WorldCat Identities
Fri Mar 21 17:04:02 2014 UTClccn-n851309350.37Handbook of labor economics /0.700.93Lawyers as agents of the devil in a prisoner's dilemma game /109038286Orley_Ashenfeltern 851309351439430Ashenfelter, O. 1942-Ashenfelter, Orley.Ashenfelter, Orley, 1942-Ashenfelter, Orley C.Ashenfelter, Orley C., 1942-Ashenfelter, Orley ClarkAshenfelter, Orley Clark 1942-lccn-n82257145Card, David E.(David Edward)1956-hnredtlccn-n82064068Princeton UniversityIndustrial Relations Sectionedtnc-national bureau of economic researchNational Bureau of Economic Researchlccn-n50038409Layard, Richard1934-comedtlccn-n50047371Rees, Albert1921-1992edtlccn-n82134466Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairslccn-n79139286National Bureau of Economic Researchlccn-n94111375Hallock, Kevin F.1969-edtlccn-n50042812Bowen, William G.edtviaf-19771075Blum, JamesedtAshenfelter, Orley1942-Conference proceedingsHandbooks, manuals, etcUnited StatesLabor economicsInflation (Finance)Minorities--EmploymentLabor unionsDiscrimination in employmentLabor supplyLabor marketLabor policyManpower policyEconometricsEducation--Economic aspectsSocial sciencesConsolidation and merger of corporationsPrice cuttingLabor mobilityWagesIndustrial relationsLabor demandWages--Effect of education onOccupational training--Economic aspectsEmployees--Training of--Economic aspectsWelfare recipients--Employment--Econometric modelsPublic welfare--Econometric modelsEconomics--Statistical methodsInstrumental variables (Statistics)Speed limits--Economic aspectsLife--ValuationRiskWages--Effect of education on--Econometric modelsHuman capitalHuman capital--Econometric modelsEducation--Economic aspects--Econometric modelsIncome--Econometric modelsPrisoner's dilemma game--Mathematical modelsChoice (Psychology)--Mathematical modelsMediation--Psychological aspectsPrisoner's dilemma gameChoice (Psychology)Incentive (Psychology)Legal services--EvaluationTwinsHuman capital--Mathematical modelsEducation--Economic aspects--Mathematical modelsIncome distributionIncome--Mathematical modelsArbitration, Industrial--Mathematical modelsCompetitionAntitrust lawStaples (Firm)1942196519681969197019711972197319741975197619771978197919801981198219831984198519861987198819891990199119921993199419951996199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011201220137948243955331HD4802ocn000695075ocn462859750ocn468369878ocn490120905ocn315384825ocn797910191ocn468190331ocn468597803ocn802786709ocn299970141ocn625917465ocn637945697ocn637945677ocn494602562ocn310361976ocn255176770119783ocn013947761book19860.66Ashenfelter, OrleyHandbook of labor economicsHandbooks, manuals, etcWhat factors affect the ways individuals participate in labor markets? "New Developments and Research on Labor Markets" (volume 4B) proposes answers to this and other questions on important topics of public policy. Leading labor economists demonstrate how better data and advanced experiments help them apply economic theory, yielding sharper analyses and conclusions. The combinations of these improved empirical findings with new models enable the authors of these chapters to reveal how labor economists are developing new and innovative ways to measure key parameters and test important hypotheses. Concentrates on empirical research in specific labor markets, including those defined by age, gender, and race Reveals how questions and answers about these markets have changed and how models measure them Documents how conceptual models and empirical work explain important practical issues+-+32365099957619ocn000695075book19730.63Ashenfelter, OrleyDiscrimination in labor marketsConference proceedings3565ocn001551439book19650.59Bowen, William GLabor and the national economy+-+11444584853243378ocn003205700book19760.79Conference on the Evaluation of the Labor-Market Effects of Social ProgramsEvaluating the labor-market effects of social programsConference proceedings3277ocn003034537book19770.76Essays in labor market analysis : in memory of Yochanan Peter Comay21211ocn050255062book20030.66Ashenfelter, OrleyStatistics and econometrics : methods and applications+-+023256629516316ocn031659161book19950.66Labor economics1633ocn082144719file19980.76Ashenfelter, OrleyIdentifying the firm-specific cost pass-through rate15111ocn772909628file19990.79Handbook of labor economicsHandbooks, manuals, etcModern labor economics has continued to grow and develop since the first volumes of this Handbook were published. The subject matter of labor economics continues to have at its core an attempt to systematically find empirical analyses that are consistent with a systematic and parsimonious theoretical understanding of the diverse phenomenon that make up the labor market. As before, many of these analyses are provocative and controversial because they are so directly relevant to both public policy and private decision making. In many ways the modern development in the field of labor economics continues to set the standards for the best work in applied economics. This volume of the Handbook has a notable representation of authors - and topics of importance - from throughout the world+-+943650999512017ocn050599555book20020.84Ashenfelter, OrleyUsing mandated speed limits to measure the value of a statistical lifeIn 1987 the federal government permitted states to raise the speed limit on their rural interstate roads, but not on their urban interstate roads, from 55 mph to 65 mph for the first time in over a decade. Since the states that adopted the higher speed limit must have valued the travel hours they saved more than the fatalities incurred, this experiment provides a way to estimate an upper bound on the public's willingness to trade off wealth for a change in the probability of death. We find that the 65 mph limit increased speeds by approximately 3.5% (i.e., 2 mph), and increased fatality rates by roughly 35%. In the 21 states that raised the speed limit and for whom we have complete data, the estimates suggest that about 125,000 hours were saved per lost life. Valuing the time saved at the average hourly wage implies that adopting states were willing to accept risks that resulted in a savings of $1.54 million (1997$) per fatality, with a sampling error that might be around one-third this value. Since this estimate is an upper bound of the value of a statistical life (VSL), we set out a simple structural model that is identified by variability across the states in the probability of the adoption of increased speed limits to recover the VSL. The impirical implementation of this model produces estimates of the VSL that are generally smaller that $1.54 million, but these estimates are very imprecise1187ocn034115988book19960.73The Economics of training+-+926432703610813ocn041333175book19980.88Ashenfelter, OrleyDo unemployment insurance recipients actively seek work? : randomized trials in four U.S. statesIn the last two decades, U.S. policies have moved from the use of incentives to the use of sanctions to promote work effort in social programs. Surprisingly, except for anecdotes, there is very little systematic evidence of the extent to which sanctions applied to the abusive use of social entitlements result in greater work effort. In this paper we report the results of randomized trials designed to measure whether stricter enforcement and verification of work search behavior alone decreases unemployment (UI) claims and benefits. These experiments were designed to explicitly test claims based on non-experimental data failure of claimants to actively seek work. Our results provide no support for the view that the failure to actively seek work has been a cause of overpayment in the UI system10715ocn029189675book19900.93Ashenfelter, OrleyLawyers as agents of the devil in a prisoner's dilemma gameDo the parties in a typical dispute face incentives similar to those in the classic prisoner's dilemma game? In this paper, we explore whether the costs and benefits of legal representation are such that each party seeks legal representation in the hope of exploiting the other party, while knowing full well that failing to do so will open up the possibility of being exploited. The paper first shows how it is possible to test for the presence of such an incentive structure in a typical dispute resolution system. It then reports estimates of the incentives for the parties to obtain legal representation in wage disputes that were settled by final-offer arbitration in New Jersey. The paper also reports briefly on similar studies of data from discharge grievances, court-annexed disputes in Pittsburgh, and child custody disputes in California. In each case, the data provide evidence that the parties face strong individual incentives to obtain legal representation which makes the parties jointly worse off. Using our New Jersey data, we find that expert agents may well have played a productive role in moderating the biases of their clients, but only early on in the history of the system. Over time, the parties slowly evolved to a non-cooperative equilibrium where the use of lawyers becomes nearly universal, despite the fact that agreeing not to hire lawyers is cheaper and does not appear to alter arbitration outcomes10613ocn031596137book19910.84Ashenfelter, OrleyHow convincing is the evidence linking education and income?Recent research has studied the link between schooling and income. Evidence indicates the strong relationship found between level of education and lifetime earnings levels. Labor economists have designed studies and measured educational outcomes to differentiate between earnings associated with innate ability and earnings associated with investments in education. A series of studies to control ability using intrafamily measures, including surveys of fathers, sons, brothers, and twins attending an annual convention of twins, helps to identify the relatively robust finding that returns to education average around 10 percent. Other "natural" experiments using time of year of birth and compulsory school attendance laws and draft lottery numbers from the Vietnam War era also shed light on the magnitude of educational effects and support the 10 percent figure. (Appendixes include eight footnotes and three figures.) (YLB)10413ocn055083686book20040.84Ashenfelter, OrleyEstimating the value of a statistical life : the importance of omitted variables and publication bias"In this paper we show that omitted variables and publication bias lead to severely biased estimates of the value of a statistical life. Although our empirical results are obtained in the context of a study of choices about road safety, we suspect that the same issues plague the estimation of monetary trade-offs regarding safety in other contexts"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site10223ocn220564724book19860.37Ashenfelter, OrleyHandbook of labor economics+-+720323999510120ocn043328032book19990.90Ashenfelter, OrleyA review of estimates of the schooling/earnings relationship with tests for publication biasAbstract: In this paper we provide an analytical review of previous estimates of the rate of return on schooling investments and measure how these estimates vary by country, over time, and by estimation method. We find evidence reporting (or file drawer') bias in the estimates and, after due account is taken of this bias, we find that differences due to estimation method are much smaller than is sometimes reported, although some are statistically significant. We also find that estimated returns are higher in the U.S. and they have increased in the last two decades10016ocn037585747book19960.88Ashenfelter, OrleyIncome, schooling, and ability : evidence from a new sample of identical twinsWe develop a model of optimal schooling investments and estimate it using new data on approximately 700 identical twins. We estimate an average return to schooling of 9 percent for identical twins, but estimated returns appear to be slightly higher for less able individuals. Simple cross-section estimates are marginally upward biased. These empirical results imply that more able individuals attain more schooling because they face lower marginal costs of schooling, not because of higher marginal benefits9612ocn041012582book19980.90Ashenfelter, OrleySchooling, intelligence, and income in America : cracks in the bell curveOne of the best documented relationships in economics is the link between education and income: higher educated people have higher incomes. Advocates argue that education provides skills, or human capital, that raises an individual's productivity. Critics argue that the documented relationship is not causal. Education does not generate higher incomes; instead, individuals with higher ability receive more education and more income. This essay reviews the evidence on the relationship between education and income. We focus on recent studies that have attempted to determine the causal effect of education on income by either comparing income and education differences within families or using exogenous determinants of schooling in what are sometimes called natural experiments.' In addition, we assess the potential for education to reduce income disparities by presenting evidence on the return to education for people of differing family backgrounds and measured ability. The results of all these studies are surprisingly consistent: they indicate that the return to schooling is not caused by an omitted correlation between ability and schooling. Moreover, we find no evidence that the return to schooling differs significantly by family background or by the measured ability of the student9519ocn214275562book19860.37Ashenfelter, OrleyHandbook of labor economics+-+9103239995324+-+9436509995+-+9436509995Fri Mar 21 15:10:39 EDT 2014batch33627