, 1995) found no relationship between controller age and OEs. Broach (1999) reported that the probability of involvement in an OE increased with age. The purpose of this study was to re-examine the hypothesis that controller age, controlling for experience, was related to OEs. En route OE records (3,054) were matched with non-supervisory ATCS staffing records for the period FY1997-2003. Poisson regression was used to model OE count as a function of the explanatory variables age and experience using the SPSS® version 11.5 General Loglinear (GENLOG) procedure
The air traffic control operational errors severity index : an initial evaluation by Larry L Bailey( )

3 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 231 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Correlates of two experimental tests with performance in the FAA Academy Air Traffic Control Nonradar Screen Program by David J Schroeder( Book )

5 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 231 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study was designed to determine the relationships among experimental tests, the tests currently used to select entrants into the FAA's Air Traffic Control Specialist (ATCS) Academy Nonradar Screening Program, and Academy success. A battery of paper-and pencil tests, including the Directional Headings Test (DHT) which was developed at the Civil Aeromedical Inst, and subsequently modified for this study, and the Dial Reading Test (DRT) was administered to 1,225 students who entered in 1987. Scores on the current selection measures, the Multiplex Controller Aptitude Test (MCAT) and Abstract Reasoning Test, were obtained from the Office of Personnel Management (OPM). The pass, fail, and withdrawal rates for the sample were compared to performance levels on the experimental and OPM tests. Several Academy performance criteria and test results were intercorrelated and stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted to predict overall Academy success and final grades. Results demonstrated that the DHT and DRT could be used to assess the potential of entrants to successfully complete the Academy Screen. Even though the current ATCS applicant group differs from those entering the Academy a decade ago on several dimensions (e.g., education and experience), the multiple correlation of the DHT, and MCAT scores with Academy success remained relatively unchanged. Results suggest there are other test measures which, when combined with the MCAT, would be better predictors than the existing battery of selection tests
Reexamination of color vision standards by Jing Xing( )

2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 230 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report is a continuing effort to examine the FAA's color vision standards, focused on understanding how individuals with color deficiencies use color-coded information. First, literature about the effectiveness of color relative to achromatic visual cues was reviewed and synthesized. Next, several algorithms were developed to assess the effects of color for individuals with color deficiencies. Using a computational algorithm that simulates how color deficient individuals perceive color, the effectiveness of color in task performance was able to be calculated. By considering together the effectiveness of redundant visual cues and the perception of those with color vision deficiencies, a method is provided to assess the potential effects of color deficiencies in using color displays
The Spiral aftereffect : influence of stimulus size and viewing distance on the duration of illusory motion by William Edward Collins( Book )

5 editions published in 1968 in English and held by 216 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The study examined some effects of stimulus size and distance on the persistence of one type of illusory motion, viz., the spiral aftereffect (SAE). Duration of SAE was investigated with stimuli of 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 inches in diameter. The distance between the observers and the rotating spirals was varied to produce visual angles between 1 deg. 12 min. and 18 deg. 56 min. of arc. Data indicate that the duration of illusory motion reaches peak values between approximately 2 deg.-4 deg. of visual angle. (Author)
The spiral aftereffect by Kevin D Mehling( Book )

7 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 212 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Many safety problems encountered in aviation have been attributed to visual illusions. One of the various types of visual illusions, that of apparent motion, includes as an aftereffect the apparent reversed motion of an object after it ceases real movement. The study examined some effects of perceived size, perceived distance, and perceived stimulus speed on the persistence of illusory motion in the spiral aftereffect. Two major conditions were used: Size Constant: a 4-inch spiral was positioned to subtend visual angles of 1/2, 1, 2, 4, and 8 deg with seven rates of retinal speed (10-100 minarcs/sec) used at each angle; Angle Constant: three sizes of spirals were positioned so that each subtended visual angles of 2, 4, and 8 deg with physical speed held constant (75 rpm) in one case, and retinal speed (45 minarcs/sec) held constant in another. Durations of the illusion were significantly affected by low retinal speeds, by small visual angles, and by perceived size per unit of retinal size. The results suggest that complex interactions of physical and perceptual factors can significantly alter the presence and the magnitudes of visual illusions of motion. (Author)
Alcohol and disorientation-related responses by David J Schroeder( Book )

5 editions published between 1971 and 1972 in English and held by 211 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Alcohol and disorientation-related responses by David J Schroeder( Book )

4 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 211 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Effects of secobarbital and d-amphetamine on tracking performance during angular acceleration by David J Schroeder( Book )

6 editions published in 1973 in English and held by 211 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Thirty young men were randomly assigned in equal numbers to one of the following groups: placebo (lactose), secobarbital (100 mg), or d-amphetamine (10 mg). The drugs or placebo were administered in capsules in a double-blind procedure. Tests were scheduled 1, 2, and 4 hours after capsule ingestion; all tests were conducted inside a Stille-Werner rotator and were in total darkness with the exception of the illuminated tracking display. During angular acceleration, secobarbital subjects made significantly more tracking errors and had significantly more vestibular nystagmus than both the control and the d-amphetamine groups for all post-drug sessions. These findings agree with previous studies of alcohol effects: depressant drugs may have little or no deleterious influence on tracking performance in static environments, but may produce marked performance degradation during angular motion. (Modified author abstract)
Alcohol and disorientation-related responses by David J Schroeder( Book )

4 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 210 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Review of the scientific basis for the mandatory separation of an air traffic control specialist at age 56 by Dana Broach( )

1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 194 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Alcohol and disorientation-related responses by Ronald J Hill( Book )

2 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 191 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Personality characteristics of pre/post-strike air traffic control applicants by David J Schroeder( Book )

6 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 162 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The 16 Personality Factors (16PF) test has been routinely administered to personnel applying for Air Traffic Control Specialist (ATCS) positions within the Federal Aviation Administration for more than 3 decades. This study was designed to assess the relationship between personality characteristics of a group of post-strike applicants (1984) with data gathered in the late 1960s to early 1970s (Karson and O'Dell, 1974). Additionally, the comparisons provide a baseline with which to assess characteristics of the new controllers who will start to enter the workforce as the post-strike workforce begins to retire following the year 2000. Outcomes were consistent with previous findings, in revealing that female and male ATCS applicants are brighter than the average individual. When compared with the general population norms, the applicant groups are less anxious, report higher self-discipline, and are more emotionally stable. They are also more self-reliant and assertive. These characteristics appear to be ideally suited for applicants to an occupation that requires quick decision-making and calm, thoughtful responses during emergencies
Personality characteristics of air traffic control specialists as predictors of disability retirement by Carolyn Dollar( )

4 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 159 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Previous research has demonstrated that psychological factors may play a role in disability retirements. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether psychological factors such as personality were related to disability retirements from the air traffic control specialist (ATCS) occupation
Blink rate as a measure of fatigue : a review by J. A Stern( Book )

4 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 158 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Fatigue is one of many factors that can impact the ability of pilots and air traffic controllers (ATCs) to maintain their performance across time. This review of the literature is an outgrowth of a study concerning the relationship between several gaze measures and time-on-task (TOT) performance of subjects on an ATC monitoring task. Blink rate is one of several psychophysiological measures that has been proposed to assess fatigue associated with TOT. The acrimonious debate between Luckiesh and Tinker and Bitterman is evaluated and that portion of Luckiesh's results dealing with increases in blink rate as a function of TOT is well substantiated by the results of most other investigations. Some evidence is presented that variables, other than TOT, also affect blink rate, as well as data suggesting that the nature of the blink (blink closure duration) may be affected by TOT effects. The development of improved methodologies for detecting attentional lapses or the impaired ability of operators to perform on perceptually and cognitively demanding tasks will allow us to conduct improved evaluations of the effectiveness of various fatigue countermeasures. Blink rate, Fatigue, Performance, Vigilance
Effects of age and low doses of alcohol on compensatory tracking during angular acceleration : final report by Howard C Harris( Book )

6 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 157 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Heightened interest in existing FAA regulations regarding alcohol and flying, with emphasis on the potential effects of low blood alcohol levels on performance, indicated a need for research to help define effects of low doses of alcohol on performance. This study was designed to assess the effects of age and three breath alcohol levels (0.04, 0.027, and 0.014%). Performance was assessed while subjects experienced mild angular stimulation. On the day prior to drinking, 48 subjects drawn from three age categories (27-32, 42-47, and 57-62 years) completed four training sessions on a compensatory tracking task (a localizer/glide slope instrument that required compensatory tracking of both a horizontal and a vertical needle) with and without a secondary auditory recognition task, under 1.0 ft L. and 0.1 ft L. illumination conditions. The test day consisted of a pre-drinking session and three experimental sessions conducted at the appropriate times on the descending limb of the alcohol curve, as indicated by breath alcohol measurements. Mean performance scores for the three age groups were compared across the four sessions, (pre-drinking and three levels of alcohol). A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) test yielded a significant interaction and a significant main effect (age and sessions) for the combined needle errors under the 0.1 ft L. illumination level with the secondary task. The resulting simple effects tests revealed age differences at all post-drinking sessions favoring younger over older subjects, and poorer performance for the older age subjects at the 0.04% BrAC level. When testing individual needle errors, MANOVA tests yielded a significant interaction and main effects in the high illumination condition both with and without the secondary task for vertical needle errors
Maintaining vigilance on a simulated ATC monitoring task across repeated sessions : final report( Book )

5 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 149 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Maintaining alertness to information provided visually is an important aspect of air traffic controllers' work. Improper or incomplete scanning and monitoring behavior is often referred to as one of the causal factors associated with operational errors and deviations. This study was undertaken to assess changes in vigilance/attention across 3 separate days as subjects performed on an Air Traffic Control (ATC) simulation task. Information was gathered as part of a larger study of attention and gaze control inefficiencies. Twenty paid subjects on 3 separate days monitored a simulated ATC task for 44 critical events over a 2 hour session. The complex monitoring task included the detection of: (a) altitude malfunctions; (b) aircraft conflict/no conflicts where 2 aircraft were at the same altitude on an airway simultaneously; and (c) triangular targets representing VFR aircraft that appeared either centrally or peripherally on the screen during the course of each session. Changes in performance on the complex monitoring task associated with either time-on-task or repeated sessions were dependent on nature of the task. Performance on the component involving detection and decision-making (conflict/no conflict detection) evidenced a decrement associated with time-on- task on each of the 3 days. Improvement was evident from the first to the third day. Performance on the identification of the altitude malfunctions remained relatively immune to the effects of time-on-task or repeated sessions
Some effects of 8- vs. 10-hour work schedules on the test performance-alertness of air traffic control specialists : final report by David J Schroeder( Book )

4 editions published between 1995 and 1996 in English and held by 149 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A 10-hour, 4-day rotating shift schedule worked by some Air Traffic Control Specialists (ATCSs) was compared to the more traditional 8-hour, 2-2-1 rapidly rotating schedule. Measures of performance and alertness were obtained from a group of 52 ATCSs at an en route ATC center on tasks in the NIOSH fatigue test battery. Additional information on sleep patterns, mood, and somatic complaints was also gathered. Results confirm that tests comprising the NIOSH test battery are sensitive to fatigue and diurnal variations associated with a rotating shift schedule. Test performance of ATCSs on the 10-hour shift did not differ from those on the 8-hour schedule for any of the NIOSH parameters, when comparing the initial 4 days of the work week. Test performance was notably poorer on the mid-shift (night) that occurred on the final (fifth) day of the 2-2-1 8-hour schedule. For both schedules, there was evidence of changes in alertness on some of the NIOSH performance measures within work days and across days of the week. Changes in test performance and mood ratings corresponded to the decline in self-reported sleep time across the work week
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English (85)