WorldCat Identities

Touchstone, R. Mark

Overview
Works: 30 works in 107 publications in 1 language and 3,798 library holdings
Classifications: RC1054.U5, 629.132304
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by R. Mark Touchstone
Complex monitoring performance and the coronary-prone Type A behavior pattern by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 225 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Effects of color vision deficiency on detection of color-highlighted targets in a simulated air traffic control display by Henry W Mertens( Book )

4 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 219 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Sonic boom startle effects : report of a field study by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1973 in English and held by 211 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The study reports the results of a sonic boom field study conducted in Sweden during October 1972. Ten female subjects were tested indoors on each of six days. Two age groups were studied: 20-35 and 50-65 years. Fighter aircraft flying at various heights over the test site produced booms with outdoor overpressures ranging from 60-640 N/sq.m. The number of booms extended from 5 to 13 per day. Subjects performed indoors on an arm-hand steadiness task. The results indicated that outdoor overpressures ranging from 70-120 N/sq.m. (26-35 N/sq.m. indoors) produced reflexive arm-hand movements in about 10 per cent of the subjects. Booms of 300 N/sq.m. (67 N/sq.m. indoors) and greater produced responses in about 75 per cent of the subjects. Between these extremes of overpressure there was the suggestion of a critical overpressure range lying between 150-180 N/sq.m. (40-46 N/sq.m. indoors) in which an abrupt increase in startle response occurred. (Modified author abstract)
A comparison of the startle effects resulting from exposure to two levels of simulated sonic booms by Richard I Thackray( Book )

5 editions published in 1973 in English and held by 211 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Subjects were exposed indoors to simulated sonic booms having outside overpressures of 50 and 150 N/sq m. Rise times were held constant at 5.5 msecs. In addition to the outside measurements, inside measures of dBlin and dBA were also obtained. Subjects attempted to hold a hand-steadiness device on target during boom exposure and amplitude of the arm-hand startle response was determined. Recordings were also obtained of the skin conductance and heart-rate responses as well as the eye-blink reflex. Although the 50 N/sq m boom produced slight arm-hand startle responses in a small percentage of subjects, the frequency of these responses was significantly greater to the higher boom level. Tentative conclusions advanced that sonic booms experienced indoors may cause slight arm-hand startle responses which could have adverse effects on occupational tasks in which arm-hand steadiness is the principal skill required, but that it seems unlikely these responses would significantly impair performance on less sensitive psychomotor tasks. (Modified author abstract)
The effects of simulated sonic booms on tracking performance and autonomic response by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 209 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Subjects were exposed to four simulated 'indoor' sonic booms over an approximate thirty-minute period. The overpressure levels were 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 psf (as measured 'outdoors') with durations of 295 milliseconds. Subjects performed a two-dimensional compensatory tracking task during the exposure period and continuous recordings were obtained of heart rate and skin conductance. No evidence of performance impairment was found for any of the overpressure levels. Rather, performance improved significantly following boom stimulation along with heart-rate deceleration and skin conductance increase. The obtained pattern suggests that the simulated booms may have elicited more of an orienting or alerting response than a startle reflex. The results are discussed in terms of the possible importance of rise time as a determinant of the physiological and performance effects which may be produced by sonic booms. Since faster rise times of the simulated booms might have increased loudness sufficiently to change these results considerably, care should be taken to avoid drawing unwarranted conclusions, relative to general sonic boom effects, on the basis of these findings alone. (Author)
Behavioral, autonomic, and subjective reactions to low- and moderate-level simulated sonic booms : a report of two experiments and a general evaluation of sonic boom startle effects by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1974 in English and held by 209 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Recovery of motor performance following startle by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1969 in English and held by 208 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Sudden, high-intensity sounds, such as those produced by sonic booms, can be quite startling. Although many studies have investigated physiological response to startle, much less is known concerning the effects of startle on performance. The present study was designed to provide further information concerning the extent to which startle disrupts performance, the rate of recovery, and characteristics of subjects (Ss) who differ in susceptibility to startle. Thirty Ss were trained on both reaction time and tracking tasks. Continuous recordings were taken of heart rate and skin conductance. During a subsequent period of continuous tracking, 'startle' stimuli (115 db random noise) were unexpectedly presented. Results revealed the recovery of tracking performance following startle to be quite rapid; performance returned to pre-stimulus levels within 15 seconds following stimulation. Contrary to several previous studies, reaction times to the startle stimuli decreased relative to nonstartle reaction times. Ss with the greatest increase in tracking error following startle were least proficient prior to startle. There was also an indication that these Ss reacted more strongly to startle, both in terms of subjective response and heart rate acceleration, than those Ss whose tracking was least impaired by startle. An apparent covariation between recovery curves for heart rate and tracking error was found following startle. (Author)
The color-word interference test and its relation to performance impairment under auditory distraction by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1972 in English and held by 207 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The ability to resist distraction is an important requirement for air traffic controllers. The study examined the relationship between performance on the Stroop color-word interference test (a suggested measure of distraction susceptibility) and impairment under auditory distraction on a task requiring the subject to generate random sequences of letters. Fifty male college students served as Ss. Although there was a significant decrease in "randomness" as a result of auditory distraction, the correlation between change in randomness and amount of color-word interference was nonsignificant. These findings, along with those of several other studies, suggest that the Stroop test may measure a rather restricted type of perceptual interference essentially unrelated to a possibly more general ability to maintain concentration in the presence of competing (distracting), stimuli. (Author)
Self-estimates of distractibility as related to performance decrement on a task requiring sustained attention by Richard I Thackray( Book )

5 editions published in 1972 in English and held by 207 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Increasing automation of air traffic control tasks may have the undesirable side effect of increased monotony as a result of the anticipated reduction in task demands. 50 subjects performed a monotonous, but perceptually demanding task, for approximately 30 minutes without rest. It was found that high-distractibility subjects (as determined from a questionnaire administered prior to the experiment) showed increasing lapses of attention during performance, while low-distractibility subjects failed to show any evidence of a decline in attention. Significant changes were obtained for respiration, respiration-period variability, heart-rate variability, and skin conductance during the task period, but the magnitude of these changes did not differ among the two distractibility groups. (Author)
Personality and physiological correlates of performance decrement on a monotonous task requiring sustained attention by Richard I Thackray( Book )

3 editions published in 1973 in English and held by 195 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The reductions in task load resulting from the increasing automation of air traffic control may actually increase the requirement for controllers to maintain high levels of sustained attention in order to detect infrequent system malfunctions. A previous study indicated that individuals scoring high on a distractibility scale found it difficult to maintain sustained attention on a monotonous, but perceptually demanding, task. The present study used the same serial reaction task to study other possible personality, as well as physiological, correlates of individual differences in performance decrement under low task-load conditions. (Modified author abstract)
Effects of monitoring under high and low taskload on detection of flashing and colored radar targets by Richard I Thackray( Book )

3 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 146 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A comparison of detection efficiency on an air traffic control monitoring task with and without computer aiding by Richard I Thackray( Book )

2 editions published in 1989 in English and held by 131 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Performance of 40- to 50-year-old subjects on a radar monitoring task : the effects of wearing bifocal glasses and interpolated rest periods on target detection time by Richard I Thackray( Book )

5 editions published in 1982 in English and held by 130 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The present study examines the effects of wearing bifocal glasses and interpolated rest periods on the performance of 40- to 50-year-old subjects on a radar monitoring task. The visual display was designed to resemble an air traffic control radar display containing computer-generated alphanumeric symbols. Forty men and women were divided into four equal-sized groups, with each group consisting of one of the four possible combinations of bifocal/no-bifocal and rest/no-rest conditions. All subjects were tested over a 2-hour session. Rest periods (a 5-minute break every 30 minutes) significantly reduced the performance decrement of 40- to 50-year-old subjects, bringing performance to a level approximating that of 18- to 29-year-old subjects without rest periods. The wearing of bifocal glasses did not contribute to visual strain or somatic discomfort
An evaluation of the effects of high visual taskload on the separate behaviors involved in complex monitoring performance by Richard I Thackray( Book )

3 editions published in 1988 in English and held by 129 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The effect of visual taskload on critical flicker frequency (CFF) change during performance of a complex monitoring task by Richard I Thackray( Book )

7 editions published in 1985 in English and held by 126 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The present study examined the effect of differing levels of visual taskload on critical flicker frequency (CFF) change during performance of a complex monitoring task. The task employed was designed to functionally simulate the general task characteristics of future, highly automated air traffic control systems in which passive monitoring is likely to be a principal job requirement. Forty subjects, divided into two equal-size groups, monitored displays containing either 8 or 16 alphanumeric targets. Nine critical events were randomly presented during each half-hour of the single 2-h session to which each subject was exposed. CFF thresholds were obtained prior to and following the sessions. Subjects monitored for the occurrence of two types of critical events. The first type consisted of a readily detectable change in an alphanumeric data block; the second kind of event was the occurrence of two aircraft (alphanumeric targets) at the same altitude on the same flight path. The results revealed that the more readily detectable critical events showed no evidence of performance decrement at either level of visual taskload. For the more difficult task of detecting critical altitude events, both CFF and performance showed evidences of fatigue that were confined entirely to the higher taskload condition. The findings are discussed with reference to fatigue and monitoring loads in highly automated air traffic control system concepts
A comparison of the vigilance performance of men and women using a simulated radar task by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1978 in English and held by 123 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The present study examined the question of possible sex differences in the ability to sustain attention to a complex monitoring task requiring only a detection response to critical stimulus changes. The visual display was designed to approximate a futuristic, highly automated air traffic control radar display containing computer-generated alphanumeric symbols. Twenty-six men and an equal number of women were each tested over a 2-hour session. Sixteen targets appeared on the screen at all times, with 10 signals (a designated change in the alphanumerics) randomly presented during each half hour of the test session. Detection latency to the signals increased significantly during the session, but there was no evidence of any significant difference between the sexes in the magnitude or pattern of this increase. The results are discussed in terms of a general decline in alertness that was apparently equal for both sexes. (Author)
Visual search performance during simulated radar observation with and without a sweepline by Richard I Thackray( Book )

6 editions published in 1979 in English and held by 121 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A study was conducted to determine whether or not the presence or absence of a radar sweepline influences attentional processes and, hence, the speed with which critical stimuli can be detected. The visual display was designed to approximate an advanced, highly automated air traffic control radar display containing computer-generated alphanumeric symbols. Twenty-eight men and women, paid volunteers with no previous air traffic controller experience, were tested over a 2-hour session with half of the subjects assigned to the sweep condition and half to the no-sweep condition. Sixteen targets appeared on the screen at all times, with 10 signals (a designed change in the alphanumerics) randomly presented during each 1/2-hour of the test session. Mean detection latencies, long detection times, and missed signals all increased significantly over the task session. Although the no-sweep appeared to be generally superior to the sweep condition in all measures of detection efficiency, none of the differences was significant. Concomitantly recorded measures of saccadic eye movements revealed a pattern of change in mean fixation duration which paralleled the patterns of change in performance during the task session. However, as with performance, mean fixation durations for the sweep and no-sweep conditions did not differ, nor were individual differences in scanning activity related to performance. Possible reasons for the lack of relationship between scanning activity and performance are discussed. (Author)
An exploratory investigation of various assessment instruments as correlates of complex visual monitoring performance by Richard I Thackray( Book )

4 editions published in 1980 in English and held by 119 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The present study examined a variety of possible predictors of complex monitoring performance. The criterion task was designed to resemble that of a highly automated air traffic control radar system containing computer-generated alphanumeric displays. Forty-five men and women were administered a battery of tests and task prior to performing the criterion task. Extreme groups, separated on the basis of their performance decrement scores, differed significantly on 6 of the 28 predictor variables. In general, the significant relationships obtained were in accordance with expectations. All correlations were low which agrees with the findings of previous studies of predictors of performance on simple vigilance tasks. Since the criterion task simulated the task requirements of advanced, highly automated air traffic control systems still in the planning stage, the utility of any of the significant predictors in predicting performance of controllers on contemporary systems would require further research using actual performance of present-day controllers on such systems as the criterion. (Author)
Age-related differences in complex monitoring performance by Richard I Thackray( Book )

5 editions published in 1981 in English and held by 119 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The present study examined the effect of age on the ability to sustain attention to a complex monitoring task. The visual display was designed to resemble an air traffic control radar display containing alphanumeric symbols. Subjects in age groups 18-29, 40-50, and 60-70 years were tested over a 2-hour session. Sixteen symbols appeared on the screen at all times, with 10 critical stimuli (a designated change in the alphanumerics) occurring during each half-hour. Performance decrement was significantly related to age, with performance declining earlier in the session in the oldest group of subjects. Recordings of eye movement activity, skin conductance level, and subjective assessments of fatigue, boredom, monotony, and attentiveness generally failed to reveal any clear reasons for the greater performance decrement of older subjects. Possible directions for further research are discussed
Rate of initial recovery and subsequent radar monitoring performance following a simulated emergency involving startle by Richard I Thackray( Book )

5 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 116 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The present study employed auditory startle to simulate the principal components (unexpectedness, fear, and physiological arousal) that are common to many types of sudden emergencies and compared performance recovery following startle with recovery following a nonstartling stimulus. The subject's primary task was to monitor a simulated air traffic control radar display. Performance recovery following the emergency (a radar failure signaled by either a loud or low level noise) was assessed in terms of response time and error rate on a secondary information processing (serial reaction) task and also in terms of subsequent performance on the radar monitoring task. Although the high intensity noise was clearly startling, while subjects exposed to the lower intensity noise showed only a surprise reaction, subsequent performance of the two noise exposure groups differed significantly in only two respects: The variance of initial response times was greater in the startled group, and this group had a higher frequency of incorrect responses on the serial reaction task during the first minute following stimulation. A comparison of these findings with those of other studies of simulated emergencies suggests that recovery time for simple perceptual-motor responses during the initial shock phase of an emergency is quite rapid (on the order of 1 to 3 s), and this appears to be independent of whether or not the emergency is startling and emotionally arousing or simply surprising and unexpected. If the shock phase evokes heightened emotional- physiological arousal as in the case of startle, information-processing ability may be impaired for approximately 30 to 60 s following the stimulus event
 
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Audience Level
0
Audience Level
1
  Kids General Special  
Audience level: 0.53 (from 0.48 for A comparis ... to 0.62 for Visual sea ...)

Languages
English (85)