WorldCat Identities

Thackray, Richard I.

Overview
Works: 50 works in 150 publications in 1 language and 5,205 library holdings
Roles: Author
Classifications: RC1054.U5, 629.132304
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Richard I Thackray
Patterns of physiological activity accompanying performance on a perceptual-motor task by Richard I Thackray( )

3 editions published in 1969 in English and held by 228 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Air traffic controllers are required to spend considerable periods of time observing radar displays. Yet, information regarding physiological measures which best reflect the attentional process in complex vigilance tasks is generally lacking. As an initial approach to gaining such information, a number of physiological measures obtained during performance of a demanding visual-motor (tracking) task were examined in order to determine which measures best differentiated the performance periods from intertrial rest periods. (Author)
Complex monitoring performance and the coronary-prone Type A behavior pattern by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 225 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Effects of color vision deficiency on detection of color-highlighted targets in a simulated air traffic control display by Henry W Mertens( Book )

4 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 219 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The effects of cognitive appraisal of stress on heart rate and task performance by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1968 in English and held by 214 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In aviation occupations, performance impairment under stress conditions is particularly undesirable. However, individuals may show differing amounts of impairment under stress, and the reasons for these differences are not clear. The present study explored the extent to which individual differences in previously expressed fear of a specific stress condition related to heart rate change and performance impairment under this stressor. Threat of shock was employed as the stressor since it tends to elicit the fear response characteristic of many types of stress situations. Twenty-four high fear of shock and an equal number of low fear of shock subjects were given 15 training trials on a conventional pursuit rotor. Following training one third of the subjects were informed that during subsequent trials shock would be administered if performance fell below training levels, one third were told that shock would be randomly administered, and the remaining third served as a control. No shocks were actually administered. High fear of shock subjects revealed significantly greater heart rate acceleration and performance impairment, but only under the condition in which the subjects were told that receipt of shock would be contingent on prior performance level. (Author)
Consistency of performance change and autonomic response as a function of expressed attitude toward a specific stress situation by David W Pearson( Book )

4 editions published in 1969 in English and held by 212 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Aviation occupations often require the performance of tasks under stressful conditions. Attempts to relate differences among individuals in performance under stress to personality variables have generally not been successful. Based upon responses to a fear of shock item in an attitude questionnaire describing numerous stressful situations, subjects were classified as high fear of shock or low fear of shock types. Results indicate significant differences between groups in both sets of measures and support the hypothesis that attitude questionnaires may be used to predict performance and bodily responses to specific stress situations. (Author)
Effects of conflicting auditory stimuli on color-word interference and arousal by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 212 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Although air traffic controllers are often required to perform in the presence of distracting stimuli, no adequate measures of distraction susceptibility exist. In the study, 50 male subjects were tested to determine whether the interference effect produced by the Stroop color-word test (a potential measure of distraction susceptibility) might be enhanced through the use of simultaneously-presented, conflicting auditory stimuli. When instructed to respond only to the hue of visually-presented color-words printed in incongruent inks, neither task-related (conflicting color names) nor task-unrelated (random numbers) auditory stimuli resulted in any increase in the Stroop interference effect, and there were no indications of an increase in autonomic indices of arousal. A subsidiary aspect of the study revealed the Stroop interference effect did not occur when the irrelevant stimuli were shifted from the visual to the auditory modality. It was concluded that the use of simultaneous auditory stimuli, which are similar but irrelevant to the visual stimuli employed, contribute nothing additional to the basic Stroop test in terms of either task interference or level of arousal. (Author)
A comparison of the startle effects resulting from exposure to two levels of simulated sonic booms by Richard I Thackray( Book )

5 editions published in 1973 in English and held by 211 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Subjects were exposed indoors to simulated sonic booms having outside overpressures of 50 and 150 N/sq m. Rise times were held constant at 5.5 msecs. In addition to the outside measurements, inside measures of dBlin and dBA were also obtained. Subjects attempted to hold a hand-steadiness device on target during boom exposure and amplitude of the arm-hand startle response was determined. Recordings were also obtained of the skin conductance and heart-rate responses as well as the eye-blink reflex. Although the 50 N/sq m boom produced slight arm-hand startle responses in a small percentage of subjects, the frequency of these responses was significantly greater to the higher boom level. Tentative conclusions advanced that sonic booms experienced indoors may cause slight arm-hand startle responses which could have adverse effects on occupational tasks in which arm-hand steadiness is the principal skill required, but that it seems unlikely these responses would significantly impair performance on less sensitive psychomotor tasks. (Modified author abstract)
Sonic boom startle effects : report of a field study by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1973 in English and held by 211 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The study reports the results of a sonic boom field study conducted in Sweden during October 1972. Ten female subjects were tested indoors on each of six days. Two age groups were studied: 20-35 and 50-65 years. Fighter aircraft flying at various heights over the test site produced booms with outdoor overpressures ranging from 60-640 N/sq.m. The number of booms extended from 5 to 13 per day. Subjects performed indoors on an arm-hand steadiness task. The results indicated that outdoor overpressures ranging from 70-120 N/sq.m. (26-35 N/sq.m. indoors) produced reflexive arm-hand movements in about 10 per cent of the subjects. Booms of 300 N/sq.m. (67 N/sq.m. indoors) and greater produced responses in about 75 per cent of the subjects. Between these extremes of overpressure there was the suggestion of a critical overpressure range lying between 150-180 N/sq.m. (40-46 N/sq.m. indoors) in which an abrupt increase in startle response occurred. (Modified author abstract)
Personality and physiological correlates of performance decrement on a monotonous task requiring sustained attention by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1973 in English and held by 210 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The reductions in task load resulting from the increasing automation of air traffic control may actually increase the requirement for controllers to maintain high levels of sustained attention in order to detect infrequent system malfunctions. A previous study indicated that individuals scoring high on a distractibility scale found it difficult to maintain sustained attention on a monotonous, but perceptually demanding, task. The present study used the same serial reaction task to study other possible personality, as well as physiological, correlates of individual differences in performance decrement under low task-load conditions. (Modified author abstract)
Behavioral, autonomic, and subjective reactions to low- and moderate-level simulated sonic booms : a report of two experiments and a general evaluation of sonic boom startle effects by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1974 in English and held by 209 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The effects of simulated sonic booms on tracking performance and autonomic response by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 209 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Subjects were exposed to four simulated 'indoor' sonic booms over an approximate thirty-minute period. The overpressure levels were 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 psf (as measured 'outdoors') with durations of 295 milliseconds. Subjects performed a two-dimensional compensatory tracking task during the exposure period and continuous recordings were obtained of heart rate and skin conductance. No evidence of performance impairment was found for any of the overpressure levels. Rather, performance improved significantly following boom stimulation along with heart-rate deceleration and skin conductance increase. The obtained pattern suggests that the simulated booms may have elicited more of an orienting or alerting response than a startle reflex. The results are discussed in terms of the possible importance of rise time as a determinant of the physiological and performance effects which may be produced by sonic booms. Since faster rise times of the simulated booms might have increased loudness sufficiently to change these results considerably, care should be taken to avoid drawing unwarranted conclusions, relative to general sonic boom effects, on the basis of these findings alone. (Author)
Recovery of motor performance following startle by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1969 in English and held by 208 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Sudden, high-intensity sounds, such as those produced by sonic booms, can be quite startling. Although many studies have investigated physiological response to startle, much less is known concerning the effects of startle on performance. The present study was designed to provide further information concerning the extent to which startle disrupts performance, the rate of recovery, and characteristics of subjects (Ss) who differ in susceptibility to startle. Thirty Ss were trained on both reaction time and tracking tasks. Continuous recordings were taken of heart rate and skin conductance. During a subsequent period of continuous tracking, 'startle' stimuli (115 db random noise) were unexpectedly presented. Results revealed the recovery of tracking performance following startle to be quite rapid; performance returned to pre-stimulus levels within 15 seconds following stimulation. Contrary to several previous studies, reaction times to the startle stimuli decreased relative to nonstartle reaction times. Ss with the greatest increase in tracking error following startle were least proficient prior to startle. There was also an indication that these Ss reacted more strongly to startle, both in terms of subjective response and heart rate acceleration, than those Ss whose tracking was least impaired by startle. An apparent covariation between recovery curves for heart rate and tracking error was found following startle. (Author)
The color-word interference test and its relation to performance impairment under auditory distraction by Richard I Thackray( Book )

5 editions published in 1972 in English and held by 208 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The ability to resist distraction is an important requirement for air traffic controllers. The study examined the relationship between performance on the Stroop color-word interference test (a suggested measure of distraction susceptibility) and impairment under auditory distraction on a task requiring the subject to generate random sequences of letters. Fifty male college students served as Ss. Although there was a significant decrease in "randomness" as a result of auditory distraction, the correlation between change in randomness and amount of color-word interference was nonsignificant. These findings, along with those of several other studies, suggest that the Stroop test may measure a rather restricted type of perceptual interference essentially unrelated to a possibly more general ability to maintain concentration in the presence of competing (distracting), stimuli. (Author)
Self-estimates of distractibility as related to performance decrement on a task requiring sustained attention by Richard I Thackray( Book )

5 editions published in 1972 in English and held by 207 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Increasing automation of air traffic control tasks may have the undesirable side effect of increased monotony as a result of the anticipated reduction in task demands. 50 subjects performed a monotonous, but perceptually demanding task, for approximately 30 minutes without rest. It was found that high-distractibility subjects (as determined from a questionnaire administered prior to the experiment) showed increasing lapses of attention during performance, while low-distractibility subjects failed to show any evidence of a decline in attention. Significant changes were obtained for respiration, respiration-period variability, heart-rate variability, and skin conductance during the task period, but the magnitude of these changes did not differ among the two distractibility groups. (Author)
Effects of monitoring under high and low taskload on detection of flashing and colored radar targets by Richard I Thackray( Book )

3 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 146 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Performance recovery following startle : a laboratory approach to the study of behavioral response to sudden aircraft emergencies by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1988 in English and Undetermined and held by 143 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper deals with the use of response/recovery rate to auditory startle as a laboratory technique for simulating some of the principal aspects of the initial shock phase of sudden emergency situations. It is submitted that auditory startle, with its unexpectedness, pronounced autonomic reaction, fear-like subjective experience, and frequent behavioral disruption, approximates the response pattern to be expected in the initial shock phase of sudden traumatic emergencies, and that by studying the time course of performance recovery following startle, as well as individual differences in response/recovery rate, we may gain a better understanding of some of the variables related to extreme reactions displayed by individuals in real-life emergency situations. Research studies conducted in our laboratory and in others on performance impairment/recovery following startle are reviewed. These studies include those dealing with initial reaction time to the startle stimulus itself, disruption and recovery rate of perceptual-motor (tracking) performance following startle, and the time-course of performance recovery in information processing tasks after exposure to startle. Data are also presented showing a relationship of several individual difference variables to performance response/recovery following startle. These variables include autonomic response to the startle stimulus and level of task proficiency prior to startle. Keywords: Accidents; Emergency behavior; Response time; Startle; Unexpectedness. (sdw)
A comparison of detection efficiency on an air traffic control monitoring task with and without computer aiding by Richard I Thackray( Book )

2 editions published in 1989 in English and held by 131 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Performance of 40- to 50-year-old subjects on a radar monitoring task : the effects of wearing bifocal glasses and interpolated rest periods on target detection time by Richard I Thackray( Book )

5 editions published in 1982 in English and held by 130 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The present study examines the effects of wearing bifocal glasses and interpolated rest periods on the performance of 40- to 50-year-old subjects on a radar monitoring task. The visual display was designed to resemble an air traffic control radar display containing computer-generated alphanumeric symbols. Forty men and women were divided into four equal-sized groups, with each group consisting of one of the four possible combinations of bifocal/no-bifocal and rest/no-rest conditions. All subjects were tested over a 2-hour session. Rest periods (a 5-minute break every 30 minutes) significantly reduced the performance decrement of 40- to 50-year-old subjects, bringing performance to a level approximating that of 18- to 29-year-old subjects without rest periods. The wearing of bifocal glasses did not contribute to visual strain or somatic discomfort
An evaluation of the effects of high visual taskload on the separate behaviors involved in complex monitoring performance by Richard I Thackray( Book )

3 editions published in 1988 in English and held by 129 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The effect of visual taskload on critical flicker frequency (CFF) change during performance of a complex monitoring task by Richard I Thackray( Book )

7 editions published in 1985 in English and held by 126 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The present study examined the effect of differing levels of visual taskload on critical flicker frequency (CFF) change during performance of a complex monitoring task. The task employed was designed to functionally simulate the general task characteristics of future, highly automated air traffic control systems in which passive monitoring is likely to be a principal job requirement. Forty subjects, divided into two equal-size groups, monitored displays containing either 8 or 16 alphanumeric targets. Nine critical events were randomly presented during each half-hour of the single 2-h session to which each subject was exposed. CFF thresholds were obtained prior to and following the sessions. Subjects monitored for the occurrence of two types of critical events. The first type consisted of a readily detectable change in an alphanumeric data block; the second kind of event was the occurrence of two aircraft (alphanumeric targets) at the same altitude on the same flight path. The results revealed that the more readily detectable critical events showed no evidence of performance decrement at either level of visual taskload. For the more difficult task of detecting critical altitude events, both CFF and performance showed evidences of fatigue that were confined entirely to the higher taskload condition. The findings are discussed with reference to fatigue and monitoring loads in highly automated air traffic control system concepts
 
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English (81)