WorldCat Identities
Fri Mar 21 17:16:22 2014 UTClccn-n853867390.50News that matters : television and American opinion /0.590.93American National Election Study Pooled Senate Election Study, 1988, 1990, 1992 /91963243n 853867391763940lccn-n85386738Iyengar, Shantolccn-n2006094312Kam, Cindy D.1975-lccn-n95106662Sanders, Lynn M.lccn-no2012003793Dale-Riddle, Allisonlccn-n94112934Obama, Baracklccn-n79141035Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Researchlccn-n80001681Rosenstone, Steven J.lccn-n91013874Palfrey, Thomas R.1953-edtnp-miller, warren eMiller, Warren E.lccn-n79006865United StatesCongressKinder, Donald R.Lists‡vCode numbersSoftwareSurveysUnited StatesPublic opinionTelevision and politicsTelevision broadcasting of news--Psychological aspectsTelevision broadcasting of news--Political aspectsRace relations--Political aspectsSocial valuesAmericans--AttitudesSocial psychologyEthnocentrismManners and customsPolitical sciencePresidents--ElectionRacism--Political aspectsRace--Political aspectsObama, BarackElectionsVoting registersPolitical science--MethodologyPolitical science--ResearchUnited States.--CongressPublic opinion pollsPersian Gulf War (1991)United States.--Congress.--SenateIraq-Kuwait Crisis (1990-1991)Race relationsCalifornia--Los AngelesVoting researchElections--Public opinionInternational relations--Public opinionPolitical science--Public opinionLegislators--Public opinionPublic opinion--StatisticsElections--StatisticsVoting--StatisticsPolitics and warVoting--Public opinion194719711979198119821984198719881989199019911992199319941995199619971998199920002001200220032004200920102012422061176302.2345PN4888.T4ocn711526753ocn807039714147422ocn015107390book19870.50Iyengar, ShantoNews that matters : television and American opinionAlmost twenty-five years ago, Shanto Iyengar and Donald R. Kinder first documented a series of sophisticated and innovative experiments that unobtrusively altered the order and emphasis of news stories in selected television broadcasts. Their resulting book, "News That Matters", now hailed as a classic by scholars of political science and public opinion alike, is here updated for the twenty-first century, with a new preface and epilogue by the authors. Backed by careful analysis of public opinion surveys, the authors show how, despite changing American politics, those issues that receive extended coverage in the national news become more important to viewers, while those that are ignored lose credibility. Moreover, those issues that are prominent in the news stream continue to loom more heavily as criteria for evaluating the president and for choosing between political candidates+-+630338177583110ocn615635162file20090.56Kinder, Donald RUs against them ethnocentric foundations of American opinion"Ethnocentrism - our tendency to partition the human world into in-groups and out-groups - pervades societies around the world. Surprisingly, though, few scholars have explored its role in political life. Donald Kinder and Cindy Kam fill this gap with Us Against Them, their definitive explanation of how ethnocentrism shapes American public opinion." "Arguing that humans are broadly predisposed to ethnocentrism, Kinder and Kam explore its impact on our attitudes toward an array of issues, including the war on terror, humanitarian assistance, immigration, the sanctity of marriage, and the reform of social programs. The authors ground their study in previous theories from a wide range of disciplines, establishing a new framework for understanding what ethnocentrism is and how it becomes politically consequential. They also marshal a vast trove of survey evidence to identify the conditions under which ethnocentrism shapes public opinion. While ethnocentrism is widespread in the United States, the authors demonstrate that its political relevance depends on circumstance. Exploring the implications of these findings for political knowledge, cosmopolitanism, and societies outside the United States, Kinder and Kam add a new dimension to our understanding of how democracy functions."--BOOK JACKET+-+45208917757006ocn033819409book19960.59Kinder, Donald RDivided by color : racial politics and democratic idealsBut more than a comprehensive description of American views on race, Divided by Color seeks to explain just why black and white Americans believe what they do. Kinder and Sanders analyze the critical factors that shape people's opinion on race-related issues, uncovering the relative importance of self-interest, group identity, and ideological principles, as well as racial animosity. Finally, the authors explore how the racial divide has insinuated itself into the presidential election process and examine the role of political elites in framing racial issues for ordinary citizens+-+88208917754614ocn711045604book20120.56Kinder, Donald RThe end of race? : Obama, 2008, and racial politics in AmericaThis book examines the role of racism in the 2008 Presidential election. How did race affect the election that gave America its first African American president? This book offers some fascinating, and perhaps controversial, findings. The authors assert that racism was in fact an important factor in 2008, and that if not for racism, Barack Obama would have won in a landslide. On the way to this conclusion, they make several other important arguments. In an analysis of the nomination battle between Obama and Hillary Clinton, they show why racial identity matters more in electoral politics than gender identity. Comparing the 2008 election with that of 1960, they find that religion played much the same role in the earlier campaign that race played in 2008. And they argue that racial resentment, a modern form of racism that has superseded the old-fashioned biological variety, is a potent political force29811ocn026548118book19920.81Experimental foundations of political science768ocn034142681book19950.86Rosenstone, Steven JAmerican national election study, 1994 : post-election survey (enhanced with 1992 and 1993 data)Lists Code numbersThis study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. The 1994 National Election Study is a post-election interview in which approximately 42 percent of the cases are comprised of empaneled respondents first interviewed in AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY, 1992: PRE- AND POST-ELECTION SURVEY [ENHANCED WITH 1990 AND 1991 DATA] (ICPSR 6067) and later in AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY: 1992-1993 PANEL STUDY ON SECURING ELECTORAL SUCCESS/1993 PILOT STUDY (ICPSR 6264). The other 58 percent of the cases are a freshly drawn cross-section sample. The panel component of the study is designed to exploit the special features of the 1992-1994 elections: a minority president struggling to forge a majority coalition in the face of a strong third-party challenge, and the replacement in 1992 of fully one-quarter of the House of Representatives. Coming at the end of this period, the 1994 National Election Study provides insights into how electoral coalitions form and decay, and how members of the House who were newly-elected in 1992 secured -- or did not secure -- their districts. The design themes became especially salient in the aftermath of the November 8 election, when control of the Congress shifted to the Republican Party for the first time since 1952. Survey questions included the now-standard National Election Studies battery of congressional evaluations supplemented by questions on term limits, the respondent's representative's vote on President Bill Clinton's crime bill, and whether the respondent felt that his or her representative cared more about pre... Cf.: http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06507344ocn000516049book19710.92Sears, David ORacial tension and voting in Los Angeles268ocn061163059file19910.93Miller, Warren EAmerican National Election Study Pooled Senate Election Study, 1988, 1990, 1992This data collection, focusing on Senate elections, combines data from a three-part series (1988, 1990, 1992) of Senate studies. Over the course of these three elections voters in each of the 50 states were interviewed, and data were gathered on citizen evaluations of all senators at three stages of their six-year election cycles. Both survey data and contextual data for all 50 states are included. The survey data facilitate the comparison of House of Representatives and Senate races through the use of questions that generally parallel those questions used in election studies since 1978 concerning respondents' interaction with and evaluation of candidates for the House of Representatives. However, because of redistricting in the early 1990s, the congressional districts for the 1992 respondents could not be pre-identified. The survey instrument was, therefore, redesigned to some degree, cutting some of the House-related content for the 1992 survey. The 50-state survey design also allows for the comparison of respondents' perceptions and evaluation of senators who were up for re-election with those in the second or fourth years of their terms. Topics covered include respondent's recall and like/dislike of House and Senate candidates, issues discussed in the campaigns, contact with House and Senate candidates/incumbents, respondent's opinion of the proper roles for senators and representatives, a limited set of issue questions, liberal/conservative self-placement, party identification, media exposure, and demographic information. Contextual data presented include election returns for the Senate primary and general elections, voting indices for the years 1983-1992, information about the Senate campaign such as election outcome predictions, campaign pollster used, and spending patterns, and demographic, geographic, and economic data for the state. Also included are derived... Cf.: http://webapp.icpsr.umich.edu/cocoon/ICPSR-STUDY/09580.xml235ocn061156766file19940.93Miller, Warren EAmerican National Election Study, 1990-1992 Full Panel SurveySoftwareThis study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The American National Election Studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. This collection includes respondents who were first interviewed following the November 1990 general election (see AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY, 1990: POST-ELECTION SURVEY [ICPSR VERSION] [ICPSR 9548]), and then reinterviewed in two subsequent surveys: AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY: 1990-1991 PANEL STUDY OF THE POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES OF WAR/1991 PILOT STUDY [ICPSR VERSION] (ICPSR 9673) and AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY, 1992: PRE- AND POST-ELECTION SURVEY [ENHANCED WITH 1990 AND 1991 DATA] (ICPSR 6067). The purpose of this panel study is to trace the fortunes of the Bush presidency, from post-Gulf War height to November election defeat, and to provide insight into the origins of the Bill Clinton and Ross Perot coalitions. It also allows the panel analyst to do a traditional assessment of panel attrition which is not possible with any of the collections mentioned above. In 1990, respondents answered questions on topics such as presidential performance, the Persian Gulf War, values and individualism, and foreign relations. Post-election vote validation and election administration survey data are also included. In 1991, respondents were reinterviewed several months after hostilities in the Persian Gulf ended. The survey content consisted of a repeat of a subset of questions from the 1990 Post-Election Survey, and additional items especially relevant to the Gulf War. A number of contextual variables also are provided, including summary variables that combine the respondent... Cf.: http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06230239ocn061162951file19900.92Miller, Warren EAmerican national election study, 1990 : post-election surveySoftwareLists Code numbersThis study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. For this collection, two forms of the survey instrument were used, with about 75 percent of the content being the same on both forms. Survey questions included the now standard National Election Studies battery of questions, along with items on presidential performance and the Persian Gulf conflict. Additionally, Form A contained questions relating to values and individualism, while Form B had content relating to foreign relations. The file also contains post-election vote validation and election administration survey data. Information is provided concerning sampling data, disposition of the case, control record variables, and information about the interviewer for the 1,980 interviews, plus nonsample and noninterview cases. Each of these records is associated with one or more call records that provide information on the date, day of the week, time of the call and its disposition, and the nature of the contact for those calls that resulted in contact with someone in the sample household.... Cf.: http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09548225ocn061158315com19970.93Rosenstone, Steven JAmerican National Election Study, 1996 Pre- and Post-Election SurveyThis study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. The 1996 National Election Study contains both pre- and post-election components. The Pre-Election Survey includes interviews in which approximately 77 percent of the cases are comprised of empaneled respondents first interviewed in either AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY, 1992: PRE- AND POST-ELECTION SURVEY [ENHANCED WITH 1990 AND 1991 DATA] (ICPSR 6067) or in AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY, 1994: POST-ELECTION SURVEY [ENHANCED WITH 1992 AND 1993 DATA] (ICPSR 6507). The other 23 percent of the pre-election cases are a freshly drawn cross-section sample. Of the 1,714 citizens who were interviewed during the pre-election stage, 1,534 (89.5 percent) also participated in the Post-Election Survey (1,197 of these were panel cases and 337 were cross-section). The content of the 1996 Election Study reflects its dual function, both as the traditional presidential election year time-series data collection and as a panel study. Substantive themes presented in the 1996 questionnaires include interest in the political campaigns, concern about the outcome, attentiveness to the media's coverage of the campaign, information about politics, evaluation of the presidential candidates and placement of presidential candidates on various issue dimensions, partisanship and evaluations of the political parties, knowledge of and evaluation of House candidates, political participation (including turnout in the presidential primaries and in the November general election and other forms of electoral campaign activity),... Cf.: http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06896195ocn061163408file19910.56Miller, Warren EAmerican National Election Study 1990-1991 Panel Study of the Political Consequences of War/1991 Pilot StudyThis study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. The panel portion of this collection focuses on the consequences of war, with the first wave consisting of the 1990 Post-Election Survey conducted prior to the outbreak of hostilities in the Persian Gulf. The respondents were reinterviewed several months after hostilities ended, and in this wave the survey content consisted of a repeat of a subset of questions from the Post-Election Survey, and additional items especially relevant to the Gulf War conflict. In addition, a full-fledged pilot study, designed to explore new areas of interest and develop new instrumentation, is embedded in this collection. Among the topics covered in the Pilot portion of the survey are ethnic politics, gender, Social Security, Medicaid/medical care for the elderly, social altruism, and political knowledge. A number of contextual variables also are provided, including summary variables that combine the respondent's recall of his or her senator's and representative's vote on the use of force with that congressperson's actual vote, and county-level 1980 Census data on race.... Cf.: http://webapp.icpsr.umich.edu/cocoon/ICPSR-STUDY/09673.xml183ocn061162952file19910.93Miller, Warren EAmerican National Election Study, 1990 Senate Election StudyThis data collection, focusing on the 1990 Senate elections, is part of a planned three-part series (1988, 1990, 1992) of Senate studies. Over the course of the three elections, voters in each of the 50 states will be interviewed, and data will be gathered on citizen evaluations of all senators at each stage of their six-year election cycles. In this collection, as in the 1988 Senate Study, contextual data for all 50 states have been merged with the survey data. The survey data facilitate the comparison of House of Representatives and Senate races through the use of questions that generally parallel those questions used in election studies since 1978 concerning respondents' interaction with and evaluation of candidates for the House of Representatives. The 50-state survey design also allows for the comparison of respondents' perceptions and evaluations of senators who are up for re-election with those in the second or fourth years of their terms. Topics covered include respondent's recall and like/dislike of House and Senate candidates, issues discussed in the campaigns, contact with House and Senate candidates/incumbents, respondent's opinion of the proper roles for senators and representatives, a limited set of issue questions, liberal/conservative self-placement, party identification, media exposure, and demographic information. Contextual data presented include election returns for the Senate primary and general elections, voting indices for the years 1983-1990, information about the Senate campaign such as election outcome predictions, campaign pollster used, spending patterns, and demographic, geographic, and economic data for the state. Derived measures also are included that reorganize the House of Representatives and Senate variables by party of candidate and incumbency/challenger status of candidate, and, for Senate variables only,... Cf.: http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09549184ocn061156822file19940.93Rosenstone, Steven JAmerican National Election Study 1992-1993 Panel Study on Securing Electoral Success/1993 Pilot StudyThis study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The American National Election Studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. This data collection currently encompasses two waves. The first wave is the 1992 Post-Election Survey. In addition to the standard or core content items, respondents were asked their positions on social issues such as altruism, abortion, the death penalty, prayer in the schools, the rights of homosexuals, sexual harassment, women's rights, and feminist consciousness. Other substantive themes included racial and ethnic stereotypes, opinions on school integration and affirmative action, attitudes toward immigrants (particularly Hispanics and Asians), opinions on immigration policy and bilingual education, assessments of United States foreign policy goals, and United States involvement in the Persian Gulf War. The second wave of this panel, the 1993 Pilot Study, was in the field approximately one year after the first wave. It reexamined a number of items from the 1992 study to give as complete a picture as possible of how President Clinton was faring in the eyes of the coalition that had elected him. It also sought to explore in more detail the strength and depth of the Ross Perot phenomenon and, in particular, the reasons behind his continued support. Finally, this second wave of the panel continued the tradition of all pilot studies in seeking to carry out research and development work for the subsequent year's election study. In this regard, the Pilot Study explored the perceived interests of several groups (e.g., wealthy, poor, middle class, Blacks, whites) in areas such as na... Cf.: http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06264184ocn061157541file19950.93Rosenstone, Steven JAmerican National Election Study 1995 Pilot StudyA number of pilot studies have been conducted by the National Election Studies (NES) for the purpose of developing new instrumentation. The 1995 Pilot Study is part of this effort, which also includes studies conducted in 1979, 1983, 1985, 1987, 1989, 1991, and 1993. As in earlier pilot studies (except for 1979), the 1995 study respondents were a subset of the previous year's traditional time-series respondents. The study is a one-wave reinterview of a randomly selected subset of respondents with telephones from the fresh cross-section portion of the AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY, 1994: POST-ELECTION SURVEY [ENHANCED WITH 1992 AND 1993 DATA] (ICPSR 6507). The 1995 Pilot Study was conducted between August 3 and September 10, 1995. The content of the study reflects the NES commitment to improve measures of candidate evaluation, the impact of the campaign, values and predispositions, the comparative study of elections, and other responses to a stimulus letter calling for ideas for content sent to the user community on November 4, 1994. Specific topic areas in the study include: (1) an experiment using different measures of affective reactions to political figures, (2) a module of items being concurrently tested in many other nations as part of a comparative study of politics, (3) a set of 12 items asking respondents to make tradeoffs among programs, taxes, and the budget deficit, (4) a set of items designed to measure attitudes toward the environment and environmental policy, (5) a new measure of ''humanitarianism,'' and (6) an extensive set of items regarding attention to the media intended to capture exposure to the political campaigns. In order to include all of the content, and to test between competing instrumentation, there were two forms of the questionnaire. Rosters of items, such as the thermometer, were randomized in administration to minimize order effects.... Cf.: http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06636183ocn061153540com20010.93Burns, NancyAmerican National Election Study, 2000 Pre- and Post-Election SurveyThis study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. The 2000 National Election Study (NES) entailed both a pre-election interview and a post-election reinterview. A freshly drawn cross- section of the electorate was taken to yield 1,807 cases. Because the study includes a carefully designed mode experiment, the data represent two presidential studies in 2000, side by side. The core study preserves the past commitment to probability area sampling and face-to-face interviewing: 1,000 respondents were interviewed prior to the election and 694 were reinterviewed face-to-face after the election. Supporting the core study, random-digit dial sampling and telephone interviewing were used: 803 respondents were interviewed by phone prior to the election and 862 respondents were interviewed by phone after the election. As such, the experiment examines the differences between the two modes and provides a preview of what shifting to telephone interviewing will mean for the NES time-series. The content of the 2000 election study reflects its dual purpose as a traditional presidential election year time-series data collection and as a mode study. Many of the substantive themes included in the 2000 questionnaires are a continuation of past topics. Interest in politics and the election was examined through questions regarding interest in the political campaigns, concern about the outcome, attentiveness to the media's coverage of the campaign, and information about politics. Respondents' knowledge of candidates and the political parties was ascertained through que... Cf.: http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03131173ocn061146758com19980.93Rosenstone, Steven JAmerican National Election Study 1997 Pilot StudyThe 1997 Pilot Study is part of the National Election Studies (NES) effort to develop new instrumentation. Previous pilot studies were conducted in 1979, 1983, 1985, 1987, 1989, 1991, 1993, and 1995. As in earlier pilot studies (except for 1979), the 1997 study respondents were a subset of the previous year's traditional time-series respondents. This study is a one-wave reinterview of a randomly-selected subset of respondents with telephones from the fresh cross-section portion of the AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY, 1996: POST-ELECTION SURVEY (ICPSR 6896). The 1997 Pilot Study was conducted between September 5 and October 1, 1997. Specific topic areas in the study include: (1) a battery designed to improve NES instrumentation on nonelectoral political participation and mobilization, (2) testing of NES instrumentation on group closeness, group difference, and group conflict as a basis of current mass politics, and group threat as a basis of group-based politics, (3) evaluations of the president, Congress, and the Supreme Court using a new battery of items, and (4) the role of religion in citizens' political thinking. The use of Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) enabled a number of experimental treatments within the survey instrumentation, including random assignment, early-late placement, and presentation order. In addition, rosters of items, such as the thermometer, were randomized in administration to minimize order effects.... Cf.: http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02282177ocn061156378file19920.88Miller, Warren EAmerican national election study, 1992 : pre- and post-election survey (enhanced with 1990 and 1991 data)SoftwareLists Code numbersSurveysThis study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. The 1992 National Election Study entailed both a pre-election interview and a post-election reinterview. Approximately half of the 1992 cases are comprised of empaneled respondents who were first interviewed in AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY, 1990: POST-ELECTION SURVEY (ICPSR 9548) and later in AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY: 1990-1991 PANEL STUDY OF THE POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES OF WAR/1991 PILOT STUDY (ICPSR 9673). The other half of the cases are a freshly drawn cross-section sample. The panel component of the study design provides an opportunity to trace how the changing fortunes of the Bush presidency, from the high levels of approval at the start of the Gulf War through the decline after the onset of a recession, affected voting in the November 1992 presidential election. It also permits analysts to investigate the origins of the Clinton and Perot coalitions as well as changes in the public's political preferences over the two years preceding the 1992 election. In the 1990 Post-Election Survey two forms of the survey instrument were used, with about 75 percent of the content being the same on both forms. Survey questions included the now-standard National Election Studies battery of questions, along with items on presidential performance and the Persian Gulf conflict. Additionally, Form A contained questions relating to values and individualism, while Form B had content relating to foreign relations. In 1991, respondents were reinterviewed several months after hostilities in the Persian Gu... Cf.: http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06067172ocn061147034com19990.93Sapiro, VirginiaAmerican National Election Studies, 1992-1997 Combined FileThe 1992-1997 Combined File brings together all publicly released variables from the following National Election Study datasets: the 1992 Pre- and Post-Election Survey (ICPSR 6067) (only the 1,005 ''fresh'' cross-section cases), the 1993 Pilot Study (ICPSR 6264), the 1994 Post-Election Survey (ICPSR 6507), the 1995 Pilot Study (ICSPR 6636), the 1996 Pre- and Post-Election Survey (ICPSR 6896), and the 1997 Pilot Study (ICPSR 2282). The data in this combined file are identical to the original datasets in terms of sampling, case disposition, and conditions for interviewing. All survey variables are included along with other ancillary variables, such as those that describe the randomization position. This data file can be used for both cross-sectional and panel analysis through selecting subsets of cases. Each election year can be analyzed as a whole, in cross-sectional or trend analysis162ocn061155509com20030.93Burns, NancyAmerican National Election Study, 2002 Pre- and Post-Election SurveyThis study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. The 2002 American National Election Study (ANES) is the first mid-year study to include a pre-election in addition to post-election interview. It is also the first NES study conducted entirely by telephone. Since NES questions are generally designed for face-to-face interviewing, a number of time-series questions were modified to enhance the validity and reliability of data obtained through telephone interviews. Special content for 2002 includes questions on the terrorist attacks of 2001 (and presidential and military response to the attacks), the election contest of 2000, and special modules on economic inequality, specifically gender and racial differences in jobs and income inequality. In a continuation of past topics, respondents were asked about their choice for president, the United States House of Representatives, and the United States Senate. Respondents were also queried about their approval of Bush's handling of the presidency, the economy, and foreign relations. Questions also included feeling thermometers on the United States Congress, the military, the federal government, political figures (George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, Al Gore, Joseph Lieberman, Ralph Nader, Bill Clinton, Colin Powell, John Ashcroft, Jesse Jackson, Laura Bush, and Hillary Clinton), and political constituencies (such as Blacks, Whites, conservatives, liberals, big business, people on welfare, Hispanics, Christian fundamentalists, older people, environmentalists, gay men and lesbians, and the news media). The NES 2002... Cf.: http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03740+-+6303381775+-+6303381775Fri Mar 21 15:15:19 EDT 2014batch40919