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U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences

Works: 1,486 works in 2,435 publications in 1 language and 54,017 library holdings
Genres: Periodicals  Bibliography  Abstracts 
Roles: Other, Funder
Classifications: U408.3, 355.4
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Most widely held works about U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences
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Most widely held works by U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences
Distance learning : the soldier's perspective by Robert A Wisher( Book )

4 editions published between 2002 and 2004 in English and held by 137 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The primary purpose of this report is to examine distance learning (DL) from the perspective of the soldier. A summary of the history of DL describes its applications in the Army and plans for additional uses. Findings from research and comments from surveys are examined to reveal how well soldiers accept DL as an effective teaching method within different types of training courses (e.g., small unit training versus individual professional development). The strengths and weaknesses of DL are discussed, leading to a list of recommendations to help trainers produce effective DL courses."--DTIC
Senior leadership : an annotated bibliography of the military and nonmilitary literature by Melvin J Kimmel( Book )

5 editions published in 1981 in English and held by 116 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A literature search was performed to determine the state-of-the-art of research and theory on senior leadership skills, functions, activities, and other job related characteristics. One hundred thirty-five military and nonmilitary contributions were annotated and organized into three sections: Summary literature, Empirical literature, and Nonempirical literature. Within each section the contents of each reference were classified as to: (1) 'Organization Type' (military, nonmilitary, or military-nonmilitary comparison), (2) Target Population (senior leaders only or level comparison literature), and (3) 'Subject Matter' (focus on senior leader competencies--i.e., personal qualities, skills, abilities, etc.--and/or job-related variables). (Author)
Training lessons learned from peak performance episodes by James L Fobes( Book )

4 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 113 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An examination of episodes of peak performance indicates that three cognitive components enable these episodes: psychological readiness (activating optimal arousal and emotion appropriate for the task), information processing (attending to and interpreting key stimuli), and endurance management (controlling fatigue and pain for sustained performance). There is also evidence suggesting that endorphins underlie these three processes. Accordingly, performance can be enhanced through two strategies; one technique is teaching self-regulation of endorphins levels. The other more immediately available solution is to use contemporary sports psychology training techniques to optimize cognitive processes underlying superior performance. With either strategy, optimal performance will result from an enhanced ability to cope specifically and continuously tailored to meet the conditions and demands of a particular activity
Military leadership job and skill requirements : an annotated bibliography by Melvin J Kimmel( Book )

5 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 112 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A literature search was performed to compile and organize military leadership job and skill requirements references. Eighty-seven references were annotated and organized alphabetically within two sections: (1) 'Job/Skill Requirements References' containing research-based literature, and (2) 'General References' which annotates references that provided an overview of the field. The 'Job/Skills Requirements' section was classified further according to subject matter (job and/or skill requirements) and the grade level of the target population. The 'General References' were categorized according to the nature of the report (methodological contributions, conceptual pieces, and/or review reports) in addition to classification by subject matter
Towards an understanding of Army enlistment motivation patterns by Rebecca M Pliske( Book )

3 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 112 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report summarizes information from the ARI New Recruit Surveys for 1982 and 1983 related to enlistment motivations of new Army recruits. In addition to presenting cross-tabulated responses for survey questions, principal component analyses (PCA) were completed on recruits' responses to questions on their reasons for enlistment. The PCA indicated that recruits enlist for a variety of economic and psychological reasons, such as self improvement, economic advancement, military service, time out, travel, and education money
Cooperative learning : effects of task, reward, and group size on individual achievement by Joseph D Hagman( Book )

3 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 111 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report examines whether cooperative learning can be used to promote individual achievement, and identifies conditions under which a benefit can be expected. Two experiments were conducted at the Quartermaster School, Fort Lee, Virginia. The first experiment compared test performance of 280 trainees after they had completed practical exercises under either cooperative or individual learning. Results revealed that (1) cooperative learning improved individual trainee test scores but only when coupled with a group reward contingency, and (2) significant benefits occurred once group size reached four members. In the second experiment, 80 additional trainees were studied to determine why group reward was necessary for obtaining individual achievement benefits under cooperative learning. Two potential hypotheses were tested: that group reward effects were caused by increased individual trainee motivation to learn resulting from group pressure to perform, or that group reward encouraged groupmates to share information and that this "peer tutoring" facilitated individual learning. Test performance results supported the peer tutoring hypothesis. It was concluded that individual achievement gains can be obtained through cooperative learning in four-member groups without modifying training materials and without increasing the demand for training resources. (Author/JAZ)
The impact of soldier quality on performance in the Army by David K Horne( Book )

4 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 111 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Army has been successful in improving its manpower quality over the last several years. Recruits are scoring higher on the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) and are more likely to have high school diplomas than in any year since the inception of the All-Volunteer Force. Recruiting such personnel is expensive, however, as the Army faces increased competition from the civilian labor market, educational institutions, and the other services for a shrinking youth population. In order to justify its manpower quality requirements, the Army must be able to demonstrate an empirical link between AFQT scores and soldier performance. This study presents evidence on that relationship using data from several sources. The first data from several sources. The first data set contains written and hands-on tests on several weapons systems from the Army's training schools. The second data set utilizes the Skill Qualification Tests administered by the Army. The results demonstrate that a statistically significant and positive relationship exists between AFQT scores and performance measures. These findings are consistent across a wide range of Military Occupational Specialties
Smart technology for training : promise and current status by Wayne D Gray( Book )

5 editions published in 1985 in English and held by 110 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Smart Technology represents the application of cognitive and computer science to Army training. A major component of this technology is intelligent tutors. The authors discuss differences between intelligent and conventional CAI and emphasize the current status of intelligent tutors. Also discussed is ARI's effort to produce Smart Technology for CAI developers. The authors contend that most conventional CAI is undersophisticated and that this problem can be corrected by producing Smart Technology aids for CAI developers. A project for the Army Engineer School, which is applying research on problem-solving to engineer training, is discussed
Implementation monitoring : a role for evaluators in helping new programs succeed by Wayne D Gray( Book )

4 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 110 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper presents a framework for monitoring implementation which defines a process for implementing new programs into organizations. The process requires a team of monitors who examine the adequacy of implementation plans and look at the effect of plan execution upon the organization, individual, and new program. Immediate feedback is provided to adjust the implementation effort to better help the new program succeed. The framework defines questions to ask during the period when implementation is occurring. It shows why these questions are important, how they interrelate, and how they can be used to increase the implementation of innovations as well as to further the study of implementation processes. An optimal use of the framework would be to improve the use of new programs by implementation monitoring. The framework may be used to raise the awareness in organizations, and among evaluators, of the issues involved in implementing new programs. (Dwh)
Evaluation of the HARDMAN (hardware vs. manpower) comparability methodology by W Zimmerman( Book )

4 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 108 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This evaluation is part of an overall effort to improve the Army's Hardware versus Manpower (HARDMAN) methodology for projecting manpower, personnel, and training (MPT) requirements to support new acquisitions. Several different validity tests are employed to evaluate the methodology: (1) a general examination of the basic reasonableness of the technique; (2) a reliability measure of how well other trained individuals, given the same data inputs, can derive the same answers as an already-completed test case; (3) a qualitative accuracy check based on talking to individuals who have already applied the same, or a similar, methodology; and (4) a simple measure of how accurately the methodology must predict the real world. The evaluation reveals that the methodology conforms fairly well with both the Army's MPT users' needs and other accepted manpower modeling techniques. Keywords: Manpower requirement estimation; Human resources in LCSMM; Training requirements estimation; QQPRI; Task list generation; Training costs; Training device requirements; Manpower costs; Logistics analysis
Development and field test of the trial battery for project A( Book )

3 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 107 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This research was performed under Project A, the U.S. Army's large- scale manpower effort to improve selection, classification, and utilization of enlisted personnel. This report deals with development and field test of a battery of experimental tests to complement the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery in predicting soldiers' job performance. Findings from a extensive literature review, expert judgments on validity of measures identified in the review, and administration of a preliminary battery of 'off-the-shelf' measures guided the development of new tests. Three major types were prepared: paper-and-pencil tests of cognitive ability; computer-administered tests of perceptual/psychomotor abilities; and paper-and-pencil inventories measuring temperament, biographical data, and vocational interests. After iterative pilot tests and revisions, the measures were field tested. Analysis indicated the new tests had adequate to excellent psychometric qualities, were relatively unique, and were not unduly affected by practice or by faking in an applicant setting. The resulting Trial Battery contains six cognitive paper-and-pencil tests, 10 computer-administered perceptual/psychomotor tests, and two paper-and-pencil inventories measuring temperament, biodata, and interests. It is being used in the next Project A phase, concurrent validation executed with FY83/84 accessions to evaluate the predictor measures against subsequent job performance
An investigation of alternatives for setting second-to-third tour reenlistment standards by Frances C Grafton( Book )

4 editions published in 1985 in English and held by 107 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper was written in response to a request from the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, Department of the Army. The task was to investigate the appropriateness of using the General Technical (GT) composite of the ASVAB as a reenlistment criterion. Three aptitude measures, all ASVAB composites, were compared to measures of proficiency in job performance: Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT), General Technical (GT) and the specific Aptitude Area (AA) composites. The GT is similar to the AFQT except for exclusion of a speed test. The AA composites are differential aptitude measures and would be expected to provide a better prediction of performance in specific military occupational specialties (MOS). The predictive ability of each of these composites was analyzed and the results compared. Job proficiency was measured by the Skill Qualification Tests (SQT). The univariate and multivariate statistical methods used in this research demonstrated that all aptitude measures were significantly related to performance across MOS and skill levels. This is true even when variables measuring experience and education are included in the analysis. The specific AA composites generally predicted performance better than either AFQT or GT. The results suggest that, when no MOS-specific performance measures are available, AA scores are the preferable reenlistment criteria relative to either AFQT or GT scores. Keywords: Reenlistment criteria; SQT; Qualifications; Manpower quality; MOS; Regressions; Correlations; AFQT; Performance; Tests
A microdata model of delayed entry program (DEP) behavior by Chester E Phillips( Book )

4 editions published in 1985 in English and held by 105 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Manpower and Personnel Policy Research Group of the U.S. Army Research Institute examines personnel issues of particular importance to the Army. Personnel losses from the Delayed Entry Program (DEP) is one such issue. In this paper a model is developed to predict DEP loss. The model will provide an increased understanding of the DEP loss problem along with valuable information concerning identification of individuals most likely to become losses. Two DEP loss models are created: one including high school graduates and nongraduates and a separate model for high school seniors. Maximum likelihood logistic regression (logit) estimates are make from individual data for the first half of FY82 and FY83. Both individual characteristics and policy variables are used in the analysis. These include age, gender, race, AFQT score, education, contracted DEP length, training MOS, region of the country, and enlistment and incentive options. Scenarios are staged to measure the effect of different combinations of relevant variables
A methodology for estimating relative cost-benefits of alternative pretesting procedures by Jack H Hiller( Book )

4 editions published in 1980 in English and held by 105 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The purpose of the research reported here was to develop a methodology for measuring the relative benefits of alternative pretesting procedures so that an optimal procedure may be selected. The research was accomplished as follows: Alternative pretest procedures were formulated. Variables that affect the amount of time saved or lost by employing pretests were identified and defined. Algebraic models which take into account measurement accuracy, pretesting time, and training time were constructed so that the amount of time saved (or lost) by pretesting could be estimated. A limited sample of empirical data was gathered and analyzed by applying these cost-benefit models. It was shown how these cost-benefit models can be employed to identify the best procedure in a specified set of competing procedures. (Author)
A theory-based approach to reading assessment in the Army by Rebecca L Oxford( Book )

4 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 105 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report addresses practical Army problems in reading assessment from a theory base that reflects the most recent and most sound research on reading comprehension. Six major conclusions are drawn from both theory and practice. First, reading is important in military and civilian work life. Second, reading assessment is a highly visible and important issue in the Army. Third, reading theories--especially the new-interactive-inferential theory--can positively influence reading measurement practices in the Army. Fourth, reading tests are not all alike; they differ widely in terms of psychometric characteristics and overall quality as evaluated using theory-based standards. Fifth, high correlations exist between the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) and various reading tests, although caution needs to be exercised in using any part of the ASVB as a reading-test surrogate. Sixth, alternatives to grade equivalent scores are available and should be considered for Army use
The development of a unit morale measure for Army battalions by Melvin J Kimmel( Book )

4 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 105 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A survey measuring organizational morale was constructed from Army unit member satisfaction responses aggregated to the battalion level. The data were gathered at three different points in time from military personnel within 55 CONUS battalions. Significant positive correlations between the satisfaction scores and an independent index of affective orientation supported the widely held, but largely untested assumption that job satisfaction measures are indications of an individual's affective orientation toward his/her unit. Analysis of the instrument's psychometric properties showed it to be a reliable and valid measure of morale as an organizational characteristic as distinct from an individual level variable. Theoretical and applied implications of these findings for the study of organizational morale in military and nonmilitary units are discussed
Development of officer selection battery forms 3 and 4 by M. A Fischl( Book )

4 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 105 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report describes the development, standardization, and validation of two parallel forms of a test to be used for assessing young men and women applying to ROTC. Fairly extensive job analysis work established a content basis for initial test item development: 1,4000 experimental items in 12 job relevant content areas were prepared and administered to 3,306 college juniors who were enrolled in the Advanced ROTC program. Professors of Military Science completed a Cadet Rating Form on each student covering Officer Potential and six scales relating to dimensions of Officer leadership. The sample was stratified to conform to the 1980 national distribution of SAT scores and to consist of 18% black cadets, 5% other nonwhite cadets, and 10% female cadets. Item analyses were performed using both the Officer Potential rating and the sum of the Officer Dimension ratings as criteria. Separate analyses were also performed for gender and ethnic subgroups. Items that would yield the most valid test with the least gender or ethnic impact were selected for the final forms. For standardization, the tests were administered to college sophomores in military science courses, and the samples were gain stratified to conform to the national distribution of SAT scores and the same gender and ethnic proportions. Results indicated that the tests were essentially equivalent, easily readable, and of high reliability. Separate norm tables were prepared for the two forms because of slight differences at the extremes of the distributions
Cognitive processing determinants of item difficulty on the verbal subtests of the armed services vocational aptitude battery by Karen Janice Mitchell( Book )

4 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 104 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The purpose of this research was to identify the cognitive processing operations, stores, and strategies involved in performance on the verbal subtests of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) 8/9/10. The project was conducted in two parts. The research began with a review of recent work in verbal information processing. A model of verbal performance was developed as a conceptual framework for identifying and operationalizing processing components. Theoretical and operational definitions were drafted for cognitive processes thought to underlie performance on the ASVAB Word Knowledge (WK) and Paragraph Comprehension (PC) subtests. The operational definitions were used to rate the WK and PC items on two ASVAB forms. In Part two, item response data were modeled for eight groups Fiscal Year 1981 Army applicants and accessions using Rasch and Linear Logistic Latent Trait (LLLT) methods. The relative effects of the operationalized verbal processes on item difficulty were determined using the LLLT algorithms
Evaluating the benefits and costs of the Enlisted Personnel Allocation System (EPAS) by Edward J Schmitz( Book )

4 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 104 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Army Research Institute, with the assistance of the General Research Corporation, is undertaking a project to modernize and improve the way the Army determines the Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) for which an individual should be trained. This project is called the Development of the Enlisted Personnel Allocation System (EPAS). A key task in the EPAS development is the performance of a benefit-cost analysis of the prototype system that will provides important information on the potential benefits of improving accession management and training seat allocation. To support the benefit-cost analysis, a series of simulations were run which demonstrated the capability of EPAS to operate feasibly under realistic scenarios. Further, EPAS is likely to produce substantial improvements over present soldier allocation procedures
Leadership development : a review of industry best practices by David V Day( Book )

3 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 96 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"A review of leadership development best practices in for-profit organizations was conducted. Practices discussed in this report include formal development programs, 360-degree feedback, executive coaching, job assignments, mentoring, networks, reflection, action learning and outdoor challenges. Additionally, five organizations that are popularly recognized for their leadership development practices are highlighted in this report. Highlights include information regarding the organizational philosophy, values, and mission as well as information on how various leadership development practices are implemented and integrated. Best practice principles are drawn from this research and implications for their use within the U.S. Army are discussed."--DTIC
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Alternative Names

controlled identityU.S. Army Research Laboratory. Human Research and Engineering Directorate

controlled identityUnited States. Army


A.R.I. (Army Research Institute)

Alexandria (Va.) U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences


ARI (Army Research Institute)

Army Research Institute

Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences

Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences

U.S. Army Research Institute

U.S.Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences

United States Army Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences

United States Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences

United States Army U.S.Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences

United States Army US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences

United States Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences

United States U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences

English (117)