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United States Department of Defense Office of the Secretary of Defense

Overview
Works: 980 works in 1,967 publications in 2 languages and 162,477 library holdings
Genres: Case studies 
Roles: Sponsor, tra, Publisher, Other
Classifications: HV6773, 303.625
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Networks and netwars : the future of terror, crime, and militancy by John Arquilla( )

9 editions published in 2001 in English and Chinese and held by 2,620 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Netwar is the lower-intensity, societal-level counterpart to the editors' earlier, mostly military concept of cyberwar. This volume studies major instances of netwar that have occurred over the past several years--from Osama bin Laden's networked terrorists to the Battle of Seattle's social activists--and finds, among other things, that netwar works very well. Whether the protagonists are civil-society activists or uncivil-society criminals and terrorists, their netwars have generally been successful. Strategists and policymakers in Washington, and elsewhere, have already begun to discern the dark side of the netwar phenomenon, especially as manifested in terrorist and criminal organizations. In this volume, the editors and their colleagues examine various types of netwar, from the most violent to the most socially activist. In doing so, they find that, despite the variety, all networks that have been built for waging netwar may be analyzed in terms of a common analytic framework. There are five levels of theory and practice that matter--the technological, social, narrative, organizational, and doctrinal levels. A netwar actor must get all five right to be fully effective. The most potent netwarriors will not only be highly networked and have the capacity for mounting "swarming" attacks, they will also be held together by strong social ties, have secure communications technologies, and project a common story about why they are together and what they need to do. These will be the most serious adversaries. But even those networks that are weak on some levels may pose stiff challenges to their nation-state adversaries. With this in mind, it is necessary to go beyond just diagnosing the nature of the networked nonstate opponent in a given conflict. It will become crucial for governments and their military and law enforcement establishments to begin networking themselves>"--Rand abstract
A review of the scientific literature as it pertains to Gulf War illnesses by Beatrice Alexandra Golomb( )

9 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 2,197 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The confrontation that began when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990 brought with it the threat that chemical and biological weapons might be used against the more than half a million military personnel the United States deployed to the region. To protect these troops from such threats, the Department of Defense wished to use drugs and vaccines that, not having been tested for use in these specific situations, were considered "investigational" by the federal Food and Drug Administration. This report examines the history of the Interim Rule, adopted in December 21, 1990, that authorized the Commissioner of Food and Drugs to waive informed consent for the use of investigational drugs and vaccines for certain military uses; how this authority was used for pyridostigmine bromide and botulinum toxoid during the Gulf War; and the subsequent controversy surrounding the rule, its application, and its implications
Hitting America's soft underbelly : the potential threat of deliberate biological attacks against the U.S. agricultural and food industry by Peter Chalk( )

4 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 2,092 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Agriculture and the food industry in general are enormously important to the social, economic, and, arguably, political stability of the United States. Although farming directly employs less than 3 percent of the American population, one in eight people works in an occupation that is directly supported by food production. Agriculture's share of produce sold overseas is more than double that of other U.S. industries, which makes the sector a major component in the U.S. balance of trade. Unfortunately, the agriculture and food industries are vulnerable to deliberate (and accidental) disruption. Critical concerns in this area include: " The concentrated and intensive nature of contemporary U.S. farming practices " The increased susceptibility of livestock to disease " A general lack of farm/food-related security and surveillance " An inefficient, passive disease-reporting system that is further hampered by a lack of trust between regulators and producers " Veterinarian training that tends not to emphasize foreign animal diseases (FADs) or large-scale husbandry" A prevailing focus on aggregate, rather than individual, livestock statistics Although vulnerability does not equate to risk, and there are few recorded instances of terrorists actually using disease against agriculture, a realistic potential for disruption exists. Indeed, what makes the vulnerabilities inherent in agriculture so worrying is that the capability requirements for exploiting those weaknesses are not significant and are certainly less considerable than those needed for a human directed bio-attack. Several factors account for this situation. First, there is a large menu of agents from which to choose, with no less than 15 "List A" pathogens identified by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) as having the potential to severely effect agricultural populations and/or trade."--Abstract from DTIC web site
Married to the military : the employment and earnings of military wives compared with those of civilian wives by C. Christine Fair( )

4 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 2,079 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Today's military is a military of families; many service members are married, and many of their spouses work and contribute to family income. But military wives earn less than civilian wives, and this study seeks to understand why. The authors find that military wives, knowing they are likely to move frequently, are willing to accept jobs that offer a lower wage rather than to use more of their remaining time at a location to find a higher-wage job. Compared with civilian wives, military wives tend to work somewhat less if they have young children but somewhat more if their children are older. The probability that military wives work declines with age, although it changes little with age in the civilian world. This probability declines more rapidly for wives with a college education, most of whom are officers' wives. Although it is often assumed that military families live in rural areas where the job opportunities for wives are poor, the authors found fairly small differences in the location of civilian versus military families. Finally, whereas in the civilian world an increase in the unemployment rate leads to a slight increase in the probability that wives worked during the year and the probability that they worked full-time (responding as "added workers" to the loss or threat of loss of their husbands' work), military wives appear to respond as workers with a more permanent attachment to the labor force
The emergence of noopolitik : toward an American information strategy by John Arquilla( )

4 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 2,065 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Weapons, concepts of proportional response, and the need to maintain the immunity of noncombatants. Ultimately, the authors call for an innovative turn of mind as policymakers and strategists rethink how best to adapt to the epochal transformations being wrought by the information revolution
The battle behind the wire : U.S. prisoner and detainee operations from World War II to Iraq( )

6 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in English and held by 2,010 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Although prisoner of war and detainee operations ultimately tend to become quite extensive, military planners and policymakers have repeatedly treated such operations as an afterthought. In reality, such operations can be a central part of the successful prosecution of a conflict. Determining how to gain knowledge from, hold, question, influence, and release captured adversaries can be an important component of military strategy and doctrine, both during the conflict and in reconstruction afterward. This monograph finds parallels in U.S. prisoner and detainee operations in World War II, Korea, Vietnam, and Iraq: underestimation of the number to be held, hasty scrambling for resources to meet operational needs, and inadequate doctrine and policy. During the later phases of military operations, an attempt is often made to educate prisoners and detainees and influence their social and political values. The results of a survey by RAND researchers of Iraq detainees contravene many assumptions that had been guiding decisions related to detainee operations. The survey found that local and personal motives, along with nationalism, were more prevalent than religious ones and that detainees were often economic opportunists rather than illiterates seeking economic subsistence through the insurgency. Recommendations include that detailed doctrine should be in place prior to detention and that detainees should be surveyed when first detained
Assessing the assignment policy for army women by Margaret C Harrell( )

5 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 1,983 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since current policies for assigning military women were issued, the U.S. Army has changed how it organizes and fights. Assessing the Assignment Policy for Army Women considers whether the Army is adhering to the assignment policies as well as the appropriateness of the current U.S. Department of Defense and Army assignment policies, given how units are operating in Iraq
Military use of drugs not yet approved by the FDA for CW/BW defense : lessons from the Gulf War by Richard A Rettig( )

3 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1,955 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The confrontation that began when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990 brought with it the threat that chemical and biological weapons might be used against the more than half a million military personnel the United States deployed to the region. To protect these troops from such threats, the Department of Defense wished to use drugs and vaccines that, not having been tested for use in these specific situations, were considered "investigational" by the federal Food and Drug Administration. This report examines the history of the Interim Rule, adopted in December 21, 1990, that authorized the Commissioner of Food and Drugs to waive informed consent for the use of investigational drugs and vaccines for certain military uses; how this authority was used for pyridostigmine bromide and botulinum toxoid during the Gulf War; and the subsequent controversy surrounding the rule, its application, and its implications. The report then analyzes the issues the Interim Rule raised when investigational drugs are used for such purposes and makes recommendations for dealing with similar situations in the future
EU civilian crisis management : the record so far by Christopher S Chivvis( )

4 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 1,954 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The European Union has been deploying civilians in conflict and postconflict stabilization missions since 2003, and the scope of civilian missions is likely to increase in the future. This volume offers a general overview and assessment of the EU's civilian operations to date, as well as a more in-depth look at the two missions in which the EU has worked alongside NATO: the EU police-training mission in Afghanistan and the integrated rule of law mission in Kosovo. The author concludes with a discussion of the main policy implications for the United States and Europe."--Rand web site
Reconstruction under fire : case studies and further analysis of civil requirements by Brooke Stearns Lawson( )

4 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 1,924 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Successful counterinsurgency (COIN) requires the integration of security and civil COIN to create conditions that allow the population to choose between the government and insurgents, eliminate the grievances that gave rise to the insurgency, and present the population with choices that are more attractive than what the insurgents can offer. Building on a framework for integrating civil and military counterinsurgency first described in Reconstruction Under Fire: Unifying Civil and Military Counterinsurgency, this volume presents an approach to the civil component of counterinsurgency that builds on detailed background, context analysis, and threat analysis to identify and develop critical civil COIN activities. It illustrates this approach using three case studies: Nangarhar province in Afghanistan, Nord-Kivu province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Al Anbar province in Iraq. The approach builds on the best aspects of existing conflict assessment methodologies and adds new elements developed specifically for this project. The resulting framework goes beyond the strategic and operational decisions related to designing a program that is appropriate for a given conflict context."--Page 4 of cover
Sexual orientation and U.S. military personnel policy : an update of RAND's 1993 study by National Defense Research Institute (U.S.)( )

6 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 1,921 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

At the request of the Senate Armed Services Committee and the Secretary of Defense, the RAND Corporation conducted a study on sexual orientation and U.S. military policy in order to provide information and analysis that might be considered in discussing the possible repeal of the law known as "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" (DADT). The study examined DADT implementation; U.S. public and military opinion about allowing gay men and lesbians to serve in the military without restriction; and the scientific literature on group cohesion, sexual orientation, and related health issues. RAND conducted focus groups with military personnel and a survey of gay, lesbian, and bisexual military personnel. RAND researchers also examined the comparable experiences of other institutions, domestic agencies, and foreign militaries, as well as how repeal of DADT might affect unit cohesion and military readiness and effectiveness
Rethinking counterinsurgency by John Mackinlay( )

8 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 1,881 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

British and U.S. counterinsurgency (COIN) operations have been slow to respond and adapt to the rise of the global jihadist insurgency, whose base of support is global and whose exploitation of the virtual dimension has outstripped the West's. After analyzing past British COIN experiences and comparing them to the evolving nature of the modern jihadist insurgency, the authors suggest a new framework for future COIN operations
Combating terrorism : how prepared are state and local response organizations? by Lois M Davis( )

8 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 1,876 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Since the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, state and local governments and response organizations have focused attention on preparing for and responding to acts of domestic terrorism. Of particular concern has been improving state and local response capabilities for dealing with terrorist incidents involving weapons of mass destruction (WMD), i.e., biological, radiological, chemical, or nuclear weapons. Much activity has focused on what the federal government itself can do to better support the efforts of state and local organizations in the war on terrorism. The Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction (also known as the Gilmore Commission) was established by Congress on October 17, 1998, to evaluate the progress of federal preparedness programs for local emergency response and to recommended strategies for effective coordination of preparedness and response efforts between federal, state, and local government and response organizations. As part of its support for this effort, just prior to the 9/11 terrorist attacks, RAND conducted the first wave of a nationwide survey to gather in-depth data about state and local response organizations' assessments of federal preparedness programs for combating terrorism. Follow-on surveys were conducted in 2002 and 2003. The surveys gathered in-depth data on the planning and preparedness activities of the key professional communities involved in preparedness and emergency response: law enforcement, fire services, offices of emergency management, emergency medical services, hospitals, and public health agencies. This national survey provides the first comprehensive picture of efforts in the two years following the 9/11 attacks to improve the nation's preparedness for terrorism. This reports presents a summary of results from the third wave of the survey, conducted in 2003"--DTIC summary
The rise of the Pasdaran : assessing the domestic roles of Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps by Frederic M Wehrey( )

6 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 1,869 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Introduction -- The IRGC in Context: Iran's Security and Political Landscape -- The IRGC's Diverse Domestic Roles: Origins and Evolution -- Militarizing Civil Society: The IRGC's Indoctrination, Training, and Media Activities -- Economic Expansion: The IRGC's Business Conglomerate and Public Works -- The IRGC in Politics -- Conclusion: Toward a More Strategic Understanding of the IRGC -- Appendix A: Business Organizations Affiliated with the IRGC or Influenced by IRGC Personnel -- Appendix B: Current and Former IRGC Personnel -- Appendix C: Evolution of the Islamic Republic and the IRGC -- Appendix D: Provincial Map of Iran -- Appendix E: Glossary of Persian Terms
Mullahs, Guards, and Bonyads : an exploration of Iranian leadership dynamics( )

5 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 1,867 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Islamic Republic of Iran poses serious challenges to U.S. interests in the Middle East, and its nuclear program continues to worry the international community. The presidential election of June 2009 that returned Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to power and led to broad protests and a government crackdown presents yet another cause for U.S. concern. Yet the U.S. ability to "read" the Iranian regime and formulate appropriate policies has been handicapped by both a lack of access to the country and the opacity of decisionmaking in Tehran. To help analysts better understand the Iranian political system, the authors describe · Iranian strategic culture, including the perceptions that drive state behavior · the informal networks, formal government institutions, and personalities that influence decisionmaking in the Islamic Republic · the impact of elite behavior on Iranian policy formulation and execution · factionalism, emerging fissures within the current regime, and other key trends. The authors observe that it is the combination of key personalities, networks based on a number of commonalities, and institutions--not any one of these elements alone--that defines the complex political system of the Islamic Republic. Factional competition and informal, back-channel maneuvering trump the formal processes for policymaking. The Supreme Leader retains the most power, but he is not omnipotent in the highly dynamic landscape of Iranian power politics. The evolving role of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, the vulnerability of the elite "old guard" to challenge, and the succession of the next Supreme Leader are key determinants of Iran's future direction. In light of complexities in the Iranian system, U.S. policymakers should avoid trying to leverage the domestic politics of Iran and instead accept the need to deal with the government of the day as it stands. Moreover, they must take as an article of faith that dealing with Iran does not necessarily mean dealing with a unitary actor due to the competing power centers in the Islamic Republic
Military enlistment of Hispanic youth : obstacles and opportunities by Beth J Asch( )

8 editions published between 2008 and 2009 in English and held by 1,856 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An implicit goal of Congress, the Department of Defense, and the armed services is that diversity in the armed services should approximate diversity in the general population. A key aspect of that diversity is the representation of Hispanics. Although polls of Hispanic youth show a strong propensity to serve in the military, Hispanics are nevertheless underrepresented among military recruits. The authors discuss the major characteristics that disproportionately disqualify Hispanic youth and explore the following questions: If recruiting standards were relaxed, what would be the effect on military performance? What actions could be taken to increase Hispanic enlistments? Finally, they examine several approaches to increasing enlistments--increasing the number of Hispanic youth who are eligible and would meet the military's entry standards, increasing interest and recruiting more intensively among the qualified Hispanic population, and targeting recruiting toward less-qualified Hispanics
The war within : preventing suicide in the U.S. military by Rajeev Ramchand( )

3 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 1,821 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since late 2001, U.S. military forces have been engaged in conflicts around the globe, most notably in Iraq and Afghanistan. These conflicts have exacted a substantial toll on soldiers, marines, sailors, and airmen, and this toll goes beyond the well-publicized casualty figures. It extends to the stress that repetitive deployments can have on the individual service member and his or her family. This stress can manifest itself in different ways -- increased divorce rates, spouse and child abuse, mental distress, substance abuse -- but one of the most troubling manifestations is suicide, which is increasing across the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). The increase in suicides among members of the military has raised concern among policymakers, military leaders, and the population at large. While DoD and the military services have had a number of efforts under way to deal with the increase in suicides among their members, the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs asked RAND to review the current evidence detailing suicide epidemiology in the military, identify "state-of-the-art" suicide-prevention programs, describe and catalog suicide-prevention activities in DoD and across each service, and recommend ways to ensure that the activities in DoD and across each service reflect state-of-the-art prevention science
Attracting college-bound youth into the military : toward the development of new recruiting policy options by Beth J Asch( )

3 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1,818 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Although the military's need for enlisted personnel has declined by almost one-third since the end of the cold war, the armed services are finding it difficult to meet their recruiting goals. Among ongoing changes in the civilian labor market is a strong demand for skilled labor, which has prompted an increasing number of "high quality" youth to pursue post-secondary education and subsequent civilian employment. Because of this competition for high quality youth, the Department of Defense may want to explore new options for attracting desirable young people into the armed forces. The military, for example, offers a myriad of options for service members to take college courses while in active service. However, the programs do not in fact generate significant increases in educational attainment during time in service. One popular program, the Montgomery GI Bill, enrolls large numbers of individuals, but the vast majority of service members use their benefits after separating from service. Thus, the military does not receive the benefits of a more educated and productive workforce, unless the individuals subsequently join a reserve component. The authors suggest the Department of Defense should consider nontraditional policy options to enhance recruitment of college-bound youth. Recruiters could target more thoroughly students on two-year college campuses, or dropouts from two- or four-year colleges. Options for obtaining some college before military service could be expanded by allowing high school seniors to first attend college, paid for by the military, and then enlist. Or the student might serve in a reserve component while in college and then enter an active component after college. Alternatively, the military could create an entirely new path for combining college and military service by encouraging enlisted veterans to attend college and then reenlist (at a higher pay grade). The most promising alternatives should be evaluated in a national experiment designed to test their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, similar to the one that led to the creation of the Army College Fund and the Navy College Fund
A description of U.S. enlisted personnel promotion systems by Stephanie Williamson( )

2 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1,814 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The U.S. armed services have different methods and processes for promoting enlisted personnel. All of the services, however, aim to ensure that promotion outcomes correspond to substantive differences in personnel quality. This report provides a snapshot of how the Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Force go about measuring duty performance, leadership potential, experience, knowledge, and skills to determine who among its enlisted force merits promotion, when they are eligible for promotion, and at what level promotion decisions are made. This report provides an overview of the enlisted promotion system in the 1990s as retention issues again move to the forefront of Defense Department concerns
The Malay-Muslim insurgency in southern Thailand : understanding the conflict's evolving dynamic by Peter Chalk( )

5 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 1,813 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Current unrest in the Malay-Muslim provinces of southern Thailand has captured growing national, regional, and international attention due to the heightened tempo and scale of rebel attacks, the increasingly jihadist undertone that has come to characterize insurgent actions, and the central government's often brutal handling of the situation on the ground. Of particular note are growing concerns that the conflict is no longer purely local in nature but has been systematically hijacked by outside extremists to avail wider transnational Islamist designs in southeast Asia. No concrete evidence suggests that the region has been decisively transformed into a new beachhead for pan-regional jihadism. Although many of the attacks currently being perpetrated in the three Malay provinces have a definite religious element, it is not apparent that this has altered the essential localized and nationalistic aspect of the conflict. While the scale and sophistication of violence have increased, nothing links this change in tempo to the input of punitive, absolutist external jihadist imperatives. Perhaps the clearest reason to believe that the southern Thai conflict has not metastasized into a broader jihadist struggle, however, is the fact that there has been neither a migration of violence north nor directed attacks against foreigners, tourist resorts, or overt symbols of U.S. cultural capitalism
 
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Covers
A review of the scientific literature as it pertains to Gulf War illnessesHitting America's soft underbelly : the potential threat of deliberate biological attacks against the U.S. agricultural and food industryMarried to the military : the employment and earnings of military wives compared with those of civilian wivesThe emergence of noopolitik : toward an American information strategyThe battle behind the wire : U.S. prisoner and detainee operations from World War II to IraqAssessing the assignment policy for army womenMilitary use of drugs not yet approved by the FDA for CW/BW defense : lessons from the Gulf WarEU civilian crisis management : the record so far
Alternative Names

controlled identityUnited States. Department of Defense

OSD

United States. Department of Defense. Office of Secretary of Defense

United States Department of Defense. Office of the Secretary of Defense

United States Dept. of Defense Office of the Secretary of Defense

United States. Office of the Secretary of Defense

United States Office of the Secretary of Defense. Historical Office

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English (142)

Chinese (1)