WorldCat Identities

Lorell, Mark A. 1947-

Works: 60 works in 250 publications in 1 language and 10,149 library holdings
Genres: History  Military history  Specifications 
Roles: Author
Classifications: HC110.T4, 338.97306
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Mark A Lorell
The U.S. combat aircraft industry, 1909-2000 : structure, competition, innovation by Mark A Lorell( )

14 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 2,041 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In its FY02 Defense Appropriations Conference Report, Congress expressed concerns about reduced competition resulting in a decline in innovation in the U.S. fixed-wing military aircraft industry. Drawing on primary and secondary sources on the aircraft industry, this report provides a brief survey of industry structure, innovation, and competition in the U.S. fixed-wing combat aircraft industry from its earliest days to the present. It supports a much larger research effort that examines the future of the U.S. military aircraft industrial base in response to the above congressional concerns. The study suggests that it is possible to identify at least five distinct technology eras over the history of fixed-wing, heavier-than-air combat aircraft, each of which began with a period of revolutionary innovation, high rates of technology advancement, and significant improvement in performance. The historical evidence suggests, but does not prove, that an industrial structure that includes numerous prime contractors is conducive to encouraging the onset of periods of higher innovation when demand changes and market conditions are right. Without such an industry structure, new Defense Department initiatives may be necessary to promote high levels of innovation. This is a companion volume to a report on the future viability of the combat aircraft industry: Competition and Innovation in the U.S. Fixed-Wing Military Aircraft Industry (Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, MR-1656-OSD, 2003) by John Birkler, Anthony G. Brower, Jeffrey A. Drezner, Gordon Lee, Mark Lorell, Giles Smith, Fred Timson, William P.G. Trimble, and Obaid Younossi. It should be of interest to members of Congress, congressional staff members, industry executives, and others in the civilian and uniformed defense policy community interested in the future viability of the U.S. military aircraft industrialbase
Going global? : U.S. government policy and the defense aerospace industry by Mark A Lorell( )

14 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 1,911 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since the end of the Cold War, a dramatic decline in overall defense authorizations has led both the U.S. aerospace industry and that of Europe to undergo extensive consolidation -- a trend that has led in turn to a significant growth in cross-border business relationships. Yet while globalization has the potential to increase competition, foster innovation, encourage fair pricing, and promote interoperability among NATO allies, it also poses potential challenges, particularly with regard to the proliferation of advanced U.S.-developed military technologies. Accordingly, this report examines a
Do joint fighter programs save money? by Mark A Lorell( )

9 editions published in 2013 in English and Undetermined and held by 1,198 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In the past 50 years, the U.S. Department of Defense has pursued numerous joint aircraft programs, the largest and most recent of which is the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF). Joint aircraft programs are thought to reduce Life Cycle Cost (LCC) by eliminating duplicate research, development, test, and evaluation efforts and by realizing economies of scale in procurement, operations, and support. But the need to accommodate different service requirements in a single design or common design family can lead to greater program complexity, increased technical risk, and common functionality or increased weight in excess of that needed for some variants, potentially leading to higher overall cost, despite these efficiencies. To help Air Force leaders (and acquisition decisionmakers in general) select an appropriate acquisition strategy for future combat aircraft, this report analyzes the costs and savings of joint aircraft acquisition programs. The project team examined whether historical joint aircraft programs have saved LCC compared with single-service programs. In addition, the project team assessed whether JSF is on track to achieving the joint savings originally anticipated at the beginning of full-scale development. Also examined were the implications of joint fighter programs for the health of the industrial base and for operational and strategic risk
The cutting edge : a half century of fighter aircraft R & D by Mark A Lorell( )

15 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 768 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The proposition that innovation is critical in the cost-effective design and development of successful military aircraft is still subject to some debate. RAND research indicates that innovation is promoted by intense competition among three or more industry competitors. Given the critical policy importance of this issue in the current environment of drastic consolidation of the aerospace defense industry, the authors here examine the history of the major prime contractors in developing jet fighters since World War II. They make use of an extensive RAND database that includes nearly all jet fighters, fighter-attack aircraft, and bombers developed and flown by U.S. industry since 1945, as well as all related prototypes, modifications, upgrades, etc. The report concludes that (1) experience matters, because of the tendency to specialize and thus to develop system-specific expertise; (2) yet the most dramatic innovations and breakthroughs came from secondary or marginal players trying to compete with the industry leaders; and (3) dedicated military R & D conducted or directly funded by the U.S. government has been critical in the development of new higher-performance fighters and bombers
Understanding why a ground combat vehicle that carries nine dismounts is important to the Army by Bruce J Held( )

4 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 521 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Army has examined the lessons of half a dozen significant conflicts, starting with World War II, has conducted numerous studies over the last 65 years, and has found time and again that an ability to conduct dismounted fire and maneuver is the fundamental squad-level tactic. It has also consistently determined that squads should be organized around two fire teams and should contain no fewer than nine soldiers, though a larger number has usually been preferred, to accomplish fire and maneuver doctrine, but also for reasons of squad resilience, lethality, and leader span of control. To support fully enabled mechanized infantry squads, the Army has, for the last fifty years, tried to develop and field survivable, lethal infantry fighting vehicles that are also capable of carrying a full nine to eleven man squad that can dismount to fight on foot. The Army has not been able to do this for a variety of reasons, and its current infantry fighting vehicle, the M2 Bradley, cannot carry enough soldiers to enable squad-level fire and maneuver from a single vehicle. As a result, today's mechanized infantry are more at risk when transitioning from mounted to dismounted operations, and squad-level dismounted fire and maneuver is compromised in some situations. The Ground Combat Vehicle (GCV), if developed as planned, will finally provide the infantry with an IFV that can accommodate a full squad. For this reason, the Army considers theprogram to be one of its most important
Troubled partnership : a history of U.S.-Japan collaboration on the FS-X fighter by Mark A Lorell( Book )

17 editions published between 1995 and 1996 in English and held by 497 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The United States has generally tried to discourage its allies from developing their own major weapons systems, to promote equipment standardization with U.S. forces, and tie allied security policies more firmly to U.S. interests. Japan's FS-X fighter is perhaps the most prominent example of this policy. Japan had originally intended to design and build an indigenous fighter; the Pentagon urged Japan to buy an existing U.S. fighter. After difficult negotiations, the two sides eventually agreed to lightly modify the U.S. F-16 jointly to meet Japan's special needs. But as a result of political controversies over technology transfer and trade, the U.S. side focused increasingly on the economic aspects of the program. Under cover of these controversies, the Japanese have been able to move the FS-X design and technology applications ever farther away from the F-16 toward a much more nearly indigenous creation. In the end, the FS-X program has failed to meet many of the original U.S. expectations, and Japan has reaped an unexpected reward--experience in developing a world-class fighter aircraft. This book summarizes and assesses the program
Competition and innovation in the U.S. fixed-wing military aircraft industry by J. L Birkler( )

4 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 384 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Et RAND studie af amerikansk militær flyindustr, hvor der i 1960erne var 11 primære virksomheder som bød på kontrakter, nu kun er tre tilbage. Denne udvikling er bekymrer det amerikanske Department of Defense. Rand studiet analyserer grundlaget for en fremtidig udvikling af den amerikanske militære flyindustri
The wary warriors : future directions in Japanese security policies by Norman D Levin( Book )

5 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 203 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report assesses how changes in the domestic, regional, and international environments are likely to affect future Japanese security policies and defense cooperation between Japan and the U.S. The expectation that Japan will "inevitably" move toward major rearmament and an independent defense posture appears questionable. The authors conclude that Japan will lack both the will and the capabilities to achieve such a status for at least the rest of the decade. Given recent trends in the former Soviet Union, they conclude that the order of magnitude of Japanese capabilities is appropriate, which suggests that the U.S. should emphasize greater integration, interoperability, and sustainability rather than major quantitative increases in Japan's force structure and military power. In addition, they suggest that both sides would gain from any progress toward achieving two-way technological exchange
Cheaper, faster, better? : commercial approaches to weapons acquisition by Mark A Lorell( Book )

6 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and held by 198 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Civil-military integration (CMI) lies at the core of current DoD efforts to reduce the costs of procuring and maintaining modern weapon systems. Based on an analysis of the commercial aerospace industry and on the experiences of various acquisition reform pilot programs, the authors conclude that a commercial-like acquisition approach could benefit major Air force acquisition programs. The Joint Strike Fighter would be an excellent candidate pilot program for application of acquisition reform measures during engineering and manufacturing development. The authors further recommend that future programs be structured to include greater risk-sharing between contractors and the government. The principal benefits of CMI for the acquisition reform pilot programs have come from the structuring and management of these programs to make them more like complex commercial product markets in which buyers and sellers establish and achieve price and performance targets in a cooperative environment. The real promise of CMI is to help insert the incentives for price discipline and high performance prevalent in the commercial marketplace into military R & D production
An overview of acquisition reform cost savings estimates by Mark A Lorell( Book )

8 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 187 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A number of analyses have recently been conducted in efforts to update technical cost models and cost estimating relationships for fixed-wing combat aircraft, particularly in light of the numerous cost-saving measures that have been initiated over the past decade. This report focuses specifically on acquisition reform (AR), or the institution of changes either in government acquisition processes or in the relationship between the government and Department of Defense (DoD) "primes." Its objective is to study relevant literature and conduct interviews with government and industry officials to determine whether estimates made on the efficacy of AR measures are sufficiently robust to be of predictive value. The literature examined covered three types of AR reform measures: reductions in DoD regulation and oversight compliance; pilot programs seeking to emulate commercial efforts; and multiyear procurements. Interviews were conducted with a wide variety of government officials responsible for acquisition policy and operations as well as available industry personnel. The report concludes that there is insufficient evidence in the current literature to support the development of accurate adjustment factors for use in predictive cost models for military combat aircraft. It also suggests, however, that at least in some categories of AR, "rules of thumb" for potential AR cost savings can be developed that may be of some use in limited circumstances
Bomber R & D since 1945 : the role of experience by Mark A Lorell( Book )

4 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 177 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Anecdotal evidence suggests that experience plays a critical role in the cost-effectiveness design and development of successful military aircraft. Understanding the true situation may be essential to meet Air Force needs despite declining R & D budgets, few new programs starts, and industry contraction. To examine this issue, the authors explore the history of U.S. bomber production since the end of World War II. They conclude that relevant experience does, indeed, matter--firms develop valuable system-specific knowledge in ongoing work, and experience in important new technologies has a distinct advantage. There is far less correlation between commercial and military aircraft than was once thought, so such experience is unlikely to be useful. And since major breakthroughs in technology, design approaches, and concepts have come far more often from government labs than from the commercial sector, the contribution of "dual-use" technology to future military aircraft design and development may be limited
The gray threat : assessing the next-generation European fighters( Book )

5 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 171 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Pros and cons of international weapons procurement collaboration by Mark A Lorell( Book )

5 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 170 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Over the past few years, U.S. policymakers have become increasingly interested in pursuing collaborative arrangements with our allies. Cost appears to be a major incentive: As military technologies become more complex and more expensive, even the U.S. national market is becoming too small to support the costs of developing and producing new weapons systems comfortably. By combining defense procurement with other nations, the U.S. government may be able to reduce the average cost of a given weapons system. In addition, collaboration programs offer the potential for greater operational integration of allied forces and greater political integration through shared training and doctrine. This monograph presents an overview, illustrated by case study evidence, of the pros and cons of international collaborative weapons procurement programs. Making extensive use of 20 years of accumulated RAND research on aerospace procurement, the authors develop a simple conceptual framework that allows them to identify historical lessons relevant to future U.S. policy. From these lessons the authors then draw general conclusions about the efficacy of international collaborative weapons programs and point out a variety of program characteristics that appear to promote better outcomes in collaborative ventures
Reforming Mil-Specs : the Navy experience with military specifications and standards reform by Mark A Lorell( Book )

10 editions published between 2001 and 2004 in English and held by 161 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study helps determine why Navy military specifications and standards reform (MSSR) was not completed within budget or in accordance with a self-imposed schedule. The report defines the status of Navy reforms, looks for reasons why the Navy missed its self-imposed reform completion date, describes primary options for completing the reforms, and identifies steps RAND could take to help the Navy choose among these options. To help them understand the perspectives, interests, and concerns of all who were involved in the reform effort, the authors collected data from and held discussions with various officials in the Department of Defense, Office of the Secretary of Defense, and Defense Logistics Agency. In addition, the authors examined the strategies adopted by the U.S. Air Force and Army, and evaluated why they were able to complete MSSR within their planned budgets and schedules. The authors tentatively conclude that the Navy's problems stemmed from the unique structure of its acquisition bureaucracy, as well as substantive concerns about MSSR. To help the Navy select among options for correcting the problem, four steps should be taken: Identify and collect data and information to explain the Navy's reform experience; explore options for reducing the cost and speeding the process; change the direction of the reforms as originally proposed; and examine how reforms have been accomplished in pilot programs elsewhere
Evolutionary acquisition : implementation challenges for defense space programs by Mark A Lorell( Book )

6 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 147 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This monograph presents findings of a RAND Project AIR FORCE research project that documented the lessons learned by the U.S. Air Force and other Department of Defense (DoD) cost analysis and acquisition community members from the implementation of evolutionary acquisition (EA) strategies for major Air Force defense space acquisition programs. In May 2003, DoD promulgated revised 5000 series acquisition directives and instructions that mandated EA strategies relying on the spiral development process as the preferred approach to satisfying operational needs. These same concepts were later incorporated into a new space acquisition policy document, the National Security Space Acquisition Policy (NSSAP) 03-01 (DoD, 2004). The principal goal of EA strategies is to provide operationally useful capabilities to the warfighter much more quickly than traditional acquisition strategies. Instead of the old approach of single step to full capability, evolutionary acquisition aims at achieving an overall objective end capability through the more rapid fielding of numerous operationally useful threshold capabilities by pursuing less demanding intermediary increments or steps. In theory, the initial spirals or increments provide a basic threshold capability relatively quickly, which is operationally useful to the user. Subsequent spirals or increments build on this to provide more capability, eventually resulting in a system that meets the full objective capability originally envisioned at the beginning of the program
Price-based acquisition : issues and challenges for Defense Department procurement of weapon systems by Mark A Lorell( Book )

7 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 144 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Price-based acquisition (PBA), a major acquisition reform measure being used by the Department of Defense (DoD), is claimed to reduce costs and enhance acquisition efficiency. This study presents findings based on structured interviews and case studies to determine whether the claims are true and what potential benefits PBA may hold for DoD
Casualties, public opinion, and presidential policy during the Vietnam War by Mark A Lorell( Book )

7 editions published between 1984 and 1985 in English and held by 130 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report examines the relationship between U.S. casualties and public support for U.S. military intervention in Korea and Vietnam, and concludes that a strong inverse relationship existed between the two. It also assesses to what extent concern over adverse public reaction to U.S. casualties and the resulting decline in public support influenced presidential decisionmaking with respect to military intervention in Vietnam, overriding purely strategic or military considerations. The research approach consisted primarily of interviews with senior Johnson Administration officials. It concludes that (1) limited wars often cost more and last longer than anticipated, (2) public support inevitably declines with mounting casualties, no matter what interests are at stake, and (3) democracies can't continue fighting limited wars indefinitely with steadily declining public support. It recommends that minimizing U.S. casualties should be a central objective in the formulation of new strategies, force configurations, and weapon systems for limited war contingencies
Airpower in peripheral conflict : the French experience in Africa by Mark A Lorell( Book )

5 editions published in 1989 in English and held by 113 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report reviews French Air Force (FAF) involvement in military operations outside of Europe since the early 1960s and then more closely examines FAF operations in Chad from 1978 through mid 1987. Part of a larger RAND research effort aimed at enhancing the future effectiveness of U.S. Air Force air power in peripheral conflicts, this study assesses (1) the relative effectiveness of air power in French overseas operations; (2) the constraints placed on the use of air power and how they influenced its effectiveness; and (3) the unique aspects of FAF force structure, equipment, organization, doctrine employment concepts, and training designed specifically for peripheral operations. The author concludes that, in response to growing military capabilities of Third World opponents, air power has become an increasingly critical component of French overseas projection forces. However, French experience confirms that air power can make a decisive contribution in peripheral conflicts only when it is combined with aggressive joint land operations. Keywords: Joint military operation; Air land battles. (KT)
The future of allied tactical fighter forces in NATO's Central Region by Mark A Lorell( Book )

3 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 112 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report examines the likely evolution of the tactical fighter/attack force structures, mission priorities, and capabilities of the Allied European tactical fighter forces in NATO's Central Region over the next decade. It focuses on the fighter force structure plans and the procurement and operational priorities of these air forces, identifies potential problem areas and likely shortfalls in Allied fighter procurement plans, and projects the probable evolution of future mission priorities and emphases. The author concludes that the NATO Central Region air forces are moving away from their historical emphasis on attack toward a more balanced division of squadron roles between air defense and offensive missions. Multirole mission flexibility is likely to decline. The overall Allied fighter force in the year 2000 will likely be more capable and balanced than the current force, despite reductions in force posture of as much as 40 percent
Multinational development of large aircraft : the European experience by Mark A Lorell( Book )

10 editions published between 1976 and 1980 in English and held by 109 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since the mid-1970s the United States has advocated U.S.-European weapons procurement cooperation to promote increased NATO equipment rationalization, standardization, and interoperability (RSI). A comprehensive strategy including the collaborative development or codevelopment of weapon systems has been devised to facilitate transatlantic weapons procurement cooperation. This report examines three major European large aircraft codevelopment programs conducted between 1958 and 1974 to determine whether these programs achieved the benefits within Europe that U.S. advocates had hoped for. It also explores the European motivations and objectives for codevelopment; the effects of codevelopment on the rational management of transnational R & D funds and resources; the codevelopment program schedule, cost, and performance outcomes; and the prospects and desirability of U.S. participation in a future European large aircraft codevelopment program. Conclusions suggest that the transatlantic collaborative development of large aircraft would not be an effective strategy for augmenting NATO military capabilities and reducing overall NATO defense costs through increased equipment RSI
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Going global? : U.S. government policy and the defense aerospace industry
Going global? : U.S. government policy and the defense aerospace industryThe cutting edge : a half century of fighter aircraft R & DTroubled partnership : a history of U.S.-Japan collaboration on the FS-X fighterCompetition and innovation in the U.S. fixed-wing military aircraft industryThe wary warriors : future directions in Japanese security policiesCheaper, faster, better? : commercial approaches to weapons acquisitionAn overview of acquisition reform cost savings estimatesBomber R & D since 1945 : the role of experience
Alternative Names
Lorell, M. A.

Lorell, Mark 1947-

Lorell, Mark A.

Lorell, Mark Allen

English (157)