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United States Department of Defense Office of the Secretary of Defense

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Works: 963 works in 1,913 publications in 2 languages and 159,483 library holdings
Genres: Case studies  Abstracts 
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Networks and netwars : the future of terror, crime, and militancy by John Arquilla( )

10 editions published in 2001 in English and Chinese and held by 2,593 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Netwar is the lower-intensity, societal-level counterpart to the editors' earlier, mostly military concept of cyberwar. This volume studies major instances of netwar that have occurred over the past several years--from Osama bin Laden's networked terrorists to the Battle of Seattle's social activists--and finds, among other things, that netwar works very well. Whether the protagonists are civil-society activists or uncivil-society criminals and terrorists, their netwars have generally been successful. Strategists and policymakers in Washington, and elsewhere, have already begun to discern the dark side of the netwar phenomenon, especially as manifested in terrorist and criminal organizations. In this volume, the editors and their colleagues examine various types of netwar, from the most violent to the most socially activist. In doing so, they find that, despite the variety, all networks that have been built for waging netwar may be analyzed in terms of a common analytic framework. There are five levels of theory and practice that matter--the technological, social, narrative, organizational, and doctrinal levels. A netwar actor must get all five right to be fully effective. The most potent netwarriors will not only be highly networked and have the capacity for mounting "swarming" attacks, they will also be held together by strong social ties, have secure communications technologies, and project a common story about why they are together and what they need to do. These will be the most serious adversaries. But even those networks that are weak on some levels may pose stiff challenges to their nation-state adversaries. With this in mind, it is necessary to go beyond just diagnosing the nature of the networked nonstate opponent in a given conflict. It will become crucial for governments and their military and law enforcement establishments to begin networking themselves>"--Rand abstract
A review of the scientific literature as it pertains to Gulf War illnesses by Beatrice Alexandra Golomb( )

9 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 2,186 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The confrontation that began when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990 brought with it the threat that chemical and biological weapons might be used against the more than half a million military personnel the United States deployed to the region. To protect these troops from such threats, the Department of Defense wished to use drugs and vaccines that, not having been tested for use in these specific situations, were considered "investigational" by the federal Food and Drug Administration. This report examines the history of the Interim Rule, adopted in December 21, 1990, that authorized the Commissioner of Food and Drugs to waive informed consent for the use of investigational drugs and vaccines for certain military uses; how this authority was used for pyridostigmine bromide and botulinum toxoid during the Gulf War; and the subsequent controversy surrounding the rule, its application, and its implications
Hitting America's soft underbelly : the potential threat of deliberate biological attacks against the U.S. agricultural and food industry by Peter Chalk( )

4 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 2,063 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Agriculture and the food industry in general are enormously important to the social, economic, and, arguably, political stability of the United States. Although farming directly employs less than 3 percent of the American population, one in eight people works in an occupation that is directly supported by food production. Agriculture's share of produce sold overseas is more than double that of other U.S. industries, which makes the sector a major component in the U.S. balance of trade. Unfortunately, the agriculture and food industries are vulnerable to deliberate (and accidental) disruption. Critical concerns in this area include: " The concentrated and intensive nature of contemporary U.S. farming practices " The increased susceptibility of livestock to disease " A general lack of farm/food-related security and surveillance " An inefficient, passive disease-reporting system that is further hampered by a lack of trust between regulators and producers " Veterinarian training that tends not to emphasize foreign animal diseases (FADs) or large-scale husbandry" A prevailing focus on aggregate, rather than individual, livestock statistics Although vulnerability does not equate to risk, and there are few recorded instances of terrorists actually using disease against agriculture, a realistic potential for disruption exists. Indeed, what makes the vulnerabilities inherent in agriculture so worrying is that the capability requirements for exploiting those weaknesses are not significant and are certainly less considerable than those needed for a human directed bio-attack. Several factors account for this situation. First, there is a large menu of agents from which to choose, with no less than 15 "List A" pathogens identified by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) as having the potential to severely effect agricultural populations and/or trade."--Abstract from DTIC web site
Married to the military : the employment and earnings of military wives compared with those of civilian wives( )

4 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 2,053 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Today's military is a military of families; many service members are married, and many of their spouses work and contribute to family income. But military wives earn less than civilian wives, and this study seeks to understand why. The authors find that military wives, knowing they are likely to move frequently, are willing to accept jobs that offer a lower wage rather than to use more of their remaining time at a location to find a higher-wage job. Compared with civilian wives, military wives tend to work somewhat less if they have young children but somewhat more if their children are older. The probability that military wives work declines with age, although it changes little with age in the civilian world. This probability declines more rapidly for wives with a college education, most of whom are officers' wives. Although it is often assumed that military families live in rural areas where the job opportunities for wives are poor, the authors found fairly small differences in the location of civilian versus military families. Finally, whereas in the civilian world an increase in the unemployment rate leads to a slight increase in the probability that wives worked during the year and the probability that they worked full-time (responding as "added workers" to the loss or threat of loss of their husbands' work), military wives appear to respond as workers with a more permanent attachment to the labor force
The emergence of noopolitik : toward an American information strategy by John Arquilla( )

3 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 2,039 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Weapons, concepts of proportional response, and the need to maintain the immunity of noncombatants. Ultimately, the authors call for an innovative turn of mind as policymakers and strategists rethink how best to adapt to the epochal transformations being wrought by the information revolution
The battle behind the wire : U.S. prisoner and detainee operations from World War II to Iraq( )

6 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in English and held by 1,955 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Although prisoner of war and detainee operations ultimately tend to become quite extensive, military planners and policymakers have repeatedly treated such operations as an afterthought. In reality, such operations can be a central part of the successful prosecution of a conflict. Determining how to gain knowledge from, hold, question, influence, and release captured adversaries can be an important component of military strategy and doctrine, both during the conflict and in reconstruction afterward. This monograph finds parallels in U.S. prisoner and detainee operations in World War II, Korea, Vietnam, and Iraq: underestimation of the number to be held, hasty scrambling for resources to meet operational needs, and inadequate doctrine and policy. During the later phases of military operations, an attempt is often made to educate prisoners and detainees and influence their social and political values. The results of a survey by RAND researchers of Iraq detainees contravene many assumptions that had been guiding decisions related to detainee operations. The survey found that local and personal motives, along with nationalism, were more prevalent than religious ones and that detainees were often economic opportunists rather than illiterates seeking economic subsistence through the insurgency. Recommendations include that detailed doctrine should be in place prior to detention and that detainees should be surveyed when first detained
Assessing the assignment policy for army women by Margaret C Harrell( )

6 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 1,946 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since current policies for assigning military women were issued, the U.S. Army has changed how it organizes and fights. Assessing the Assignment Policy for Army Women considers whether the Army is adhering to the assignment policies as well as the appropriateness of the current U.S. Department of Defense and Army assignment policies, given how units are operating in Iraq
Military use of drugs not yet approved by the FDA for CW/BW defense : lessons from the Gulf War by Richard A Rettig( )

3 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1,943 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The confrontation that began when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990 brought with it the threat that chemical and biological weapons might be used against the more than half a million military personnel the United States deployed to the region. To protect these troops from such threats, the Department of Defense wished to use drugs and vaccines that, not having been tested for use in these specific situations, were considered "investigational" by the federal Food and Drug Administration. This report examines the history of the Interim Rule, adopted in December 21, 1990, that authorized the Commissioner of Food and Drugs to waive informed consent for the use of investigational drugs and vaccines for certain military uses; how this authority was used for pyridostigmine bromide and botulinum toxoid during the Gulf War; and the subsequent controversy surrounding the rule, its application, and its implications. The report then analyzes the issues the Interim Rule raised when investigational drugs are used for such purposes and makes recommendations for dealing with similar situations in the future
EU civilian crisis management : the record so far by Christopher S Chivvis( )

4 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 1,910 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The European Union has been deploying civilians in conflict and postconflict stabilization missions since 2003, and the scope of civilian missions is likely to increase in the future. This volume offers a general overview and assessment of the EU's civilian operations to date, as well as a more in-depth look at the two missions in which the EU has worked alongside NATO: the EU police-training mission in Afghanistan and the integrated rule of law mission in Kosovo. The author concludes with a discussion of the main policy implications for the United States and Europe."--Rand web site
Reconstruction under fire : case studies and further analysis of civil requirements by Brooke Stearns Lawson( )

4 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 1,877 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Successful counterinsurgency (COIN) requires the integration of security and civil COIN to create conditions that allow the population to choose between the government and insurgents, eliminate the grievances that gave rise to the insurgency, and present the population with choices that are more attractive than what the insurgents can offer. Building on a framework for integrating civil and military counterinsurgency first described in Reconstruction Under Fire: Unifying Civil and Military Counterinsurgency, this volume presents an approach to the civil component of counterinsurgency that builds on detailed background, context analysis, and threat analysis to identify and develop critical civil COIN activities. It illustrates this approach using three case studies: Nangarhar province in Afghanistan, Nord-Kivu province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Al Anbar province in Iraq. The approach builds on the best aspects of existing conflict assessment methodologies and adds new elements developed specifically for this project. The resulting framework goes beyond the strategic and operational decisions related to designing a program that is appropriate for a given conflict context."--Page 4 of cover
Sexual orientation and U.S. military personnel policy : an update of RAND's 1993 study by National Defense Research Institute (U.S.)( )

6 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 1,874 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

At the request of the Senate Armed Services Committee and the Secretary of Defense, the RAND Corporation conducted a study on sexual orientation and U.S. military policy in order to provide information and analysis that might be considered in discussing the possible repeal of the law known as "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" (DADT). The study examined DADT implementation; U.S. public and military opinion about allowing gay men and lesbians to serve in the military without restriction; and the scientific literature on group cohesion, sexual orientation, and related health issues. RAND conducted focus groups with military personnel and a survey of gay, lesbian, and bisexual military personnel. RAND researchers also examined the comparable experiences of other institutions, domestic agencies, and foreign militaries, as well as how repeal of DADT might affect unit cohesion and military readiness and effectiveness
Rethinking counterinsurgency by John Mackinlay( )

8 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 1,862 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

British and U.S. counterinsurgency (COIN) operations have been slow to respond and adapt to the rise of the global jihadist insurgency, whose base of support is global and whose exploitation of the virtual dimension has outstripped the West's. After analyzing past British COIN experiences and comparing them to the evolving nature of the modern jihadist insurgency, the authors suggest a new framework for future COIN operations
Combating terrorism : how prepared are state and local response organizations? by Lois M Davis( )

7 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 1,859 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This book presents the results of the third and final wave of a national survey to elicit assessments of state and local response agencies of the activities they have undertaken after 9/11 to respond to terrorist-related incidents and of federal programs intended to improve preparedness and readiness for terrorism. The survey also sought information on how state and local agencies are resourcing these activities. The survey results indicate that: In response to the 9/11 attacks, state and local response organizations took a number of steps to improve preparedness, e.g., updating mutual-aid agreements for emergencies and response plans for chemical, biological, and radiological incidents and conducting risk assessments. Response organizations that perceived a higher threat of terrorism for their jurisdiction were more likely to take action to improve response capabilities than organizations that perceived a lower threat, regardless of whether they had received external funding to support these activities. Organizations varied in how they financed these efforts -- some increased internal spending or reallocated resources -- and in receipt of external funding. State public health agencies and emergency management services received federal support early in 2002, but first responders did not receive federal support until spring 2003. Organizations varied in their expectations about the role of the military and the National Guard in a large-scale terrorist incident, suggesting variation in the planning assumptions they are using. Participation with the private sector in joint preparedness activities needs improvement, as does coordination between public health agencies and emergency responders. Organizations have high expectations for the Department of Homeland Security, particularly for funding support and for information about terrorist threats. However, appropriations for federal homeland security assistance have been steadily decreasing. In light of the catastrophic impact of hurricanes Katrina and Rita, controversy has arisen over whether state and local organizations have overemphasized preparedness for terrorism at the expense of emergency preparedness for natural disasters. Our survey results suggest that the events of 9/11 spurred response organizations not only to undertake preparedness activities for terrorism-related incidents, but also to make general improvements in emergency response. All these activities support overall preparedness for any catastrophic event
The rise of the Pasdaran : assessing the domestic roles of Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps by Frederic M Wehrey( )

6 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 1,837 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) - also known as the Pasdaran (Persian for "guards") - was initially created by Ayatollah Khomeini during the 1978-1979 Islamic Revolution as an ideological guard for the nascent regime. Since then, it has evolved into an expansive socio-political-economic conglomerate whose influence extends into virtually every corner of Iranian political life and society. In this monograph, the authors assess the IRGC less as a traditional military entity and more as a domestic actor, emphasizing its multidimensional nature and the variety of roles it plays in Iran's political culture, economy, and society."--BOOK JACKET
Military enlistment of Hispanic youth : obstacles and opportunities by Beth J Asch( )

7 editions published between 2008 and 2009 in English and held by 1,832 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"An implicit goal of Congress, the Department of Defense, and the armed services is that diversity in the armed services should approximate diversity in the general population. A key aspect of that diversity is the representation of Hispanics. Although polls of Hispanic youth show a strong propensity to serve in the military, Hispanics are nevertheless underrepresented among military recruits. The authors discuss the major characteristics that disproportionately disqualify Hispanic youth and explore the following questions: If recruiting standards were relaxed, what would be the effect on military performance? What actions could be taken to increase Hispanic enlistments? Finally, they examine several approaches to increasing enlistments-increasing the number of Hispanic youth who are eligible and would meet the military's entry standards, increasing interest and recruiting more intensively among the qualified Hispanic population, and targeting recruiting toward less-qualified Hispanics."--BOOK JACKET
Mullahs, Guards, and Bonyads : an exploration of Iranian leadership dynamics( )

5 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 1,821 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Islamic Republic of Iran poses serious challenges to U.S. interests in the Middle East, and its nuclear program continues to worry, and bring condemnation and sanction from, the international community. Yet the U.S. ability to "read" the regime in Tehran and formulate appropriate policies has been handicapped by the lack of access to Iran experienced by U.S. diplomats and other citizens and by what many observers lament as the opacity of Iranian decisionmaking processes. The objective of this book is to offer a framework to help U.S. policymakers and analysts better understand existing and evolving leadership dynamics driving Iranian decisionmaking. The research herein provides not only a basic primer on the structure, institutions, and personalities of the government and other influential power centers but also a better understanding of Iranian elite behavior as a driver of Iranian policy formulation and execution. The book pays special attention to emerging fissures within the regime, competing centers of power, and the primacy of informal networks-- a particularly important yet not well understood hallmark of the Iranian system
Attracting college-bound youth into the military : toward the development of new recruiting policy options by Beth J Asch( )

3 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1,797 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Although the military's need for enlisted personnel has declined by almost one-third since the end of the cold war, the armed services are finding it difficult to meet their recruiting goals. Among ongoing changes in the civilian labor market is a strong demand for skilled labor, which has prompted an increasing number of "high quality" youth to pursue post-secondary education and subsequent civilian employment. Because of this competition for high quality youth, the Department of Defense may want to explore new options for attracting desirable young people into the armed forces. The military, for example, offers a myriad of options for service members to take college courses while in active service. However, the programs do not in fact generate significant increases in educational attainment during time in service. One popular program, the Montgomery GI Bill, enrolls large numbers of individuals, but the vast majority of service members use their benefits after separating from service. Thus, the military does not receive the benefits of a more educated and productive workforce, unless the individuals subsequently join a reserve component. The authors suggest the Department of Defense should consider nontraditional policy options to enhance recruitment of college-bound youth. Recruiters could target more thoroughly students on two-year college campuses, or dropouts from two- or four-year colleges. Options for obtaining some college before military service could be expanded by allowing high school seniors to first attend college, paid for by the military, and then enlist. Or the student might serve in a reserve component while in college and then enter an active component after college. Alternatively, the military could create an entirely new path for combining college and military service by encouraging enlisted veterans to attend college and then reenlist (at a higher pay grade). The most promising alternatives should be evaluated in a national experiment designed to test their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, similar to the one that led to the creation of the Army College Fund and the Navy College Fund
A description of U.S. enlisted personnel promotion systems by Stephanie Williamson( )

2 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1,797 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The U.S. armed services have different methods and processes for promoting enlisted personnel. All of the services, however, aim to ensure that promotion outcomes correspond to substantive differences in personnel quality. This report provides a snapshot of how the Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Force go about measuring duty performance, leadership potential, experience, knowledge, and skills to determine who among its enlisted force merits promotion, when they are eligible for promotion, and at what level promotion decisions are made. This report provides an overview of the enlisted promotion system in the 1990s as retention issues again move to the forefront of Defense Department concerns
The Malay-Muslim insurgency in southern Thailand : understanding the conflict's evolving dynamic by Peter Chalk( )

5 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 1,790 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Current unrest in the Malay-Muslim provinces of southern Thailand has captured growing national, regional, and international attention due to the heightened tempo and scale of rebel attacks, the increasingly jihadist undertone that has come to characterize insurgent actions, and the central government's often brutal handling of the situation on the ground. Of particular note are growing concerns that the conflict is no longer purely local in nature but has been systematically hijacked by outside extremists to avail wider transnational Islamist designs in southeast Asia. No concrete evidence suggests that the region has been decisively transformed into a new beachhead for pan-regional jihadism. Although many of the attacks currently being perpetrated in the three Malay provinces have a definite religious element, it is not apparent that this has altered the essential localized and nationalistic aspect of the conflict. While the scale and sophistication of violence have increased, nothing links this change in tempo to the input of punitive, absolutist external jihadist imperatives. Perhaps the clearest reason to believe that the southern Thai conflict has not metastasized into a broader jihadist struggle, however, is the fact that there has been neither a migration of violence north nor directed attacks against foreigners, tourist resorts, or overt symbols of U.S. cultural capitalism
Immigration in a changing economy : California's experience by Kevin F McCarthy( )

6 editions published between 1997 and 1998 in English and held by 1,787 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

California and its economy continue to draw benefits from immigration. However, a combination of much larger immigration flows and major changes in the state's economic environment have increased the costs of immigration, and unless current policies with regard to immigration and immigrants are changed, the benefits the state currently receives from immigrants may not continue. International immigration to California has steadily increased over the past 30 years and has profoundly affected the state's population and economy. Some observers of these changes are seeing the extreme diversity of California's population as the harbinger of where the nation is headed in the long term. For others, California has become the symbol of a major backlash against immigrants and immigration. How has California benefited from immigration? What impact have immigrants had on the state's job market? How have they affected the demand for federal and state services? What has been their educational and economic progress since their arrival? This book is the culmination of a comprehensive study of how immigration has changed over the past three decades. It assesses the impact immigration has had on the state's demography, economy, people, and institutions, with lessons to be drawn for other states, the nation, and even other countries
 
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Covers
A review of the scientific literature as it pertains to Gulf War illnessesHitting America's soft underbelly : the potential threat of deliberate biological attacks against the U.S. agricultural and food industryMarried to the military : the employment and earnings of military wives compared with those of civilian wivesThe emergence of noopolitik : toward an American information strategyThe battle behind the wire : U.S. prisoner and detainee operations from World War II to IraqAssessing the assignment policy for army womenMilitary use of drugs not yet approved by the FDA for CW/BW defense : lessons from the Gulf WarEU civilian crisis management : the record so far
Alternative Names

controlled identityUnited States. Department of Defense

OSD

United States. Department of Defense. Office of Secretary of Defense

United States Department of Defense. Office of the Secretary of Defense

United States Dept. of Defense Office of the Secretary of Defense

United States. Office of the Secretary of Defense

United States Office of the Secretary of Defense. Historical Office

Languages
English (147)

Chinese (1)