WorldCat Identities

Rossby, Carl-Gustaf

Works: 83 works in 150 publications in 3 languages and 1,575 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings  Charts, diagrams, etc  Observations 
Roles: Author, Other, Honoree, Editor, Publishing director
Classifications: QC852, 551.5082
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works about Carl-Gustaf Rossby
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Most widely held works by Carl-Gustaf Rossby
Airplane transportation by James C Woolley( Book )

4 editions published in 1929 in English and Undetermined and held by 95 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Boundary-layer problems in the atmosphere and ocean( )

1 edition published in 1943 in English and held by 71 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Ein neuer Erhaltungssatz der Hydrodynamik by Hans Ertel( Book )

8 editions published between 1949 and 1950 in German and held by 59 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Thermodynamics applied to air mass analysis by Carl-Gustaf Rossby( Book )

6 editions published between 1932 and 1974 in English and held by 40 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Weather estimates from local aerological data; a preliminary report by Carl-Gustaf Rossby( Book )

5 editions published between 1942 and 1944 in English and held by 30 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Kinematic and hydrostatic properties of certain long waves in the westerlies by C.-G Rossby( Book )

3 editions published between 1942 and 1943 in English and held by 22 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Boundary-layer problems in the atmosphere and ocean( Book )

6 editions published in 1943 in English and held by 19 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Dynamics of steady ocean currents in the light of experimental fluid mechanics by Carl-Gustaf Rossby( Book )

2 editions published in 1936 in English and held by 18 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Introduction: The present investigation may be regarded as a part of a systematic effort to introduce into meteorology and physical oceanography methods and results which for a number of years have contributed to the rapid growth and increasing practical significance of experimental fluid mechanics. This science has recognized that the exact character of the forces controlling the motion of a turbulent fluid is not known and that consequently there is very little justification for a purely theoretical attack on problems of a practical character. For this reason fluid mechanics has been forced to develop a research technique all of its own, in which the theory is developed on the basis of experiments and then used to predict the behavior of fluids in cases which are not accessible to experimentation. In oceanography it has long been regarded as an axiom that the movements of the water are controlled by three forces, the horizontal pressure gradient, the deflecting force, and the frictional force resulting from the relative motion of superimposed strata. It is significant that thirty-five years of intensive theoretical work on this basis have failed to produce a theory capable of explaining the major features of the observed oceanic circulation below the pure drift current layer. The present investigation considers a force which has been completely disregarded by theoretical investigators although its existence has been admitted implicitly by practically everyone who has approached physical oceanography from the descriptive side, namely the frictional force resulting from large-scale horizontal mixing. The introduction of this force permits us to see how motion generated in the surface layers May be diffused and finally dissipated without recourse to doubtful frictional forces at the bottom of the ocean. A great number of practical hydrodynamic investigations of the observed oceanic current systems consist mainly in velocity calculations with the aid of the circulation theorem. Without denying the great practical value of the circulation theorem, the present investigation endeavors to emphasize a fact which by this time should have been generally accepted but which it not always kept in mind, namely the impossibility of drawing any conclusions regarding the cause of oceanic motions from the ordinary routine application of the circulation theorem. In the first part of the paper the principal imperfections of the present theory for the oceanic circulation are set forth. Frictional forces due to horizontal mixing are then introduced and the effect of the earth's rotation on the horizontal eddy velocities analyzed. Tollmien's theory for the mixing along the edges of a steady stream moving through a resting fluid is then discussed and certain experimental verifications are described. With the aid of a principle first stated by G. I. Taylor, Tollmien's results are applied to current systems subject to a deflecting force. Finally certain important modifications resulting from the stratification in the ocean are treated. In the second part of the paper an attempt is made to trace the mixing between the Gulf Stream and its surroundings with the aid of the observed distribution of temperature, salinity and oxygen. The results of this qualitative analysis seem to bear out the theoretical predictions. The theory set forth is utterly incomplete, and serious objections may be raised against the looseness of the reasoning on which it is based. Nevertheless, the author believes that it may serve as a useful working hypothesis, since its predictions refer to an idealized stratified ocean and not to a non-existent homogeneous medium. The present paper is to a large extent the result of fruitful cooperation between a number of persons. Dr. H. Peters of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology not only carried out certain experimental tests of Tollmien's theory but also, in a number of discussions, directed my attention to various investigations bearing on the relative merits of the momentum transfer and the vorticity transfer theories. Mr. C. O'D. Iselin of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has contributed his vast knowledge of the hydrographic conditions in the North Atlantic. Without his active cooperation it would have been impossible to carry through the investigation to a point where it could be tested against observations. Several of the conclusions here derived from purely theoretical considerations have already been reached by Mr. Iselin from a study of the hydrographic data collected by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Mr. H. R. Seiwell's investigations of the oxygen distribution in the North Atlantic have been particularly helpful and are responsible for the choice of oxygen as an indicator of horizontal mixing. The author is indebted to Dr. H. B. Bigelow for various helpful suggestions. A brief account of the principal theoretical results presented below was given before the annual meeting of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences in New York, January, 1936. At the date of writing this introduction, Dr. A. E. Parr of Yale University informs me that he has been led to conclusions of substantially the same nature as some of the ones here presented, through a study of recent hydrographic data from the Caribbean. Dr. Parr's results will be published in Journal du Conseil
Fluid mechanics applied to the study of atmospheric circulations : Part I, a study of flow patterns with the aid of isentripic analysis by Carl-Gustaf Rossby( Book )

1 edition published in 1938 in English and held by 18 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Preface: progress at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology during the past few years and which have been supported in part with funds provided by the Weather Bureau of the U. S. Department of Agriculture under the Bankhead-Jones Special Research Fund. The ultimate purpose of these investigations is to develop a sound physical model of the general circulation of the atmosphere, in the hope that an improved understanding of this process eventually may furnish valuable clues as to how the time range of our present daily weather forecasts may be extended and their quality be improved. In the past, the interpretation of the large-scale circulations of the atmosphere with the aid of the tools of classical hydrodynamics has suffered from the fact that these tools were designed for the study of thermodynamically inactive fluids, in which, furthermore, viscous or eddy stresses could be neglected. Through the work of V. Bjerknes and his students a good start has now been made towards the development of a science of hydrodynamics applicable also to thermodynamically active fluids, in which density changes are taking place as a result of non-adiabatic temperature changes. The removal of the second restriction-i.e., the development of hydrodynamic tools adapted to the study of fluids in which eddy stresses play a dominant role-has been accomplished mainly through the investigations of the Gottingen school of fluid mechanics. As yet, no synthesis of these two modern developments has been accomplished, although it is becoming increasingly clear that such a synthesis is needed before any headway can be made with the interpretation of the behaviour of the atmosphere. There has been a tendency on the part of meteorologists to assume that the effects of eddy stresses are restricted to a layer near the ground, and that the atmosphere above this layer behaves approximately as an ideal fluid. Even fairly elementary considerations show that a real understanding of atmospheric circulations becomes absolutely impossible on the basis of this assumption. A modest first attempt towards such a synthesis of the Norwegian and German developments will be attempted in these reports. It will be shown that the movements in the free atmosphere above the ground friction layer are affected by large-scale lateral mixing processes which produce shearing stresses acting across vertical planes, and one or two examples will be given to demonstrate that reasonable steady state solutions for the atmosphere can be obtained by taking this internal stress distribution into account. It will be shown, moreover, that the distribution of cold sources and heat sources in the free atmosphere is at least in part controlled by the stress distribution, which regulates the location of ascending and descending movements. The investigations here reported have been directed by the undersigned, and conducted as a collaborative undertaking by a number of persons. In addition to the authors appearing on the title page of this part of the report, Dr. C. L. Pekeris of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Messrs. H. Wexler, G. Grimminger and V. Starr of the Weather Bureau, Prof. A. F. Spilhaus of New York University, and Dr. Hans Ertel of the University of Berlin have made valuable contributions, mainly of a theoretical nature. Related investigations, also under the Bankhead-Jones Special Research Fund, have been in progress in the Meteorological Research Division of the Weather Bureau at Washington, and will b.e reported in later publications elsewhere; the contributions of those mentioned above will be coordinated and presented in the form of a theoretical discussion of atmospheric circulations, to be published as Part II of the report. To a very large extent the results presented below are based on studies of the upper air data analyzed as a matter of daily routine in the Meteorological Division of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. H. C. Willett, Professor J. Holmboe and Mr. G. Lukes have carried a large portion of this work and made valuable contributions in the many discussions preceding the preparation of our report. All of us wish to take this opportunity to publicly acknowledge our appreciation of the wholehearted support this investigation has received from the late Chief of the U. S. Weather Bureau, Dr. Willis R. Gregg, in whom our division had a sincere friend and supporter. Dr. C. F. Sarle, principal economist of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, took the initiative toward a coordination of governmental and university facilities for the purpose of getting under way a broad research program in basic meterological problems. We are greatly appreciative of his initiative, broad vision and unfailing support
Analysis of the cup anemoneter by Athelstan F Spilhaus( Book )

2 editions published in 1934 in English and held by 17 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The layer of frictional influence in wind and ocean currents by Carl Gustav Rossby( Book )

2 editions published in 1935 in English and held by 15 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A generalization of the theory of the mixing length with applications to atmospheric and oceanic turbulence by Carl-Gustaf Rossby( Book )

2 editions published between 1932 and 1974 in English and held by 14 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Meteorologiska Resultat av en sommarseglats runt de Brittiska öarna : with an Engl. summary : (Meteorological results of a summer-cruise round the British Isles) by Carl-Gustaf Rossby( Book )

6 editions published in 1925 in 4 languages and held by 14 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The transient condition of the human hair hygrometric element by Athelstan F Spilhaus( Book )

3 editions published in 1935 in English and held by 12 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Atmospheric structure over the Southern United States, December 30-31, 1927 : determined with the aid of sounding-balloon observations by Gardner Emmons( Book )

3 editions published in 1935 in English and held by 12 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The formation and dissipation of stratus clouds beneath turbulence inversions by Floyd B Wood( Book )

2 editions published in 1937 in English and held by 12 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The development and present status of the theory of the heat balance in the atmosphere by Chaim Leib Pekeris( Book )

2 editions published in 1932 in English and held by 9 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Structure of a wedge of continental polar air determined from aërological observations by Jerome Namias( Book )

1 edition published in 1934 in English and held by 8 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The scientific basis of modern meteorology by Carl-Gustaf Arvid Rossby( Book )

4 editions published between 1941 and 1942 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Meteorological course, professional notes by Massachusetts Institute of Technology( Book )

in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

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Audience level: 0.48 (from 0.17 for Inventing ... to 1.00 for Papers, ...)

Alternative Names
Carl-Gustaf Rossby meteorolog szwedzki

Carl-Gustaf Rossby meteorólogo estadounidense de origen sueco

Carl-Gustaf Rossby météorologue suédois, naturalisé américain

Carl-Gustaf Rossby schwedisch-US-amerikanischer Meteorologe

Carl-Gustaf Rossby Swedish and American meteorologist

Carl-Gustaf Rossby Zweeds meteoroloog (1898-1923)

Carl-Gustav Arvid Rossby meteorologo svedese

Carl-Gustav Rossby

Rossby, C.-G.

Rossby, C.-G. ca. 20. Jh.

Rossby, C.-G. (Carl-Gustaf)

Rossby, Carl-Gustav ca. 20. Jh.

Карл Густав Арвид Росби шведско-американский метеоролог

Карл-Густав Россбі шведсько-американський метеоролог

کارل-قوستاو روسبی

کارل-گوستاو روسبی



English (82)

German (10)

Swedish (3)