WorldCat Identities

Chi, Michelene T. H.

Overview
Works: 26 works in 76 publications in 1 language and 1,190 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings 
Roles: Author, Editor
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Michelene T. H Chi
The nature of expertise by Michelene T. H Chi( Book )

21 editions published between 1988 and 2016 in English and held by 523 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Due largely to developments made in artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology during the past two decades, expertise has become an important subject for scholarly investigations. The Nature of Expertise displays the variety of domains and human activities to which the study of expertise has been applied, and reflects growing attention on learning and the acquisition of expertise. Applying approaches influenced by such disciplines as cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and cognitive science, the contributors discuss those conditions that enhance and those that limit the
Trends in memory development research by Michelene T. H Chi( Book )

11 editions published in 1983 in English and Undetermined and held by 354 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Learning in a non-physical science domain : the human circulatory system by Michelene T. H Chi( Book )

1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 81 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This research explores the moment-by-moment understanding students exhibit in the learning of a non-physical science domain--the human circulatory system. The goal was to understand how students learn by capturing the nature of their initial mental models (naive conceptions), and by seeing how new information gets assimilated into their mental models and how their mental models get revised in order to achieve the correct conception. This study reveals that certain misconceptions about the human circulatory system are robust and persistent, but that middle school students are capable of understanding some important aspects of the circulatory system and are then able to modify their existing misconceptions with better and more coherent views. Three major results were found. First, there is a fundamental difference between the physical and the non-physical sciences in terms of how they are learned. Second, aside from historically held misconceptions, which were identified a priori and formulated into questions, the analyses revealed each student's unique set of misconceptions. Third, all 10 students learned the material and although there was a significant difference in the range of the gain scores across the 10 students, such differences were not found to be a function of ability. (30 references) (kr)
Expertise in problem solving by Michelene T. H Chi( Book )

7 editions published in 1981 in English and held by 72 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

It has become increasingly clear in recent years that the quality of domain-specific knowledge is the main determinant of expertise in that domain. This paper begins with an examination of the shift from consideration of general, domain-independent skills and procedures, in both cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence, to the study of the knowledge base. Next, the empirical findings and theoretical models of other researchers in physics problem solving are detailed and summarized. Then our own work is presented, consisting of eight empirical studies. These studies show, in general, the importance of differences in the knowledge bases of experts and novices to their problem solving success. More specifically, they show that it is difficult to use protocols of problem solving episodes to illuminate the differences in the knowledge bases of experts and novices, that experts and novices perceive the problem themselves differently, i.e., novices respond to the surface features of a problem while experts respond to its deep structure, that less successful novices, at least, have deficiencies in their declarative knowledge of physics, that novices tend to lack knowledge of when to use certain physics knowledge, and that deficiencies in knowledge appear to prevent novices at times from making key inferences necessary for solving problems. Finally, these results and their implications for theories of intelligence, are discussed. (Author)
Changing conception of sources of memory development by Michelene T. H Chi( Book )

3 editions published in 1985 in English and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Categorization and representation of physics problems by experts and novices by Michelene T. H Chi( Book )

2 editions published in 1981 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The representation of physics problems in relation to the organization of physics knowledge is investigated in experts and novices. Four experiments examine (1) the existence of problem categories as a basis for representation, (2) differences in the categories used by experts and novices, (3) differences in the knowledge associated with the categories and (4) features in the problems that contribute to problem categorization and representation. Results from sorting tasks and protocols reveal that experts and novices begin their problem representations with specifiably different problem categories, and completion of the representation depends on the knowledge associated with the categories. For the experts, problem representation and subsequent approach to solution is guided by the physics principles initially abstracted from a problem, while novices base their representation and approaches on the problem's literal features. (Author)
Problem-solving ability by Michelene T. H Chi( Book )

4 editions published between 1983 and 1985 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Two important factors that influence problem solving are the nature of the task and the kind of knowledge brought to the problem by the solver. After a consideration of the definition of a problem, puzzle problems are discussed, as are problem representation and general processes of solution. Also discussed is the question of solving problems that require domain knowledge, along with an examination of how structure knowledge facilitates problem solving. Finally, ill-defined problems are considered. References are included. (Mns)
Self-explanations : how students study and use examples in learning to solve problems by Michelene T. H Chi( Book )

4 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The present paper analyzes in detail (talk-aloud protocols) 'Good' and 'Poor' students' initial encoding of worked-out examples of mechanics problems, and their subsequent reliance on examples during problem solving. We find that 'Good' students learn with understanding: they generate many explanations which refine and expand the conditions for the action parts of the example solutions, and relate these actions to principles in the text. These self-explanations are guided by accurate monitoring of their comprehension failures and successes. Such learning results in an example-independent knowledge and in a better understanding of the principles presented in the text. 'Poor' students do not generate sufficient self-explanations, inaccurately monitor their learning and subsequently rely heavily on examples. The results are discussed relating these psychological findings to existing AI models of explanation-based generalizations. Keywords: Cognitive monitoring, Self-explanation, Physics
A learning framework for development by Michelene T. H Chi( Book )

2 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Responding to recent advances in developmental and cognitive science research on knowledge acquisition, this report presents a theoretical framework for analyzing cognitive development as a process of learning. The first section summarizes three developmental characteristics recognized in both the Piagetian and the quantita experimental tradition: developmental stages, decalage (the inability to transfer concepts to new tasks), and memory deficits. The second section discusses several kinds of explanations that have been postulated for these phenomena, including the ideas that capacity increases with growth and that changes in the kinds and the availability of memory structures create developmental differences. The third section introduces theoretical memory structures and explicit learning mechanisms that have been postulated to operate in two general theories of learning and memory, while the fourth section speculates on how a learning theory embodying these structures and mechanisms might explain the phenomena in the first section. (Mm)
Knowledge-Derived Categorization in Young Children by Michelene T. H Chi( Book )

2 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study attempted to explain the findings of classical studies about young children's classification ability, namely that young children: (1) categorize on the basis of perceptual or concrete properties, (2) classify in a linear, nonhierarchical manner, and (3) use inconsistent criteria for classification. The study further proposed that children's classification outcomes are a function of the knowledge that they have and the representation that the knowledge takes. Two study approaches were used. First, group of seven-year-olds was divided into expert and novice groups based on the children's knowledge about dinosaurs. Both groups were asked to sort 20 dinosaur pictures into as many groups as they wished. Results indicated that when knowledge was available, as was the case with the expert children, they could classifiy hierarchically at the superordinate level. The novice children tended to classify at the basic level, relying primarily on perceptual features. The results suggested that the expert children's ability to classify at the superordinate level was due to the fact that their knowledge was already organized in such a way as to permit retrieval of this organization. The second study approach involved single, within-subject designs applied to four and five-year-olds. Results of these demonstrations indicated that (1) young children's representations may be hierarchical and consistent but fail to match the canonical form that the experimenter expects and (2) that young children may be inconsistent in their sorting criteria for an unfamiliar set of objects but be very consistent in their sorting criteria for a familiar set of objects. (Crh)
Handbook of applied cognition by Francis Thomas Durso( Book )

1 edition published in 1999 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This handbook provides workers in applied arenas with presentations of research aimed directly at problems and issues that confront them. Well-known contributors present a wealth of expertise suitable for both basic and applied researchers
Applying science of learning in education : infusing psychological science into the curriculum by Victor Benassi( Book )

2 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This edited book represents a sliver, albeit a substantial one, of the scholarship on the science of learning and its application in educational settings. Most of the work described in this book is based on theory and research in cognitive psychology. Although much, but not all, of what is presented is focused on learning in college and university settings, teachers of all academic levels may find the recommendations made by chapter authors of service. Authors wrote their chapters with nonexperts as the target audience - teachers who may have little or no background in science of learning, research-based approaches to teaching and learning, or even general principles of psychological science. The book is organized in three sections. The 14 chapters in Part 1 address important concepts, principles, theories, and research findings, and applications related to the science of learning. The four chapters in Part 2 focus on preparing faculty to apply science of learning principles in their courses. Finally, the six chapters in Part 3 provide examples of research that have been done in real academic settings and that have applied one or more science of learning principles." -- Book homepage
Cognitive Skill: Implications for Spatial Skill in Large-Scale Environments by William G Chase( Book )

3 editions published between 1979 and 1980 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The recent cognitive skills literature is reviewed and several principles of skilled performance are derived. One of the central issues in cognitive skills concerns the organization of knowledge and it was concluded that in a variety of domains, spatial knowledge is hierachically organized. This issue was explored in a map-drawing study and it was found that the most serious errors were due to a normalizing error, an error that is symptomatic of hierarchical organization. It was concluded that normalizing errors in large-scale environments are caused by incorrect representations at higher levels in the hierarchy (global errors). Finally, from an information processing analysis of spatial knowledge, the paper addresses the question of what are the cognitive processes underlying cognitive maps and cognitive mapping. (Author)
How knowledge is structured and used by expert and novice children by Camilla Gobbo( Book )

1 edition published in 1986 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Representing knowledge and metaknowledge : implications for interpreting metamemory research by Michelene T. H Chi( Book )

1 edition published in 1981 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Knowledge and Skill Differences in Novices and Experts( Book )

1 edition published in 1982 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The objective of this research is to construct a theory of expertise based upon empirical description of expert problem solving abilities in complex knowledge domains. Our goal is to develop a theory that is representative enough to encompass both analytical types of problem solving (such as, solving problems in physics), as well as more spatial types of problem solving (such as maneuvering in a large-scale environment). Our work in the past three years has proceeded in these two directions. A major interest of the project is to determine the extent to which there are skills that are generalized across domains, and skills that are domain-specific. the practical outcome of our work is the identification of dimensions of expertise that can be taken into account in training and assessing the attainment of high-level competence
Learning from Examples via Self-Explanations. Technical Report No. 11 by Michelene T. H Chi( Book )

1 edition published in 1988 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

One approach to the study of problem solving is to observe how people with different skills (novices and experts) solve problems by collecting and analyzing protocols and formulating models to obtain solution processes. Individual differences are subsequently explained by the differences in the knowledge possessed, as embodied by the sets of production rules or programs. The intention of the models was to derive the knowledge of the skilled solver from the knowledge of the unskilled solver. Inferences about the transition have not been straightforward. An alternative approach is to determine what students acquire from studying, to represent the knowledge underlying the generation of the solution procedures for the skilled and less skilled students. This paper summarizes a study of: (1) how students learn to solve simple mechanics problems; (2) what is learned when they study worked-out examples in the text; and (3) how they use what has been learned from the examples while solving problems. It was found that successful students learned the material in a different way than less successful. The good students' quality of explanations was better in that example statements were related to principles and concepts introduced in the text. (Author/RT)
Interactive roles of knowledge and strategies in the development of organized sorting and recall by Michelene T. H Chi( Book )

1 edition published in 1983 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Representation of Physics Knowledge by Experts and Novices( Book )

1 edition published in 1980 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The studies reported here investigate the representation and organization of physics knowledge in experts and novices. Four experiments investigate the existence of schemata for physics problems, qualitative and quantitative differences in schemata types used by experts and novices, differences in the content of these schemata, and features in the physics problems that activate problem representations. Results obtained from problem sorting tasks and protocol analysis reveal that novices and experts begin with specifiably different problem representations depending on the structure of their knowledge. The initial representation and subsequent approach to problem solution used by experts is based on physics principles abstracted from a problem, while novices base their representation and approaches on the problem's literal features
Knowledge-Constrained Inferences About New Domain-Related Concepts: Contrasting Expert and Novice Children by Michelene T. H Chi( Book )

1 edition published in 1988 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Three studies examined the domain of concepts about dinosaurs in order to assess how the domain might be structured in 4- through 7-year-old children's representations and to explore how the knowledge might be used. Findings indicated that significant differences exist in the way expert and novice children's representations are structured. Evidence further suggested that the structure of expert children's knowledge is more coherent, both locally and hierarchically. Some experts were able to sort dinosaurs at both the superordinate and family levels, but no novices did. Expert children could discriminate contrastive diet classes by using a single feature in both an inclusive and exclusive way. Expert children could reason categorically, using superordinate, family, and dinosaur categories. Novice children were just as competent as matched expert children in using general learning skills when these skills were assessed in a domain in which both the expert and novice children had equivalent knowledge. The use of learning skills seemed to differentiate experts from novices only in the context of dinosaur knowledge. Findings suggest that children can act more or less intelligently on the basis of what knowledge they have. A modest mastery of a domain results in intelligent explanations, constrained inferences, categorical reasoning, hierarchical classification, and classification based on well-defined family structures. Six figures are presented. (Rh)
 
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The nature of expertise
Alternative Names
Chi, M. T.

Chi Micki

Languages
English (69)

Covers
Trends in memory development researchHandbook of applied cognition