WorldCat Identities

Melton, C. E.

Works: 33 works in 109 publications in 1 language and 4,610 library holdings
Genres: Case studies 
Roles: Author
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by C. E Melton
Binocular fusion time in sleep-deprived subjects by C. E Melton( )

3 editions published in 1969 in English and held by 226 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The attainment of binocular single vision when the distance of gaze is changed is a component of total reaction time and may be critical in flight when the gaze is changed from the instrument panel to the outside or from the ouside to the instrument panel. This report deals with the effect of fatigue induced by sleep deprivation on the binocular fusion reflex. Binocular fusion times were measured morning and evening in six subjects during 86 hours of sleep deprivation and in six control subjects. The binocular fusion reflex under the experimental conditions employed appeared to be resistant to fatigue incident to sleep-deprivation. (Author)
Physiological responses in air traffic control personnel : O'Hare Tower( Book )

6 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 218 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Physiological and biochemical measurements were made on 22 air traffic controllers at O'Hare tower during five days of the heavy traffic evening shift (1600-2400) and five days of the light traffic morning shift (0000-0800). Pulse rates were higher on the evening shift than on the morning shift. Converging approaching traffic was more excitatory than departing diverging traffic on the evening shift; there was no differential response on the morning shift. Galvanic skin response indicated that adaptation to the morning shift was incomplete in five days. Fibrinogen levels in controllers' blood was not elevated above the expected level for their age group. Controllers had a higher total plasma phospholipid concentration than populations of normal people, schizophrenics and combat pilots. Phosphatidyl glycerol was significantly higher in controllers' plasma than in the normal population but less than in the combat and schizophrenic populations. Findings from urine analyses that are reported separately by Hale, et al., have been summarized in this report. Urine chemistry shows that catecholamine excretion is related to the number of aircraft operations. Corticoid excretion rises late in the morning shift and recovery from morning shift work is incomplete during the off-duty rest period. (Author)
Physiological responses of low-time private pilots to cross-country flying by C. E Melton( )

3 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 216 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Various physiological, biochemical, and psychophysiological measurements were made on low-time private pilots who each flew three cross-country flights. The round-trip flights were 320, 520, and 960 NM in length. Heart rate was recorded continuously throughout the flights. Urine, collected for the 24-hour period surrounding the flights, was differentially analyzed for epinephrine and norepinephrine. None of the measured parameters changed in proportion to the length of the flights; however, the level of stress was high when compared to other types of flying activities. The total stress of such flights must, therefore, be considered to be in direct proportion to the length of the flights. (Author)
Affect adjective check list assessment of mood variations in air traffic controllers by Roger C Smith( Book )

4 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 214 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Three groups of subjects completed Composite Mood Adjective Check Lists (CMACL) before and after selected shifts at two air traffic control (ATC) facilities as part of a multi-discipline study of stress in ATC work. At one facility, a high traffic density tower (HDT), 22 air traffic control specialists (ATCS) were sampled before and after five evening (1500 to 2300) shifts and five night (0000) to 0800) shifts. At a second facility, a moderate traffic density tower (MDT), 16 ATCSs were assessed on three day (0800 to 1600) and three night (0000 to 0800) shifts. In addition, four non-ATC individuals involved in monitoring the MDT ATCSs for other aspects of the general stress study served as controls. It was found that all subjects, both ATCSs and controls, showed a considerable increase in feelings associated with fatigue and tiredness as a function of working an eight-hour shift. These effects were generally more pronounced for night shifts. There were no differences between subject groups on the variables predicted to be most sensitive to variations in stress. Findings are discussed in terms of expected work effects and the lack of significant stress variations. (Author)
The use of a tranquilizer (chlordiazepoxide) in flight training by C. E Melton( Book )

4 editions published in 1969 in English and held by 212 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Eleven male subjects were given flight training according to a conventional but rigidly standarized private pilot syllabus. On half of the dual flights chloridazepoxide was given; identical-appearing placebo capsules were given on the remaining dual flights. No treatment was given on solo flights. Differences could not be distinguished between tranquilizer and placebo with respect to the urinary excretion of catecholamines and 17-OH corticosteroids and heart rates recorded continuously in flight. (Author)
In-flight physiological monitoring of student pilots by C. E Melton( Book )

4 editions published in 1967 in English and held by 212 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Records of heart rate (ECG), lateral eye movements (EOG) and vocal interchange between student and instructor were taken on magnetic tape during all of every flight throughout a conventional private pilot training syllabus. Six men (33-45 years of age) and two women (29 and 28 years of age) were studied. Records were analyzed for heart rate, frequency of lateral eye movements and number of words spoken. Heart rates were higher on solo (112 bpm) than on dual flights (106 bpm) and higher on check flights than on solos (120 bpm). Over the entire syllabus in-flight heart rates showed increases corresponding to the two main goals of the student, i.e., first solo and the check flight, with a plateau between the two events. Low airspeed maneuvers gave rise to the highest heart rates for every subject; six showed peak heart rates during short field procedures (114-174 bpm), one during stalls (127 bpm), and one during normal landings (166 bpm). Frequency of eye movements was higher on solo than on dual flights and was characteristic for each subject. Word counts were useless as a predictor of success in the program as judged by the instructor's grade. (Author)
Comparison of Opa Locka tower with other ATC facilities by means of a biochemical stress index( Book )

6 editions published in 1974 in English and held by 212 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Physiological and biochemical measurements of stress in 14 Opa Locka Tower (OPF) controllers indicated that the principal stressor at that facility was the heavy volume of air traffic. Controllers responded to this stressor with a large increase in urinary output of catecholamines. A stress index, Cs, shows that OPF ranks second in stressfulness in the nine stress studies carried out at eight ATC facilities. Baseline values show that off-duty stress at OPF is low. The results of this study emphasize that a battery of tests is necessary for adequate definition of stress in this personnel group
Susceptibility to anxiety and shift difficulty as determinants of state anxiety in air traffic controllers by Roger C Smith( Book )

5 editions published in 1973 in English and held by 210 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to assess the anxiety of air traffic controllers who had experienced difficult and easy work shifts. Eighty volunteers completed the STAI before and after two or more eight-hour work shifts. Controllers relatively high in anxiety proneness tended to report higher levels of anxiety in association with control work than those relatively low in anxiety proneness. The mean A-state score after shifts was higher than the mean score before shifts. It was also determined that the increase in anxiety during shifts was greater for difficult shifts. (Author)
Physiological studies on air tanker pilots flying forest fire retardant missions( Book )

4 editions published in 1968 in English and held by 209 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Pre-flight and post-flight studies were carried out on five air tanker pilots; in-flight studies were carried out on four of these five pilots. Pre- and post-flight studies consisted of a questionnaire and determinations of blood pressure, psychomotor performance and urine chemistry for stress metabolites. In-flight studies consisted of ECG, rectal temperature, cockpit temperature and voice transmissions, all continuously recorded on magnetic tape. (Author)
Physiological responses in air traffic control personnel : Houston Intercontinental Tower by Civil Aeromedical Institute( Book )

6 editions published in 1973 in English and held by 209 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Biochemical and physiological indices of stress showed that the level of stress of 16 air traffic controllers at the Houston Intercontinental Airport Tower was indistinguishable from that of control populations. While the level of stress was lower than that among O'Hare Tower controllers, both groups showed about the same degree of adaptation. Day work (heavy traffic load) at Houston was characterized by elevated levels of all stress indicators as compared with the mid-shift (light traffic); epinephrine excretion increased significantly during the last half of the mid-shift as compared with the first half. Urinary stress indicators (17-ketogenic steroids, epinephrine, norepinephrine) were all significantly elevated during day sleep as compared with night sleep, indicating less effective rest during day sleep. (Modified author abstract)
Physiological, biochemical, and psychological responses in air traffic control personnel : comparison of the 5-day and 2-2-1 shift rotation patterns by Civil Aeromedical Institute( Book )

3 editions published in 1973 in English and held by 195 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Stress in controllers on the straight five-day shift was determined at Houston Intercontinental Tower in 1970. In 1971 controllers on the 2-2-1 rotation were studied at the same tower. Controllers generally prefer the 2-2-1 to the straight five-day schedule because of the long week end associated with the 2-2-1. Management is concerned that the 'quick turnaround' on the 2-2-1 is a stressor that could compromise job performance. Physiological and psychological assessments showed no significant stress differences on the two schedules. On neither of the schedules did the controllers' stress levels differ from the general polulation. It was concluded that the stress differences on the two rotation patterns were too slight to be of real significance and a choice between them would have to rest on managerial considerations rather than biomedical ones
Pilot vision considerations : the effect of age on binocular fusion time by C. E Melton( Book )

2 editions published in 1966 in English and held by 194 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Exposure of men to intermittent photic stimulation under simulated IFR conditions( Book )

2 editions published in 1966 in English and held by 193 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Physiological recording from pilots operating an aircraft simulator by C. E Melton( Book )

2 editions published in 1964 in English and held by 193 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Neural control of the ciliary muscle by C. E Melton( Book )

2 editions published in 1963 in English and held by 192 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Effects of long-term exposure to low levels of ozone : a review by C. E Melton( Book )

4 editions published between 1980 and 1981 in English and held by 147 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Available literature regarding long-term effects of ozone on animals and humans is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on reports that have appeared since 1976, but some earlier reports are cited for completeness and perspective. This review shows that ozone concentration is more important than is duration of exposure in determining the effectiveness of an ozone exposure (dose). This conclusion calls into question the validity of the Time-Weighted Average (TWA) as an index of severity of ozone exposure. The literature review further reveals that there is wide variation in susceptibility of different animal species to ozone, making it difficult to apply results of animal experiments to humans. It further appears that a dose of ozone that is acutely innocuous is also innocuous over the long term. The effects of a symptom-producing dose of ozone are initially cumulative for the first two or three exposures, then an adaptive response may ensue that involves a plateau of response or even a reversal. These effects are shown by both animals and humans. The mechanisms are unknown. Ozone probably causes damage by free radical formation. Free radical scavengers such as vitamins E and C may provide protection against ozone damage. (Author)
Experimental attempts to evoke a differential response to different stressors( Book )

5 editions published in 1978 in English and held by 133 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Ten paid male subjects each worked at a physical task with no competitive element (treadmill) and a competitive task ('Pong') with minimal physical activity. There were three work periods, each 50 min long. Ten minutes were allowed for rest and urine collection after each work period. The experimental period lasted 3 h. Urine was analyzed for 17-ketogenic steroids (17-KGS), epinephrine (E), and norepinephrine (NE). Heart rates were derived from ambulatory electrocardiograms. There were no statistically significant differences in excretion of urinary metabolites during corresponding episodes of the two tasks. Heart rates were significantly higher during treadmill work than during Pong playing. Rest-to-work differences show that the increment in E excretion is significantly greater during the Pong task than during the treadmill task. Rest-to-work differences in excretion of 17-KGS and NE are not significant. The rest-to-work increase in heart rate is significant for treadmill, but not for Pong. The increase in epinephrine excretion strengthens the conclusion drawn from field experiments that this measurement is the best indicator of the intensity of air traffic control work per se. (Author)
Stress in air traffic personnel : low-density towers and flight service stations( Book )

5 editions published in 1977 in English and held by 131 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Stress and anxiety levels were measured in 10 air traffic control specialists (ATCS) at two low-traffic-density towers, Fayetteville (FYV), Arkansas, and Roswell (ROW), New Mexico, and in 24 flight service (FS) specialists at Oklahoma City (OKC), Oklahoma, Fayetteville, Arkansas, and Roswell, New Mexico. Physiological measurements consisted of heart rate and urine biochemical analysis for 17-ketogenic steroids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. On-duty arousal in ATCS's and FS specialists was evident both physiologically and psychologically; such arousal was within psychologically normal limits and was generally low physiologically compared to other air traffic control (ATC) facilities that have been studied in the past. Physiological stress levels at these low-density towers and flight service stations were also low compared to other ATC facilities that were studied previously. It is concluded that it is inappropriate to describe all air traffic control work, as is commonly done in the popular press, as unusually stressful. Such accounts in the popular press tend to deal with the exceptional rather than with the typical controller or facility. (Author)
Airliner cabin ozone : an updated review by C. E Melton( Book )

2 editions published between 1989 and 1990 in English and held by 131 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Biological rhythms and rotating shift work : some considerations for air traffic controllers and managers by C. E Melton( Book )

2 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 126 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

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Audience level: 0.50 (from 0.47 for Binocular ... to 0.62 for Experiment ...)

Alternative Names
Melton, Carlton E.

English (74)