WorldCat Identities

United States Office of Aviation Medicine

Works: 1,432 works in 3,549 publications in 1 language and 139,548 library holdings
Genres: Examinations 
Roles: Other, Publisher
Classifications: RC1054.U5,
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by United States
Performance demonstrations of zinc sulfide and strontium aluminate photoluminescent floor proximity escape path marking systems by Garnet A McLean( )

4 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 367 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Transport category aircraft are required by 14 CFR 25.812 to have emergency lighting systems, including floor proximity marking systems. Typical floor proximity marking systems installed on transport category aircraft have been primarily comprised of incandescent luminaries spaced at intervals on the floor, or mounted on the seat assemblies, along the aisle. The requirement for electricity to power these systems has made them vulnerable to a variety of problems, including battery and wiring failures, burned-out light bulbs, and physical disruption caused by vibration, passenger traffic, galley cart strikes, and hull breakage in accidents. Attempts to overcome these problems have led to the proposal that non-electric photoluminescent materials be used in the construction of floor proximity marking systems. To assess the viability of this proposal, performance demonstrations of systems made with such materials were conducted. It was found that strontium aluminate photoluminescent marking systems can be effective in providing the guidance for egress that floor proximity marking systems are intended to achieve; in contrast, zinc sulfide materials were found to be ineffective
Role of metabolites in aviation forensic toxicology : final report by Arvind K Chaturvedi( )

4 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 358 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In aviation accident investigations, specimens from fatal aircraft victims are analyzed for drugs. Their presence indicates exposure to drugs and suggests possible associated medical conditions for which they might have been taken. As drugs are mostly present in therapeutic to subtherapeutic levels in aviation forensic toxicology cases, determination of parent drugs and their metabolites in multi specimens is of significance. Although chemically reactive metabolites are difficult to detect, physiologically active and inactive metabolites can be analyzed. Selective and sensitive techniques are available, but unavailability of metabolite reference standards, endogenous substance interference, and low tissue metabolite levels limit the analyses. However, the majority of primary metabolites can be effectively characterized/quantitated. Demonstrating the presence of drug (e.g., terfenadine, cocaine, THC) metabolites provides a compelling evidence for exposure to the parent drug and facilitates interpretation of results, particularly when the metabolites are active. Such analyses are not as helpful if the metabolites are also available as drugs (e.g., diazepam, temazepam, oxazepam)
Recovery of the FAA air traffic control specialist workforce, 1981-1992( )

3 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 353 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Federal Aviation Administration was confronted in 1981 with the challenge of rebuilding its core, technical, and highly-trained air traffic control specialist (ATCS) workforce following the PATCO strike. From late 1981 through mid-1992, the FAA rebuilt this critical workforce through a large-scale testing, screening and training program. By mid-1992, recovery of the controller workforce was complete, and it was no longer necessary for the FAA to conduct a large-scale hiring program. The six papers presented in this report represent the first major retrospective analysis of the complete data set describing the recovery of the FAA's en route and terminal ATCS workforce following the 1981 controller strike. The first paper describes the personnel processes, focusing on recruitment and hiring programs for the en route and terminal options. The second paper presents a detailed description of the aptitude test battery used to evaluate over 400,000 applicants between 1981 and 1992. The third paper offers a definitive statistical portrait of the FAA Academy Screening programs as predictors of field training outcomes. On-the-job training (OJT) programs in en route and terminal facilities are described in the fourth paper. These four papers, taken together, provide a definitive description of the processes used to recruit, test, screen, and train persons for the ATCS occupation between 1981 and 1992. The fifth paper draws on FAA organizational survey data to describe controller perceptions of the organizational climate in which the workforce recovery occurred. The sixth paper analyzes current controller workforce demographics and technological trends in air traffic control to identify potential areas of future research
Aeromedical aspects of melatonin : an overview by Donald C Sanders( )

3 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 351 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Melatonin, a pineal hormone present in the blood of humans and other species, has a distinct diurnal variation in its biosynthesis and, therefore, in its concentration. This variation has suggested the possibility of a regulatory function in day/night dependent physiological processes, such as sleep, and has led scientists to explore the effects of administered melatonin on the modulation of circadian rhythms. For the self-treatment of sleep disorders and other benefits, melatonin usage has been extolled to the extent that 20 million new consumers were added to the U.S. retail market in 1995. Its principal aeromedical application has been in the experimental treatment of jet lag effects. For aircraft passengers, melatonin administration at destination-bedtime appears to improve sleep quality and to decrease the time required to reestablish normal circadian rhythms. For international aircrews, who travel through multiple time zones without time to adapt to new environments, taking melatonin prior to arriving home may further impair already disturbed circadian rhythms. Its use to adjust to shiftwork changes by air traffic controllers, aircraft maintenance workers, and support personnel is even more controversial. Limited studies suggest that giving this hormone to shift workers should be done only under controlled conditions and that taking it at the wrong time may actually impair job performance. Because of its possible interaction with certain medications and the changes in its concentrations observed in some clinical conditions, the practitioner must exercise caution during the medical certification of airmen. The variations in the concentration of melatonin can be effectively determined by radioimmunoassay, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analytical techniques
Evaluation of head impact kinematics for passengers seated behind interior walls by Van Gowdy( Book )

5 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 251 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Federal Aviation Regulations for crashworthy seats include the Head Injury Criteria (HIC) as part of the pass-fail performance specifications. For passenger seats located behind interior walls to meet this requirement, the dynamics of head impact with the wall must be evaluated from a system approach. Procedures for conducting system tests and analyzing the head motion of an anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD) are described. Analyses of head kinematics from dynamic impact tests with a lap belt restrained ATD are presented
Aeromedical transportation and general aviation by Harry L Gibbons( )

3 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 247 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Aviation-related cardiorespiratory effects of blood donation in female private pilots( Book )

6 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 246 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Ten healthy female pilots, 20-49 years old and weighing more than 110 pounds were tested for tolerances to hypoxia orthostatic stress, and physical work at 1 and 3 d after donating about 450 mL of blood on one occasion, and 6 mL (sham control) on a second separate occasion. Testing included consecutive 30-min seated exposures to each of four oxygen-nitrogen mixtures (equal to air breathing at 6,000, 8,000, 10,000 and 12,400 ft of altitude), 5 min of quiet standing, and seated pedal ergometry graded to produce a heart rate of 140 beats per min. The findings of this study indicated that, if the complete absence of adverse symptoms at ground level, a pilot may return to flying between 1 and 3 d after blood donation with the recommended initial precautions that: cabin altitude be limited to <6,000 during flight; and +Gz stress exceeding the equivalent of short-duration level turns at 30 deg of bank angle be avoided. Until complete restoration of the pilot's in-flight physiological tolerances has occurred, the presence of a copilot and on-board availability of supplemental oxygen are also recommended
Efforts to improve aviation medical examiner performance through continuing medical education and annual performance reports by J. Robert Dille( Book )

6 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 244 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Continuing medical education (CME) serves to maintain or increase the knowledge, interpretive proficiencies, and technical skills that a physician uses in his/her practice of medicine. Resulting improvement in professional performance is frequently difficult to measure, particularly in aerospace medicine, but CME is required for relicensure and/or or medical society membership in 70% of states. The Civil Aeromedical Institute first received American Medical Association approval for Category I CME credit for attendance at FAA seminars in January 1973. We began preparing 21-item annual performance reports for each aviation medical examiner (AME) in 1979 to attempt to isolate the causes of, and to reduce, computer rejection of about one-fourth of all medical certification input because of omissions or procedural errors. There was little improvement in error rate through 1982. We are presently conducting special sessions and open-book tests for new AME's, lecturing to military flight surgeons, and encouraging Regional Flight Surgeons to review reports of physical examinations from new and frequent-error AME's
Tolerance endpoint for evaluating the effects of heat stress in dogs by Gerald D Hanneman( Book )

5 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 240 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Animals occasionally die from heat stress encountered during shipment in the nation's transportation systems. To provide a basis for a series of studies on shipping crates, environmental conditions, etc., as may be encountered in air transport of dogs, we sought to establish a suitable tolerance endpoint for heat/humidity stress in dogs. We monitored the heart rate, respiratory/panting rate, and rectal temperature of 10 male beagle dogs exposed to an air temperature of 95 + or - 1 F (relative humidity 93 + or - 2 percent) for less than 24 hours. Of the first six animals, two died during exposure, two died after being removed from the test chamber, and two survived a 24-hour exposure. Based on observations from these six dogs, a rectal temperature of 108 F was tentatively chosen as the tolerance endpoint for subsequent tests. Of four additional animals tested, two were removed from the environmental chamber when their rectal temperature reached 108 F and the two others finished the test with a rectal temperature not exceeding 102.7 F. No ill effects were noted in any of the surviving six animals during a 7-day post-observation period. These and subsequent findings indicate a rectal temperature of 108 F can be safely tolerated and can serve as a tolerance limit for additional studies of heat and humidity effects on dogs
Time series analyses of integrated terminal weather system effects on system airport efficiency ratings by Elaine M Pfleiderer( )

4 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 237 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The FAA has initiated efforts to improve weather information, forecasting, and dissemination to enhance both safety and operational efficiency. The FAA has also adopted the System Airport Efficiency Rate (SAER) as a metric of facility operating efficiency that accounts for weather by using either actual demand or the facility-set arrival rate as the denominator, reflecting a reduction in the published ability to handle departures or arrivals due to prevailing weather conditions. Interventions aimed at improving performance should be observable in our metrics. However, acceptance and widespread use of the SAER raises the question of whether a weather-adjusted measure is sensitive enough to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at improving performance during inclement weather. One such intervention is the Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS). In the present study, we applied time series analysis to average daily and monthly SAERs at 13 airports. We modeled SAER data at each airport prior to ITWS implementation and then tested whether each ITWS build (i.e., subsequent software updates and added functionality) affected SAER values."--Page i
Preliminary results of an experiment to evaluate transfer of low-cost, simulator-based airplane upset-recovery training( )

3 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 237 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Many air transport training programs provide simulator-based upset-recovery instruction for company pilots. However, no research exists to demonstrate that such training transfers to an airplane in flight. We report on an in-progress FAA-funded research experiment to evaluate upset-recovery training transfer. Participant pilots are trained using low-cost desktop flight simulation, then subjected to serious in-flight upsets in an aerobic airplane. Preliminary results comparing the performance of trained and control group pilots suggest that simulator-based training may improve a pilot's ability to recover an airplane from an upset. We summarize prior research, describe the experiment, and present results of Phase-One testing. We also detail refinements in Phase-Two flight training and testing that we hope will strengthen the results of our research. Although we are conducting flight testing in a general aviation airplane, our research has important implications for heavy aircraft upset recovery trainers."--Page i
Age, alcohol, and simulated altitude : effects on performance and breathalyzer scores by William Edward Collins( Book )

4 editions published in 1988 in English and held by 237 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Trained men in two groups, 30-39 (n=12) and 60-69 (n=13), each performed at the Multiple Task Performance Battery (MTPB) in four separate full-day sessions with and without alcohol (2.2 mL of 100-proof vodka per kg of body weight) at ground level and at a simulated altitude of 12,500 ft (3810 m). Subjects breathed appropriate gas mixtures through oxygen masks at both ground level and altitude. Mean breathalyzer readings peaked near 88 mg % and did not differ between age groups or altitude conditions. Younger subjects performed better than older subjects; performance of both age groups was significantly impaired by alcohol, but these adverse effects were greater for the older subjects. No significant effects on performance were obtained due to altitude or to the interaction of altitude with alcohol. These results and those from several other studies suggest that prevalent views regarding the nature of the combined effects of alcohol and altitude on blood levels and on performance need to be redefined. Keywords: Intoxication, Performance(Human)
Blood alcohol concentrations as affected by combinations of alcoholic beverage dosages and altitudes by E. A Higgins( Book )

5 editions published in 1970 in English and held by 236 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study established blood alcohol levels in man at 12,000 ft. with and without supplemental oxygen and at 20,000 ft. with supplemental oxygen. At 2.50ml. of 100 proof bourbon/kg. body weight, subjects exhibited a lower blood alcohol level at 12,000 ft. without supplemental oxygen than at 20,000 ft. with supplemental oxygen. A difference in blood alcohol levels was not seen with 1.25 ml. of 100 proof bourbon/kg. body weight. It was established that dehydration effects alone could not account for these findings. The effect of breathing a normal oxygen mixture could not be ascertained with the data collected. An increased motility attributable to the lowered barometric pressure could increase the absorption rate of the alcohol at 20,000 ft. with the high dose, thereby contributing to higher blood alcohol levels. (Author)
Sudden in-flight incapacitation in general aviation by Charles F Booze( Book )

4 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 231 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Incapacitation in the general aviation flight environment is a matter of utmost concern to the Federal Aviation Administration since the likelihood of accident is greater due to lack of redundant pilot skills in most instances. The purpose of this study was to appraise the adequacy of medical standards in minimizing the risk of sudden incapacitation. This study considers NTSB data and postcrash medical data received by the Medical Statistical Section of the Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAMI), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, during the time period from 1975 to the present and other related literature to estimate the probability of incapacitation in general aviation. The occurrence of incapacitation for obvious medical reasons is less than would be expected based on general population morbidity/mortality data; however, the need for continued vigilance in certification and education regarding flying with known or suspected medical problems is emphasized. Keywords: Cardiac arrest; Medical emergencies; Loss of consciousness
Patterns of physiological activity accompanying performance on a perceptual-motor task by Richard I Thackray( )

4 editions published in 1969 in English and held by 231 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Air traffic controllers are required to spend considerable periods of time observing radar displays. Yet, information regarding physiological measures which best reflect the attentional process in complex vigilance tasks is generally lacking. As an initial approach to gaining such information, a number of physiological measures obtained during performance of a demanding visual-motor (tracking) task were examined in order to determine which measures best differentiated the performance periods from intertrial rest periods. (Author)
Adaptation to vestibular disorientation by William Edward Collins( Book )

5 editions published in 1968 in English and held by 230 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Correlates of two experimental tests with performance in the FAA Academy Air Traffic Control Nonradar Screen Program by David J Schroeder( Book )

4 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 230 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study was designed to determine the relationships among experimental tests, the tests currently used to select entrants into the FAA's Air Traffic Control Specialist (ATCS) Academy Nonradar Screening Program, and Academy success. A battery of paper-and pencil tests, including the Directional Headings Test (DHT) which was developed at the Civil Aeromedical Inst, and subsequently modified for this study, and the Dial Reading Test (DRT) was administered to 1,225 students who entered in 1987. Scores on the current selection measures, the Multiplex Controller Aptitude Test (MCAT) and Abstract Reasoning Test, were obtained from the Office of Personnel Management (OPM). The pass, fail, and withdrawal rates for the sample were compared to performance levels on the experimental and OPM tests. Several Academy performance criteria and test results were intercorrelated and stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted to predict overall Academy success and final grades. Results demonstrated that the DHT and DRT could be used to assess the potential of entrants to successfully complete the Academy Screen. Even though the current ATCS applicant group differs from those entering the Academy a decade ago on several dimensions (e.g., education and experience), the multiple correlation of the DHT, and MCAT scores with Academy success remained relatively unchanged. Results suggest there are other test measures which, when combined with the MCAT, would be better predictors than the existing battery of selection tests
Characteristics of medically disqualified airline pilots by Shirley J Dark( Book )

6 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 229 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Observations on the airline pilot group probably come as close to a true reflection of incidence of disqualifying disease as is possible to observe. Prescreening by airline companies before employment and the stringent Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requirements for issuance of a first-class medical certificate result in this group being essentially purged of disease prevalence that contributes to higher rates for other groups. Also, because of occupational/economic reasons, these individuals are less likely to voluntarily remove themselves from followup observation for known medical conditions that would preclude FAA medical certification. Conversely, voluntary attrition is a more frequent occurrence among nonoccupationally connected pilots who recognize that they are not medically qualified and, therefore, are never heard from again by the FAA. Age-specific denial rates for airline pilots increase to the highest rate at age interval 55-59. The most significant causes for denial are cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, and the miscellaneous category. The importance of these causes for denial, particularly above age 45, is again recognized. Age- cause-specific findings for the airline pilot group follow epidemiologic expectations, with age being a significant variable associated with increased rates. Of interest in the data on denial be employer is that the larger employers, many of which have their own medical facilities, have uniformly lower denial rates than smaller employers
Complex monitoring performance and the coronary-prone Type A behavior pattern by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 229 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The present study examined the possible relationship of the coronary-prone Type A behavior pattern to performance of a complex monitoring task. The task was designed to functionally simulate the general task characteristics of future, highly automated air traffic control systems in which passive monitoring is expected to be a principal job requirement. Thirty-six male subjects, half classified as Type A and half as Type B, monitored the simulated radar display over a 2-hour session for infrequent critical changes in alphanumeric targets. In addition to performance, physiological changes and subjective reactions were also assessed. Type A individuals were found not to differ from Type B individuals in either task performance or in subjective reaction to the task. Task-related changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and general restlessness failed also to provide any evidence of greater arousal in Type A's than in Type B's. The findings are discussed relative to other studies of Type A behavior and performance and to the specific problem of finding useful predictors of performance in operational monitoring situations. Keywords: Attention; Automation; Monitoring; and Vigilance
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Alternative Names

controlled identityUnited States. Aviation Medical Service

controlled identityUnited States. Federal Aviation Administration

controlled identityUnited States. Office of Aerospace Medicine

Aviation Medical Service

Bureau of Aviation Medicine


Office of Aviation Medicine

Office of Aviation Medicine United States

United States Aviation Medical Service

United States Aviation Medicine, Office of

United States Bureau of Aviation Medicine

United States Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Medical Service

United States Federal Aviation Administration Bureau of Aviation Medicine

United States Federal Aviation Administration Office of Aviation Medicine

United States Office of Aviation Medicine

USA Federal Aviation Administration Office of Aviation Medicine

English (106)