WorldCat Identities

Gentner, Dedre

Overview
Works: 64 works in 204 publications in 1 language and 3,625 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings 
Roles: Author, Editor
Classifications: BF311, 153
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Dedre Gentner
Language in mind : advances in the study of language and thought by Dedre Gentner( )

19 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 1,768 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This volume offers contemporary investigations of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis that language influences how we perceive and understand the world
Mental models by Dedre Gentner( Book )

25 editions published between 1982 and 2014 in English and Undetermined and held by 705 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This classic volume compiles and describes interdisciplinary research on the formal nature of human knowledge about the world. Three key dimensions that characterize mental models research are examined: the nature of the domain studied, the nature of the theoretical approach, and the nature of the methodology
The analogical mind : perspectives from cognitive science by Dedre Gentner( Book )

17 editions published between 2001 and 2016 in English and Undetermined and held by 481 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Analogy has been the focus of extensive research in cognitive science over the past two decades. Through analogy, novel situations and problems can be understood in terms of familiar ones. Indeed, a case can be made for analogical processing as the very core of cognition. This is the first book to span the full range of disciplines concerned with analogy. Its contributors represent cognitive, developmental, and comparative psychology; neuroscience; artificial intelligence; linguistics; and philosophy.The book is divided into three parts. The first part describes computational models of analog
Semantic constraints on lexical categories by William E Nagy( Book )

4 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 92 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Evidence for a structure-mapping theory of analogy and metaphor by Dedre Gentner( Book )

7 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 92 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Structure mapping theory is a way of characterizing analogies and certain classes of metaphors. The central claim of this paper is that all analogies and many metaphors are fundamentally devices for mapping relational structures from one domain to another. This theory differs from other theories in postulating that the interpretation rules for analogies and relational metaphors are based on predicate structure rather than on feature salience or mental distance. Two experiments tested the interpretive predictions of the structure mapping theory as well as those derivable from A. Ortony's salience imbalance theory of metaphor. Subjects, college students, were asked to interpret metaphors and rate their aptness and "metaphoricity," after first writing out descriptions of all the object terms used in the metaphors. Results supported the structure mapping theory of metaphor. Specifically, the experiments revealed that: (1) metaphor interpretations were more relational than the object descriptions on which they were based, suggesting that the subjects found metaphors more apt to the extent that they could find a relational system to map from base to target object; and (2) adult subjects produced structural interpretations of metaphorical comparisons when possible and judged the aptness of the metaphors according to their relationality, suggesting that metaphoric development can be described as the gradual development of relational focus. (A seven-page reference list is included.) (Fl)
Metaphor as structure mapping : the relational shift by Dedre Gentner( Book )

4 editions published between 1990 and 1991 in English and held by 79 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Metaphor as structure-mapping : what develops by Dedre Gentner( Book )

6 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 59 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A study investigated developmental changes in children's fluency in interpreting metaphors. Specifically, it examined the development of an implicit interpretation strategy found in adults of mapping relational structure from base to target. Ten subjects from each of three age groups--five to six years, nine to ten years, and college-age students--interpreted attribute, relation, and double metaphors. In attribute metaphors, the predicates shared by the base and target objects were object-attributes (both are round). In relation metaphors, the shared predicates were relations (both help people get well), while in double metaphors, both attributes and relations were shared. The major result of the study was that the relationality of the responses increased significantly with age, while attributionality showed no age increase. The findings indicate a developmental increase in relational focusing; other aspects of the data suggest that this trend may be due in part to the accretion of knowledge. (A list of materials used in the study and sample interpretations are appended.) (FL)
Why nouns are learned before verbs : linguistic relativity versus natural partitioning by Dedre Gentner( Book )

4 editions published in 1982 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Systematicity and surface similarity in the development of analogy by Dedre Gentner( )

3 editions published in 1985 in English and held by 31 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Similarity in language, thought and perception( Book )

7 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 28 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Language and the career of similarity by Dedre Gentner( Book )

2 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 23 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Historical shifts in the use of analogy in science by Dedre Gentner( Book )

6 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 21 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Analogy is widely considered to be an important mechanism of scientific thinking and a source of creative insight in theory development. This paper considers the implicit constraints that determine analogical soundness. First examine the constraints that govern analogical reasoning as it is predicted today. Then trace the scientific uses of analogy through three time periods and contrast the styles of analogizing practice by scientists at different points in history. This comparison suggests that the notion of analogical soundness has evolved over time. Keywords: Analogy; Similarity; Structure mapping; systematically; Relational systems
The structure-mapping engine : algorithm and examples by Brian Falkenhainer( Book )

7 editions published between 1986 and 1987 in English and held by 17 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper describes the Structure-Mapping Engine (SME), a cognitive simulation program for studying human analogical processing. SME is based on Gentner's Structure-Mapping theory of analogy, and provides a 'tool kit' for constructing matching algorithms consistent with this theory. This flexibility enhances cognitive simulation studies by simplifying experimentation. Furthermore, SME is very efficient, making it a candidate component for machine learning systems as well. We review the Structure-Mapping theory and describe the design of the 'engine'. Next we demonstrate some examples of its operation. Finally, we discuss our plans for using SME in cognitive simulation studies. Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Cognitive simulation; Machine learning; Analogy
Mechanisms of analogical learning by Dedre Gentner( Book )

4 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 17 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

It is widely agreed that similarity and analogy are important in transfer of learning. Recent research suggests that different kinds of similarity enter into different parts of the transfer process. For example, access to long-term memory is more influenced by surface similarity than is analogical inference once an analogy is present. In this paper I decompose similarity-based transfer into separate subprocesses and compare how different kinds of similarity affect each of these processes. Keywords: Similarity, Transfer, Analogical mapping, Analogical soundness, Access
Analogical inference and analogical access by Dedre Gentner( Book )

4 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 17 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Analogy is a powerful technique in commonsense learning and reasoning. People use analogies in problem solving, in developing mental models of a new domain, and in communicating knowledge. To model these natural uses of analogy, we need to understand the whole process of analogizing from the first, starting with access and ending with drawing inferences or extracting a principle from an analogy. In this paper, I first review the structure-mapping theory of analogical processing and describe a simulation of the theory. I then extend this framework to accessing analogy. I discuss some recent research in our lab that suggests that the accessibility of an analogical match is governed by different factors from its inferential soundness. Finally, I consider some competing theoretical approaches to analogy and suggest an integrated architecture for analogical processing
Learning physical domains : toward a theoretical framework by Kenneth D Forbus( Book )

5 editions published in 1986 in English and Undetermined and held by 15 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

People use and extend their knowledge of the physical world constantly. Understanding how this fluency is achieved would be an important milestone in understanding human learning and intelligence, as well as a useful guide for constructing machines that learn. This paper presents a theoretical framework that is being developed in an attempt to construct a computational account of human experiential learning in physical domains. Qualitative process theory is used to model portions of physical knowledge, and structure-mapping theory is used to characterize the computations that move a learner from one representation to another. This document outlines both theories and proposes a learning sequence for the physical domains. The stages of understanding which comprise the sequence are: (1) protohistories (prototype histories that serve as summaries of experience); (2) the causal corpus (a collection of causal statements computed from prototype objects and protohistories); (3) naive physics (models which replace causal statements with theories about specific mechanisms of change); and (4) expert models (discovering ways to resolve ambiguities and to construct powerful generalizations). A seven-page reference list is included. (TW)
Systematicity as a selection constraint in analogical mapping by C. A Clement( Book )

6 editions published in 1989 in English and held by 13 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Analogy is often viewed as a partial similarity match between domains. But since between any two domains there are more partial similarities than good analogies, it follows that analogy is selective. Three experiments examined the selection constraint on which relations are mapped between a base and target in an analogy. In Experiment 1 subjects judged two matches to be included in an analogy: an isolated match, and a match embedded in a larger mapping system. Subjects preferred the embedded match. In Experiments 2 and 3 subjects made analogical predictions about a target domain. Subjects predicted information that followed from a causal system that matched the base domain, rather than the information that was equally plausible, but that created an isolated match with the base. Results support Gentner's (1983, 1989) structure- mapping theory that analogical mapping concerns systems and not individual predicates, and that attention to shared systematic structure constrains the selection of information to include in an analogy. Keywords: Test construction psychology; Structure mapping
The structure-mapping engine by Brian Falkenhainer( Book )

3 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 11 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Proceedings of the twenty-sixth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. : August 4-7 2004, Chicago, Illinois by Cognitive Science Society (U.S.)( Book )

2 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Verb semantic structures in memory for sentences : evidence for componential representation by Dedre Gentner( Book )

3 editions published between 1979 and 1980 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Two hypotheses were tested in three experiments concerned with the componential storage of meaning. The complexity hypothesis predicted that a verb with many subpredicates would lead to poor memory strength between the surrounding nouns. The connectivity hypothesis predicted that verbs with many subpredicates would lead to greater memory strength between nouns in cases where the additional subpredicates provided semantic connections between the nouns. In the experiments, the subjects recalled subject-verb-object sentences, given subject nouns as cues. General verbs with relatively few subpredicates were compared with more specific verbs whose additional subpredicates either did or did not provide additional connections between the surrounding nouns. The level of recall of the object noun, given the subject noun as cue, was predicted by the relative number of connecting subpredicates in the verb, but not by the relative number of subpredicates. This finding supported the connectivity hypothesis over the complexity hypothesis. The results are interpreted in terms of a model in which the verb conveys a structured set of subpredicates in a connective memory framework. (Author/RL)
 
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Mental models
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Mental modelsThe analogical mind : perspectives from cognitive scienceSimilarity in language, thought and perception
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