WorldCat Identities

Grootaert, Christiaan 1950-

Overview
Works: 107 works in 451 publications in 3 languages and 7,215 library holdings
Genres: Case studies 
Roles: Author, Editor, Other, Contributor
Classifications: HM708, 302
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Christiaan Grootaert
The role of social capital in development : an empirical assessment( Book )

32 editions published between 2002 and 2008 in English and held by 401 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In recent years the role of social capital - defined as the institutions and networks of relationships between people, and the associated norms and values - in programs of poverty alleviation and development has risen to considerable prominence. Although development practitioners have long suspected that social capital does affect the efficiency and quality of most development processes, this book is the first to provide the rigorous empirical results needed to confirm that impression and translate it into effective and informed policymaking. It is based on a large volume of newly collected data, relying equally on quantitative and qualitative research methodologies to establish new approaches for measuring social capital and its impact. The book documents the pervasive role of social capital in accelerating poverty alleviation and rural development, facilitating the provision of goods and services, and easing political transition and recovery from civil conflicts
Poverty and social assistance in transition countries by Jeanine Braithwaite( Book )

23 editions published between 1957 and 2000 in English and Undetermined and held by 326 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This study examines poverty and social assistance in six countries - Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Estonia, Russia, and Kyrgyz Republic - comparing the poverty profiles and the correlates of poverty between the two regions. The study finds that the profile of poverty is more sharply defined in Eastern Europe than in the former Soviet Union, where poverty is more widespread. This holds the potential for better targeting of social assistance in Eastern Europe, and the study proposes a novel two-step approach to identify the poor."--Jacket
The policy analysis of child labor : a comparative study( Book )

13 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and held by 312 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Understanding and measuring social capital : a multidisciplinary tool for practitioners( Book )

19 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 259 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This work details various methods of gauging social capital and provides illustrative case studies from Mali and India. It also offers a measuring instrument, the Social Capital Assessment Tool, that combines quantitative and qualitative approaches
The relation between final demand and income distribution, with application to Japan by Christiaan Grootaert( Book )

11 editions published in 1983 in English and German and held by 246 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Measuring social capital : an integrated questionnaire by Christiaan Grootaert( Book )

18 editions published between 2003 and 2004 in English and held by 228 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Annotation
Hungary : poverty and social transfers by World Bank( Book )

2 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 152 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Understanding the social effects of policy reform by Lionel Demery( Book )

8 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 150 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Analyzing poverty and policy reform : the experience of Côte d'Ivoire by Christiaan Grootaert( Book )

7 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 143 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Measuring and analyzing levels of living in developing countries : an annotated questionnaire by Christiaan Grootaert( Book )

5 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 113 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Household expenditure surveys : some methodological issues by Christiaan Grootaert( Book )

9 editions published between 1984 and 1985 in English and Undetermined and held by 110 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Policy-oriented analysis of poverty and the social dimensions of structural adjustment : a methodology and proposed application to Côte d'Ivoire, 1985-88 by Christiaan Grootaert( Book )

14 editions published between 1989 and 1990 in English and French and held by 103 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The social dimensions of adjustment priority survey : an instrument for the rapid identification and monitoring of policy target groups by Christiaan Grootaert( Book )

11 editions published between 1990 and 1991 in English and held by 92 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Social capital, household welfare and poverty in Indonesia by Christiaan Grootaert( Book )

13 editions published in 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 82 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

It pays for poor households to participate actively in local associations. At low incomes, the returns to social capital are higher than returns to human capital. At higher incomes, the reverse is true
Poverty and social transfers in Hungary by Christiaan Grootaert( )

13 editions published between 1997 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 73 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

May 1997 Hungary's social safety net could be improved to better target benefits to the poor. Among the possibilities for reform: abolish the child care allowance and fee, institute new child care benefits, and improve means testing for social assistance. Grootaert's study addresses the question of how well Hungary's system of cash social transfers helps prevent or alleviate poverty - and whether different types of social transfer, or changes in eligibility rules, might better alleviate poverty. The social safety net in Hungary and other transition economies has undergone important changes. The conventional benchmark for measuring poverty in Hungary - the subsistence minimum - has lost much of its relevance because of the transition to a market economy. Grootaert proposes two other benchmarks: the minimum pension (an absolute poverty line) and a relative poverty line set at two-thirds of mean household spending. How well targeted to the poor are Hungary's social transfers? The study distinguishes between six components of the social safety net: pensions, unemployment benefits, family allowance, child care allowance, social assistance, and child care fee. Grootaert finds that unemployment benefits and social assistance are well-targeted to the poor. The child care allowance is a progressive social transfer; the child care fee is strongly regressive. Roughly 91 percent of Hungarian households receive one or more transfers. Hungary's social safety net represents 54 percent of spending in an average household, and provides 38 percent of its income. In its entirety, the social safety net is progressive, but that progressivity does not come cheaply. The average transfer is eight times the minimum that would be needed under perfect targeting. In other words, there is significant room for reallocating funds for improved welfare of the poor. Among possibilities for reform: abolish the child care allowance and fee, institute new child care benefits, and improve means testing for social assistance. Data used are from the 1993 Household Budget Survey and the 1992-94 Household Panel Surveys. This paper - a product of the Social Policy Division, Environment Department - was written as a background paper for the Hungary Poverty Assessment
Poverty correlates and indicator-based targeting in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union by Christiaan Grootaert( )

13 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 73 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

July 1998 Social protection systems in the transition economies have been inadequate to meet the challenges of transition, being both costly and poorly targeted. The largest group of poor people is the working poor-especially workers with little education (primary education or less) or outdated vocational or technical education. Grootaert and Braithwaite compare poverty in three Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, and Poland) with poverty in three countries of the former Soviet Union (Estonia, Kyrgyz Republic, and Russia). They find striking differences between the post-Soviet and Eastern European experiences with poverty and targeting. Among patterns detected: * Poverty in Eastern Europe is significantly lower than in former Soviet Union countries. * Rural poverty is greater than urban poverty. * In Eastern Europe there is a strong correlation between poverty incidence and the number of children in a household; in the former Soviet Union countries this is less pronounced, except in Russia. * There is a gender and age dimension to poverty in some countries. In single-person households, especially of elderly women, the poverty rate is very high (except in Poland) and poverty is more severe. The same is true in pensioner households (except in Poland). In Poland the pension system has adequate reach. * Poverty rates are highest among people who have lost their connection with the labor market and live on social transfers (other than pensions) or other nonearned income. But through sheer mass, the largest group of poor people is the working poor-especially workers with little education (primary education or less) or outdated vocational or technical education. Only those with special skills or university education escape poverty in great numbers, thanks to the demand for their skills from the newly emerging private sector. * The poverty gap is remarkably uniform in Eastern European countries, especially Hungary and Poland, suggesting that social safety nets have prevented the emergence of deep pockets of poverty. This is much less true in the former Soviet Union, where those with the highest poverty rate also have the largest poverty gap. In the short to medium term, creating employment in the informal sector will generate a larger payoff than creating jobs in the formal (still to be privatized) sector, so programs to help (prospective) entrepreneurs should take center stage in poverty alleviation programs. This paper is a joint product of the Social Development Department and Europe and Central Asia, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Sector Unit. The study was funded by the Bank's Research Support Budget under the research project Poverty and Targeting of Social Assistance in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union (RPO 680-33). The authors may be contacted at cgrootaert@worldbank.org or jbraithwaite@worldbank.org
Poverty and social transfers in Poland by Christiaan Grootaert( )

12 editions published between 1995 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 72 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

March 1995 How well did Poland's system of social transfers help alleviate poverty in 1993, and what changes in the allocation of social transfer funds would improve the distribution of income? Since January 1990, Poland's social safety net has changed greatly. Unemployment benefits were introduced, for example, because of escalating unemployment (about 15 percent of the labor force at the end of 1993). The cost of the social safety net has risen sharply since the transition began, both absolutely and as a fraction of GDP. In 1993, social transfers accounted for 18.7 percent of GDP, as follows: (1) pensions=14.9 percent, (2) unemployment benefits=1.9 percent, (3) family allowance and other social insurance=1.4 percent, and (4) social assistance=0.5 percent. To investigate the present system's impact on income distribution, Grootaert uses the household budget survey data for January-June 1993, the first complete survey of the Polish population. The conventional benchmark for measuring poverty in Poland, the social minimum, has become largely irrelevant, as 55 percent of the people fall below that spending level. Using two other measures, Grootaert finds that in 1993 26.3 percent of the population had an expenditure level (per adult equivalent) below the minimum wage, and 14.4 percent were spending at a level below the minimum pension. He discusses four proposals for improving the ability of social transfers (other than pensions) to reduce poverty. These proposals are either budget-neutral or imply only modest increases in the total amount of transfers: * Income-testing the family allowance and doubling the amount for large households. This would reduce poverty from 14.4 to 13.2 percent -- and, among large households, from 43 to 28 percent. * Reducing eligibility for the family allowance from 20 to 18 years and taxing the allowance; providing income-tested daycare vouchers for young children. This would make the family allowance more progressive. Reducing eligibility and taxing the allowance would raise poverty about 1 percentage point, which would be largely offset by the daycare vouchers. * Improving income testing for social assistance. More than half of current beneficiaries are not poor. A 20 percent improvement in targeting would reduce poverty by about 0.3 percentage points. * Extending eligibility for unemployment benefits for low-skilled unemployed members of the labor force in large households. This would increase benefits by about 7 percent, but reduce poverty about 0.4 percentage points -- benefiting especially the poorest part of the population. This paper -- a product of the Country Operations Division, Europe and Central Asia, Country Department II -- is part of a larger effort in the department to undertake poverty assessments in the region. The author may be contacted at cgrootaert@worldbank.org
Child labor in Côte d'Ivoire incidence and determinants by Christiaan Grootaert( )

13 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

March 1998 Most children in Côte d'Ivoire perform some kind of work. In rural areas, more than four of five children work, with only a third combining work with schooling. Child labor in Côte d'Ivoire increased in the 1980s because of a severe economic crisis. Two out of three urban children aged 7 to 17 work; half of them also attend school. In rural areas, more than four out of five children work, but only a third of them manage to combine work with schooling. Full-time work is less prevalent, but not negligible. Roughly 7 percent of urban children work full time (an average 46 hours a week). More than a third of rural children work full time (an average of 35 hours a week), with the highest incidence in the Savannah region. The incidence of such full-time work rises with age but is by no means limited to older children. The average age of the full-time child worker in Côte d'Ivoire is 12.7. These children have received an average 1.2 years of schooling. That child is also more likely to be ill or injured and is less likely to receive medical attention than other children. Urban children in the interior cities are far more likely to work and their working hours are much longer. Among rural children, those in the Savannah region (where educational infrastructure lags far behind the rest of the country) are most likely to work. Five factors affect a household's decision to supply child labor: * The age and gender of the child (girls are more likely to work, especially when the head of household is a woman). * The education and employment status of the parents (low parental education is a good targeting variable for interventions). * The availability of within-household employment opportunities. * The household's poverty status. * The household's location (calling for geographical targeting). With improved macroeconomic growth, it is hoped, child labor will decline-but a significant decline could take several generations. Meanwhile, it is important to: * Use a gradual approach toward the elimination of child work by aiming initial interventions at facilitating combined work and schooling. * Support the development of home enterprises as part of poverty alleviation programs, but combine it with incentives for school attendance. * Make school hours and vacation periods flexible (accommodating harvest times) in rural areas. This would also improve children's health. * Improve rural school attendance by having a school in the village rather than 1 to 5 kilometers away. * Improve educational investment in the Savannah. This paper is a product of the Social Development Department. The study was funded by the Bank's Research Support Budget under the research project Child Labor: What Role for Demand-Side Interventions (RPO 680-64). The author may be contacted at cgrootaert@worldbank.org
Child labor a review by Christiaan Grootaert( )

9 editions published in 1995 in English and Undetermined and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

4. The welfare economics of child labor
Local institutions, poverty and household welfare in Bolivia by Christiaan Grootaert( )

11 editions published in 2001 in English and Undetermined and held by 64 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

July 2001 Social capital--including membership in an association such as an agrarian syndicate--reduces the probability of being poor in Bolivia. The returns to household investment in social capital are generally greater for the poor than for the rich, and greater for households with little land than for those with more land. Returns to such membership for Bolivia's poorest exceed returns to education and other assets. Grootaert and Narayan empirically estimate the impact of social capital on household welfare in Bolivia - where they found 67 different types of local associations. They focus on household memberships in local associations as being especially relevant to daily decisions that affect household welfare and consumption. On average, households belong to 1.4 groups and associations: 62 percent belong to agrarian syndicates, 16 percent to production groups, 13 percent to social service groups, and 10 percent to education and health groups. Smaller numbers belong to religious and government groups. Agrarian syndicates, created by government decree in 1952, are now viewed mainly as community-initiated institutions to manage communal resources. They have been registered as legal entities to work closely with municipalities to represent the interests and priorities of local people in municipal decisionmaking. The effects of social capital operate through (at least) three mechanisms: sharing of information among association members; the reduction of opportunistic behavior; and better collective decisionmaking. The effect of social capital on household welfare was found to be 2.5 times that of human capital. Increasing the average educational endowment of each adult in the household by one year (about a 25-percent increase) would increase per capita household spending 4.2 percent; a similar increase in the social capital endowment would increase spending 9 to 10.5 percent. They measured social capital along six dimensions: density of memberships, internal heterogeneity of associations (by gender, age, education, religion, etc.), meeting attendance, active participation in decisionmaking, payment of dues (in cash and in kind), and community orientation. The strongest effect came from number of memberships. Active membership in an agrarian syndicate is associated with an average 11.5 percent increase in household spending. Membership in another local association is associated with a 5.3-percent higher spending level. Empirical results partly confirm the hypothesis that social capital provides long-term benefits such as better access to credit and a higher level of trust in the community as a source of assistance in case of need. This paper--a joint product of the Social Development Department and the Poverty Division, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network--is part of a larger effort in the Bank to understand better the role of local institutions, and social capital in general, for poverty reduction. The authors may be contacted at cgrootaert@worldbank.org or dnarayan@worldbank.org
 
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The role of social capital in development : an empirical assessment
Alternative Names
Grootaert, Christiaan

Grootaert, Christiaan N.

Grootaert, Christiaan N. 1950-

Languages
English (240)

French (5)

German (2)

Covers
Poverty and social assistance in transition countriesThe policy analysis of child labor : a comparative studyUnderstanding and measuring social capital : a multidisciplinary tool for practitionersMeasuring social capital : an integrated questionnaire