WorldCat Identities

Somero, George N.

Overview
Works: 46 works in 124 publications in 4 languages and 4,416 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings 
Roles: Author, Thesis advisor, Editor, Other
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by George N Somero
Biochemical adaptation by Peter W Hochachka( )

34 editions published between 1984 and 2014 in English and Undetermined and held by 3,322 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The study of biochemical adaption provides fascinating insights into how organisms "work" and how they evolve to sustain physiological function under a vast array of environmental conditions. This book describes how the abilities of organisms to thrive in widely different environments derive from two fundamental classes of biochemical adaptions: modifications of core biochemical processes that allow a common set of physiological functions to be conserved, and "inventions" of new biochemical traits that allow entry into novel habitats. Biochemical Adaptation: Mechanisms and Process in Physiolog
Strategies of biochemical adaptation by Peter W Hochachka( Book )

19 editions published between 1973 and 1980 in 3 languages and held by 650 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Water and life : comparative analysis of water relationships at the organismic, cellular, and molecular levels by George N Somero( Book )

14 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 284 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Presenting an analysis of the water relationships of the major groups of organisms: fungi, plants and animals, the text examines water stress at all levels of biological organization. Topics covered include: 1) organic osmotic agents: their distributions, modes of action, and mechanisms of regulation; 2) desiccation stress; mechanisms for preserving cellu lar integrity under conditions of low cellular water activity; 3) water stress and water compartmentation in plants; and 4) freezing stress: the prevention and regulation of ice formation in biological fluids, and mechanisms for overcoming the damaging effects of low temperatures on cellular integrity. Common adaptive strategies in diverse organisms are emphasized, as well as the fundamental physical-chemical properties of aqueous solutions that establish the nature of the interactions among water, low molecular weight solutes and macromolecules."--Pub. desc
Biochemical adaptation : response to environmental challenges, from life's origins to the Anthropocene by George N Somero( Book )

6 editions published between 2016 and 2017 in English and held by 84 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The abiotic characteristics of the environment - including temperature, oxygen availability, salinity, and hydrostatic pressure - present challenges to all biochemical structures and processes. This volume first examines the nature of these perturbations to biochemical systems and then elucidates the major adaptive strategies that enable organisms from all Domains of Life - Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya - to conserve common types of biochemical structures and processes across a wide range of environments. In addition to these conservative adaptations that foster a biochemical unity among diverse species, other adaptations can be viewed as innovative changes that enable organisms to exploit new features of the environment that may themselves be the result of biological activities
The biology of oxygen : evolutionary, physiological and molecular aspects( Book )

3 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 17 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Mechanisms of cold adaptation in some Antarctic fishes by George N Somero( )

3 editions published between 1676 and 1967 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Strategies of biochemical adaption by Peter W Hochachka( Book )

2 editions published in 1973 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Strategiâ biohimičeskoj adaptacii by Peter W Hochachka( Book )

3 editions published in 1977 in Russian and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Biochimičeskaja adaptacija by Peter W Hochachka( Book )

1 edition published in 1988 in Russian and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Inducible heat tolerance in Antarctic notothenioid fishes by J. E PODRABSKY( )

1 edition published in 2006 in Undetermined and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Thermal limits and adaptation in marine Antarctic ectotherms: an integrative view by H. O Pörtner( )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Humboldt squid in the northern California current system by Julia Suzanne Stewart( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) are large (> 1 m), short-lived (1-2 years), fast-growing (1 mm/d in adults), highly fecund (30 million eggs/female), generalist predators in the eastern Pacific Ocean that support the world's largest invertebrate fishery (FAO 2009). Life history and behavioral characteristics of the Humboldt squid have likely facilitated its range expansion into the northern California Current System. After an initial presence during the 1997/1998 El Niño, Humboldt squid were observed in variable numbers from 2002-2010. Seasonal feeding migrations likely bring them to the productive waters off the coast of Washington and British Columbia to forage before returning to warmer waters to spawn. I investigated the behavior and habitat of Humboldt squid in situ with both electronic tags deployed on individual animals and observations collected by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in Monterey Bay that recorded thousands of Humboldt squid from 1997-2010. Several tagged squid dove to depths> 1.25 km, through the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), and I estimated they can sustain horizontal velocities of> 35 km/day for over two weeks, with maximum velocities> 50 km/day. Further, I integrated observations of Humboldt squid on each ROV dive with information on time-at-depth of the ROV, creating an "encounter rate" metric that can be used in ecosystem and fisheries models, similar to catch per unit effort (CPUE). I used this metric to investigate the seasonality of Humboldt squid presence in the Monterey Bay area in relation to upwelling and found that early evolution of the upwelling season may serve as an indicator for the annual magnitude of their presence. My work reveals capabilities and behaviors of Humboldt squid that will enhance our understanding of their impacts on the ecosystems and fisheries in the California Current System
Temperature tolerance of some antarctic fish by George N Somero( )

1 edition published in 1967 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Strategies of biochemical adaptation [by] Peter W. Hochachka [and] George N. Somero by Peter W Hochachka( Book )

1 edition published in 1973 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Epigenetic regulation of behavior in Astatotilapia burtoni, a cichlid fish by Kapa Lenkov( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The ability of an animal to change quickly in response to its surroundings is essential to its survival and in some species, individuals respond by changing phenotype. The studies in this thesis focus on the molecular mechanisms through which environmental information can affect changes in phenotype in an African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni. This species is particularly useful for this study, as adult male burtoni assume one of two distinct, reversible, behavioral and physiological phenotypes. Dominant (D) males are brightly colored, reproductively capable and engage in mating and aggressive territorial behaviors while non-dominant (ND) males are drably colored, reproductively incapable, and are behaviorally passive. Importantly, the transition from ND to D or the reverse can occur in a matter of minutes and is triggered solely by external social cues. How such external information is translated into phenotypic changes on the molecular level is the focus of these experiments and my data suggest an epigenetic mechanism may regulate this transition. The specific epigenetic mechanism assessed here is DNA methylation, which is the covalent attachment of a methyl group to the cytosine nucleotide of DNA, which can lead to changes in expression. First, I showed that DNA methylation is present in A. burtoni, as not all animals utilize this mechanism. I used immunohistochemistry to demonstrate that high levels of global methylation are present in the nuclei of all cells examined, most likely bound with the highest frequency to heterochromatin, to suppress transcription of specific transcribed regions. However, there were no differences detected between behavioral states using these methods. Next I demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms play a role during the determination of social status by treating juvenile males with epigenetic modifiers that either promote or interfere with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT). Animals injected with zebularine, which blocks the activity of DNMT, were statistically unlikely to ascend to D status, while those injected with methionine, which acts as a methyl donor, were statistically likely to become D males. Once a potential role for DNA methylation in social status determination was found, I surveyed potential sites of action on the GnRH1 gene, a key regulator of reproductive behavior, for variations in methylation on the single nucleotide level. I found that fully established Ds and NDs do not have differences in methylation levels in any on the individual nucleotides assayed on the GnRH1 promoter or coding region; however, juvenile males have lower levels of methylation than Ds at some sites on the promoter, while males transitioning to D status have lower average promoter methylation, but higher average coding region methylation than D males. Furthermore, ND animals injected with zebularine have higher average levels of methylation on both the promoter and coding region than control ND males. In order to better understand the context of the methylation changes during sexual maturation, methylation levels on the GnRH1 gene were measured during normal development. GnRH1 methylation levels remain constant between two and four weeks of age but increase significantly at several sites between 4 and 6 weeks of age. Furthermore, crowding mothers during the brooding stage and raising young in crowded tanks results in lower methylation levels at both 2 and 6 weeks of age, as well as causing delayed growth at the 6 week stage. Finally, I measured GnRH1 methylation in a non-reproductive context. Since GnRH agonists can interfere with short-term memory in humans, I measured changes in methylation in the GnRH1 gene during memory formation and storage. Animals who successfully learned a memory task showed a correlation with higher methylation at sites in the GnRH1 coding region than non-learners. Learners were successfully able to recall their training after three months; however, the increased methylation in the coding region was no longer present. In summary, DNA methylation is present in A. burtoni and increases on the GnRH1 gene promoter and coding sequence during transitions in development and sexual maturation. As GnRH1 expression levels are known to increase in these cases, increased methylation is not acting canonically as a repressor of expression on GnRH1. During short-term learning, higher methylation is limited to only the coding region of GnRH1, indicating that there may be several different epigenetic regulatory pathways involving this gene. Furthermore, the observation that there are no differences in GnRH1 methylation between stable D and ND males, or, in the long-term, between learners and non-learners, suggests that methylation in this location may be transitory and used as a short-term marker for other regulatory mechanisms
Metabolic scaling: a new perspective based on scaling of glycolytic enzyme activities by J. J Childress( )

1 edition published in 1990 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Cold adaptation of the Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii by George N Somero( )

1 edition published in 1968 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Deep sea hydrothermal vents the hottest thing in oceanography( )

2 editions published in 1981 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The colloquium included scientists of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography who presented illustrated lectures documenting marine life and unusual geological formations discovered at hydrothermal vents in the deep sea. The colloquium was chaired by Scripps Institution of Oceanographpy Director William A. Nierenberg and included lectures by Harmon Craig, Robert R. Hessler, George N. Somero and Fred Noel Spiess
Strategie adaptacji biochemicznych by Peter W Hochachka( Book )

1 edition published in 1978 in Polish and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Population genomics and adaptive evolution in the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus by Melissa Helen Pespeni( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The overarching goal of this thesis research has been to determine if, how and when natural selection might act to lead to local adaptation in a high gene flow species distributed along a strong environmental gradient. The purple sea urchin lives from the cold waters of Alaska to the warmer waters of Baja California, Mexico. In accordance with their high dispersal potential as larvae, previous studies have found no population structure along the species range in mitochondrial and allozyme markers. This combination of potentially strong environmental selection and high neutral gene flow presents a stringent test for selection that requires a genome-wide approach in order to detect signals of selection. Restriction Site Tiling Analysis: accurate discovery and quantitative genotyping of genome-wide polymorphisms using nucleotide arrays (Pespeni et al. 2010 Genome Biology). Genome scanning approaches applied in model organisms are too costly and inaccurate for highly heterozygous out-crossed wild populations, while approaches applied in non-model organisms (e.g. AFLP and microsatellite markers) are anonymous with respect to gene function. To address this challenge, I developed a generally applicable technique, Restriction Site Tiling Analysis (RSTA), which uses a single genome sequence and high-density microarrays to detect polymorphisms and yield genotype data. The approach is 99.6% accurate. Genome scanning techniques such as this promise to generate significant advances in the identification of functionally important traits in ecologically interesting species. Population genomics reveals genetic differentiation in a high gene flow species, the purple sea urchin (Pespeni et al. 2010 Genome Biology). I compared the genomes of 20 individuals from Boiler Bay, Oregon and San Diego, California using 20 RSTA arrays. This experiment identified 12,431 polymorphisms and yielded individual genotype data for each locus. Principle components analysis spatially separated northern from southern urchin individuals. The observed FST distribution was significantly broader than 10,000 simulated panmictic distributions, revealing some 2.5-5% of loci driving the signal of differentiation. Outlier analyses detected 4 loci that may be subject to strong divergent selection, two transcription factors and two transporter proteins. Taken together these results show a strong signal of population differentiation in a small but significant fraction of the purple sea urchin genome. Genome-wide polymorphisms show the targets and timing of natural selection in the purple sea urchin (Pespeni et al. submitted). To determine if signals of population differentiation were due to drift or selection, I tested for the non-random distribution of high FST and high heterozygosity polymorphisms across the genome with respect to gene function and the timing- and tissue-specificity of gene expression. I found 1) highly significant enrichment for high FST polymorphisms in the regulatory regions of proteolysis genes, 2) over-representation of high FST polymorphisms in the coding regions of genes expressed exclusively in larvae and during development, and 3) highly significant enrichment for high heterozygosity polymorphisms dominated by immunity related proteins. These results illustrate the potential importance of adaptive gene regulation and amino acid divergence and the potential roles of divergent and balancing selection in different parts of the genome along the species range. Selection without clines: Molecular signatures of adaptation in the highly dispersing purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Pespeni and Palumbi, in prep). The balance between gene flow and natural selection may result in distinct signals of selection depending on the environmental heterogeneity across the landscape of the species range. In this study I directly sequence 6 putative selected and 2 putative conserved or neutral nuclear genes in 165 purple sea urchins from 6 populations along the purple sea urchin species range from Canada to Mexico. I find signals of selection in all six candidate genes and little to no signal of selection in control genes. Results show: 1) several signals of selection at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, 2) clinal patterns in the cubilin receptor gene and in a Serine to Glycine polymorphism in the gaba-b receptor, and 3) a signal of local adaptation in San Diego purple sea urchins. Overall, patterns of genetic variation match predictions based on spatially balancing selection across a heterogeneous landscape and illustrate the value of following up on candidate loci identified in a genome-wide scan for selection
 
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Biochemical adaptation
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Alternative Names
Somero, Dž.

Somero, G. N.

Somero, G. N. (George N.)

Somero, George N.

Somero, George Nicholls.

Сомеро, Дж.

Сомеро Джордж

ソメロ

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