WorldCat Identities

International Monetary Fund Western Hemisphere Department

Overview
Works: 592 works in 1,222 publications in 1 language and 17,710 library holdings
Genres: Conference proceedings 
Classifications: HG3810, 339.509728
Publication Timeline
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Publications about International Monetary Fund Publications about International Monetary Fund
Publications by International Monetary Fund Publications by International Monetary Fund
Most widely held works by International Monetary Fund
The macroeconomy of Central America by Robert Rennhack ( )
5 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 386 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Opportunities for growth and investment in Central America could well improve in the coming years, as the region's ties with the world economy grow closer. This integration, however, also presents important challenges for economic policy to ensure that growth can be sustained and can benefit the poor. To strengthen the regional dialogue on the policy challenges, the Central American Monetary Council and the IMF sponsored a conference in July 2002 in Antigua Guatemala, with the particaption of most of the ministers of finance, presidents of central banks and financial superintendents in the region. This book presents most of the papers that served as the background for the policy discussions of the conference. The main messages stress the importance of keeping fiscal policy on a sustainable path, strengthening public investment in basic infrastructure and primary health care and primary and secondary education, and managing the risks associated with partial dollarization
Why are Canadian banks more resilient? by Lev Ratnovski ( )
4 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 204 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper explores factors behind Canadian banks' relative resilience in the ongoing credit turmoil. We identify two main causes: a higher share of depository funding (vs. wholesale funding) in liabilities, and a number of regulatory and structural factors in the Canadian market that reduced banks' incentives to take excessive risks. The robust predictive power of the depository funding ratio is confirmed in a multivariate analysis of the performance of 72 largest commercial banks in OECD countries during the turmoil
Public debt and productivity the difficult quest for growth in Jamaica by Rodolphe Blavy ( )
5 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 196 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The paper analyzes Jamaica's experience of low growth despite consistently high investment. Cross-country analysis provides evidence of a significant and negative relationship between total public debt and productivity growth. Looking at the specific channels through which high debt affects productivity growth and the allocation of resources in Jamaica, the study finds that high public debt has been associated with macroeconomic uncertainty and an output structure that relied excessively on a few maturing sectors with limited scope for productivity growth. Furthermore, public investment has been crowded out by debt service, further adversely affecting productivity growth
Emigration and wages in source countries evidence from Mexico by Prachi Mishra ( )
5 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 195 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper empirically examines the effect on wages in Mexico of Mexican emigration to the United States, using data from the Mexican and United States censuses from 1970-2000. The main result in the paper is that emigration has a strong and positive effect on Mexican wages. There is also evidence for increasing wage inequality in Mexico due to emigration. Simple welfare calculations based on a labor demand-supply framework suggest that the aggregate welfare loss to Mexico due to emigration is small. However, there is a significant distributional impact between labor and other factors
Determinants of Venezuela's equilibrium real exchange rate by Juan Zalduendo ( )
5 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 193 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The Venezuelan Bolivar is pegged to the U.S. dollar and supported by foreign exchange restrictions. To assess the appropriateness of the peg during the current period of high oil export earnings and the likely consequences of a liberalization, this paper attempts to disentangle the effects of oil prices from other factors underlying the equilibrium real exchange rate, and examines the role of foreign exchange controls by extending the application of a vector error correction (VEC) model to parallel market exchange rates. Several findings are worth noting. First, oil prices have indeed played a significant role in determining a time-varying equilibrium real exchange rate path. Second, oil prices are not the only important determinant of the real effective exchange rate: declining productivity is also a key factor. Third, appreciation pressures are rising. Finally, the speed of convergence of a VEC model using parallel rather than official rates is higher, suggesting that the government has been able to maintain sharp deviations between the official and equilibrium rates because of Venezuela's oil dependency and the concentration of oil income in government hands
Spillovers across NAFTA by A Swiston ( )
4 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 193 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper examines linkages across North America by estimating the size of spillovers from the major regions of the world-- the United States, Euro area, Japan, and the rest of the world-- to Canada and Mexico, and decomposing the impact of these spillovers into trade, commodity price, and financial market channels. For Canada, a one percent shock to U.S. real GDP shifts Canadian real GDP by some 3/4 of a percentage point in the same direction-- with financial spillovers more important than trade in recent decades. Thus, a large proportion of the reduction in Canadian output volatility since the 1980s can be accounted for by the 'Great Moderation' in U.S. growth. Before 1996, domestic volatility in Mexico swamped the contribution of external factors to the business cycle. After 1996, the response of Mexican GDP is 1 1/2 times the size of the U.S. shock-- "when the U.S. sneezes, Mexico catches a cold". These spillovers are transmitted through both trade and financial channels
Is the Canadian housing market overvalued? a post-crisis assessment by Evridiki Tsounta ( )
4 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 193 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Canadian house prices have increased significantly between 2003 and early 2008, with a marked downward trend since mid-2008, especially in the resource-rich western provinces. This paper estimates the evolution of equilibrium real home prices during this period in key provinces and finds that, following recent declines, home prices are now generally close to equilibrium throughout Canada. However, house prices in Alberta and British Columbia remain around 8 percent overvalued at the end of the sample (second quarter of 2009). Despite the limitations of econometric estimates of house-price dynamics, the measured small degree of overvaluation suggests that the Canadian housing market is essentially at equilibrium
The monetary policy regime and banking spreads in Barbados by Wendell Samuel ( )
6 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 192 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The paper analyzes the determinants of banking spreads in Barbados, with a view to identifying the role of the monetary policy regime in explaining high spreads. The paper finds that interest rate spreads for Barbados are higher than would be suggested by its macroeconomic performance. Banking concentration and bank-specific variables, including bank size and provisions for nonperforming loans, do not have an important role in explaining variations in bank spreads. Rather, it appears that monetary policy variables, such as reserve requirements and capital controls, are the most important determinants of spreads
Assessing banking sector soundness in a long-term framework the case of Venezuela by Rodolphe Blavy ( )
5 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 192 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper combines financial soundness indicators (FSIs) and stress-testing methodologies to provide a broad assessment of the soundness of Venezuela's banking sector, based on a diagnosis of its structural and transient shortcomings. While the Venezuelan banking sector appears sound under current favorable economic conditions, it remains significantly vulnerable to cyclical downturns-which have been severe in the past. Banks are particularly exposed to interest rate and credit risks. This suggests that the strong FSIs may be partly the result of a conjunctural credit boom in the context of capital controls and very low real interest rates
Fiscal discipline and exchange rate regimes evidence from the Caribbean by Rupa Duttagupta ( )
3 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 191 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper assesses the nature of fiscal discipline under alternative exchange rate regimes. First, it shows in a simple theoretical framework that fiscal agencies under a currency union with a fixed exchange rate can have the largest incentive to overspend or "free-ride" (compared to those under other exchange rate regimes) owing to their ability to spread the costs of overspending in terms of the inflation tax across both time-given the fixed exchange rate-and space-given the currency union. In contrast, such free-riding behavior does not arise under flexible regimes owing to the immediate inflationary impact of spending. Next, empirically, it shows that fiscal stances in countries with fixed pegs and currency unions regime demonstrate greater free-riding behavior than countries with more flexible regimes in 15 Caribbean countries during 1983-2004
Is housing wealth an "ATM"? the relationship between household wealth, home equity withdrawal, and saving rates by Vladimir Klyuev ( )
4 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 190 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper examines the role increasing personal wealth and home equity withdrawal (HEW) have had in the decline in the personal saving rate in the United States. It does so by comparing the U.S. experience with those of Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Mortgage market liberalization and innovation should reduce household cash flow and collateral constraints while making housing wealth more liquid as HEW becomes easier over time. Regression analysis indicates the expected negative relationship between U.S. saving and net worth, with a somewhat smaller coefficient than in previous studies. HEW is estimated to have a temporary negative impact on saving of the order of 20 cents on the dollar
Tax incentives and investment in the Eastern Caribbean by Sebastian Sosa ( )
7 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 190 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Tax incentives have been used extensively in the countries of the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU) to promote investment. The associated revenue losses are large, and benefits in terms of new investment have been limited, raising doubts about the cost effectiveness of the tax incentive schemes. This paper examines the effects of incentives using the marginal effective tax rate approach (METR), adapting this methodology to the case of a small open economy where the marginal investor is a nonresident. The results show that METRs are high in the region; that there is a large dispersion in the size of METRs across financing source; and that METRs on investment are larger than the overall distortion on capital, with a substantial subsidy to domestic saving. In the presence of tax holidays-the most common incentive scheme in the region-the distortion on capital basically vanishes
Banking spreads in Latin America by R. Gaston Gelos ( )
7 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 189 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Intermediation spreads in Latin America are high by international standards. This paper examines the determinants of bank interest margins in that region using bank and country-level data from 85 countries, including 14 Latin American economies. The results suggest that Latin America has higher interest rates, less efficient banks, and larger reserve requirements than other regions and that these factors have a significant impact on spreads. However, Latin American countries do not differ markedly from their peers in other aspects that are found important in determining the cost of financial intermediation, such as inflation and bank profit taxation
Regional convergence in Latin America by Maria Isabel Serra ( )
4 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 188 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper presents empirical evidence on convergence of per capita output for regions within six large middle-income Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. It explores the role played by several exogenous sectoral shocks and differences in steady states within each country. It finds that poor and rich regions within each country converged at very low rates over the past three decades. It also finds evidence of regional "convergence clubs" within Brazil and Peru- the estimated speeds of convergence for these countries more than double after controlling for different subnational levels of steady state. For the latter countries and Chile, convergence is also higher after controlling for sector-specific shocks. Finally, results show that national disparities in per capita output increased temporarily after each country pursued trade liberalization
The global financial crisis explaining cross-country differences in the output impact by Pelin Berkmen ( )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 187 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We provide one of the first attempts at explaining the differences in the crisis impact across developing countries and emerging markets. Using cross-country regressions to explain the factors driving growth forecast revisions after the eruption of the global crisis, we find that a small set of variables explain a large share of the variation in growth revisions. Countries with more leveraged domestic financial systems and more rapid credit growth tended to suffer larger downward revisions to their growth outlooks. For emerging markets, this financial channel trumps the trade channel. For a broader set of developing countries, however, the trade channel seems to have mattered, with countries exporting more advanced manufacturing goods more affected than those exporting food. Exchange-rate flexibility clearly helped in buffering the impact of the shock. There is also some--weaker--evidence that countries with a stronger fiscal position prior to the crisis were hit less severely. We find little evidence for the importance of other policy variables
Monetary and fiscal rules in an emerging small open economy by Nicoletta Batini ( )
2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 186 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We develop a optimal rules-based interpretation of the 'three pillars macroeconomic policy framework': a combination of a freely floating exchange rate, an explicit target for inflation, and a mechanism than ensures a stable government debt-GDP ratio around a specified long run. We show how such monetary-fiscal rules need to be adjusted to accommodate specific features of emerging market economies. The model takes the form of two-blocs, a DSGE emerging small open economy interacting with the rest of the world and features, in particular, financial frictions It is calibrated using Chile and US data. Alongside the optimal Ramsey policy benchmark, we model the three pillars as simple monetary and fiscal rules including and both domestic and CPI inflation targeting interest rate rules alongside a 'Structural Surplus Fiscal Rule' as followed recently in Chile. A comparison with a fixed exchange rate regime is made. We find that domestic inflation targeting is superior to partially or implicitly (through a CPI inflation target) or fully attempting to stabilizing the exchange rate. Financial frictions require fiscal policy to play a bigger role and lead to an increase in the costs associated with simple rules as opposed to the fully optimal policy
Financial shocks and TFP growth by Marcello M Estevão ( )
4 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 185 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The paper investigates how changes in industries' funding costs affect total factor productivity (TFP) growth. Based on panel regressions using 31 U.S. and Canadian industries between 1991 and 2007, and using industries' dependence on external funding as an identification mechanism, we show that increases in the cost of funds have a statistically significant and economically meaningful negative impact on TFP growth. This finding cannot be explained by either increasing returns to scale or factor hoarding, as results are not sensitive to controlling for industry size and our calculations account for changes in factor utilization. Based on a stylized theoretical model, the estimates suggest that financial shocks distort the allocation of factors across firms even within an industry, reducing its TFP. The decline in productivity growth accounts for a large fraction of the negative impact of funding costs on output
From Lombard Street to Avenida Paulista foreign exchange liquidity easing in Brazil in response to the global shock of 2008-09 by Mark R Stone ( )
3 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 185 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The provision of foreign exchange liquidity by emerging market central banks during the global shock of 2008-09 departs from the domestic liquidity lender of last resort role described by Bagehot in his classic "Lombard Street". This paper documents and analyzes the foreign exchange liquidity providing measures of the Banco Central do Brasil (BCB) in response to varied market stresses. These measures appear to have reduced the relative onshore cost of dollar liquidity on impact and seemed to stabilize market expectations of exchange rate volatility. The results suggest that foreign exchange liquidity easing operations may become a standard central bank tool
Adding Latin America to the global projection model by Jorge Iván Canales-Kriljenko ( )
3 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 183 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This is the fourth of a series of papers that are being written as part of a larger project to estimate a small quarterly Global Projection Model (GPM). The GPM project is designed to improve the toolkit to which economists have access for studying both own-country and cross-country linkages. In this paper, we add Latin American economies to a previously estimated small quarterly projection model of the US, Euro Area, and Japanese economies. The model is estimated with Bayesian techniques, which provide a very efficient way of imposing restrictions to produce both plausible dynamics and sensib
Estimating default frequencies and macrofinancial linkages in the Mexican banking sector by Rodolphe Blavy ( )
3 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 183 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The credit risk measures we develop in this paper are used to investigate macrofinancial linkages in the Mexican banking system. Domestic and external macro-financial variables are found to be closely associated with banking soundness. At the aggregate level, high external volatility and domestic interest rates are associated with higher expected default probability. Though results vary substantially across individual banks, domestic activity and U.S. growth, and higher asset prices, are generally associated with lower credit risks, while increased volatility worsens credit risks. The expected default probability is also found to be a leading indicator of traditional financial stability indicators
 
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Alternative Names

controlled identity International Monetary Fund

IMF. Western Hemisphere Department.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Department.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
W.H.D.
Western Hemisphere Department.
WHD.
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