WorldCat Identities

Trefler, Daniel

Works: 38 works in 219 publications in 2 languages and 1,359 library holdings
Genres: History 
Roles: Author
Classifications: HB1, 338.45670971
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Daniel Trefler
The long and short of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement by Daniel Trefler( Book )

26 editions published between 1999 and 2001 in English and French and held by 166 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: The Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA) provides a unique window on the effects of trade liberalization. It was an unusually clean trade policy exercise in that it was not bundled into a larger package of macroeconomic or market reforms. This paper uses the 1989-96 Canadian FTA experience to examine the short-run adjustment costs and long-run efficiency gains that flow from trade liberalization. For industries subject to large tariff cuts (these are typically low-end' manufacturing industries), the short-run costs included a 15% decline in employment and about a 10% decline in both output and the number of plants. Balanced against these large short-run adjustment costs were long-run labour productivity gains of 17% or a spectacular 1.0% per year. Although good capital stock and plant-level data are lacking, an attempt is made to identify the sources of FTA-induced labour productivity growth. Surprisingly, this growth is not due to rising output per plant, increased investment, or market share shifts to high-productivity plants. Instead, half of the 17% labour productivity growth appears due to favourable plant turnover (entry and exit) and rising technical efficiency
Immigrants and natives in general equilibrium trade models by Daniel Trefler( Book )

12 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 62 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper makes three observations about international trade and immigration. (i)" Borjas has argued that immigration may yield a net social benefit even though it hurts those less-skilled workers who directly compete with immigrants. I show that this closed-economy" argument unravels when imbedded in the Ricardian or Heckscher-Ohlin models of international" trade. (ii) Following Wood and Feenstra-Hanson, I argue that within an industry those goods" produced abroad use more unskilled labor than those goods produced in the United States. How" much more depends on whether the good is produced in a developed or developing country." After transparently incorporating this into a new factor content study I find that changes in U.S." trade patterns almost certainly battered wages of those at the very bottom of the skill ladder. (iii)" Despite globalization pressures, I find little evidence of earnings convergence for a sample of 75" countries over the 1963-92 period. This holds true even after controlling for education and workers' industry of affiliation
Knowledge creation and control in organizations by Diego Puga( Book )

16 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The incremental innovations that underly much of modern economic growth typically involve changes to one or more components of a complex product. This creates a tension. On the one hand, a principal would like an agent to contribute innovative components. On the other hand, ironing out incompatibilities between interdependent components can be a drain on the principal's energies. The principal can conserve her energies by tightly controlling the innovation process, but this may inadvertently stifle the agent's incentive to innovate. We show precisely how this tension between creating knowledge and controlling knowledge shapes organizational forms. The novel concepts introduced are illustrated with case studies of the flat panel cathode ray tube industry and Boeing's recent location decisions
Increasing returns and all that : a view from trade by Werner Antweiler( Book )

14 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 55 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Do scale economies contribute to our understanding of international trade? Do international trade flows encode information about the extent of scale economies? To answer these questions we examine the large class of general equilibrium theories that imply Helpman-Krugman variants of the Vanek factor content prediction. Using an ambitious database on output, trade flows, and factor endowments, we find that scale economies significantly increase our understanding of the sources of comparative advantage. Further, the Helpman-Krugman framework provides a remarkable lens for viewing the general equilibrium scale elasticities encoded in trade flows. In particular, we find that a third of all goods-producing industries are characterized by scale. (The modal range of scale elasticities for this group is 1.10-1.20 and the economy-wide scale elasticity is 1.05.) Implications are drawn for the trade-and-wages debate (skill-biased scale effects) and endogenous growth
Wake up and smell the ginseng : the rise of incremental innovation in low-wage countries by Diego Puga( Book )

15 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 46 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Increasingly, a small number of low-wage countries such as China and India are involved in innovation -- not 'big ideas' innovation, but the constant incremental innovations needed to stay ahead in business. We provide some evidence of this new phenomenon and develop a model in which there is a transition from old-style product-cycle trade to trade involving incremental innovation in low-wage countries. We explain why levels of involvement in innovation vary across low-wage countries and even across firms within each low-wage country. We then draw out implications for the location of production, trade, capital flows, earnings and living standards"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
The gains from trade with monopolistic competition : specification, estimation, and mis-specification by Huiwen Lai( Book )

11 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 44 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The difficulty of incorporating general equilibrium price effects into econometric estimating equations has deterred most researchers from econometrically estimating the welfare gains from trade liberalization. Using a paired-down CES monopolistic competition example, we show that this difficulty has been greatly exaggerated. Along the way, we estimate indeed precisely estimate large welfare gains from trade liberalization as measured by compensating variation. Unlike calibration methods, econometric methods allow researchers to isolate the violence done by the model to the data. We find that the CES monopolistic competition model horribly mis-specifies behavioural price elasticities and general equilibrium price feedbacks. The model as conceived is therefore of limited value for analysing the effects of trade liberalization. We report a number of specification issues that should point the way to better theoretical modeling
Ginis in general equilibrium : trade, technology and southern inequality by Susan Chun Zhu( Book )

12 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 43 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Within developing and newly industrialized countries, rising wage inequality is both common and highly correlated with export growth. This is incompatible with the Stolper-Samuelson theorem, but suggestive of a role for technological catch-up. We develop this insight using a model that features both Ricardian and endowments-based comparative advantage. In this model Southern catch-up induces a correlation between rising inequality and export growth. It also induces a shift in trade patterns that results in skill upgrading and rising inequality in both the South and the North. A rudimentary empirical exercise reveals that, as predicted, Southern skill upgrading is correlated with the trade-weighted average rate of Southern catch-up
Sorting it out : international trade and protection with heterogeneous workers by Franziska Ohnsorge( Book )

10 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 33 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The two models of international trade with developed factor markets -- Heckscher-Ohlin and Specific Factors -- both suffer significant defects. For example, their predictions about the patterns of domestic production and international trade are for the most part either indeterminate or uselessly complex. The problem with these models is that the supply of factors to an industry is either perfectly elastic or perfectly inelastic. Using a model in which heterogeneous workers sort across industries we eliminate this problem. The result is a multi-good model with sharp predictions about (1) the domestic pattern of production, (2) North-North and North-South trade, (3) the demand for protection, (4) the determinants of domestic income distribution, and (5) the effect of trade on economic development
The structure of factor content predictions by Daniel Trefler( Book )

10 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 30 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The last decade witnessed an explosion of research into the impact of international technology differences on the factor content of trade. Yet the literature has failed to confront two pivotal issues. First, with international technology differences and traded intermediate inputs there does not exist a Vanek-consistent definition of the factor content of trade. Restated, we do not know what we are trying to explain! We fill this gap by providing the correct definition. Second, as Helpman and Krugman (1985) showed, many models beyond Heckscher-Ohlin imply the Vanek prediction. So what model is being tested? We completely characterize the class of models being tested by providing a familiar 'sconsumption similarity' condition that is necessary and sufficient for the Vanek prediction. We illustrate with a unique dataset containing input-output tables for 41 rich and poor countries. We find modest support for the strong version of the Vanek prediction and impressive support for weaker versions of the prediction
Putting the lid on lobbying : tariff structure and long-term growth when protection is for sale by Nathan Nunn( Book )

9 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 20 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: We show that our results are not compatible with explanations that appeal to (1) externalities per se, (2) initial industrial structure that is skewed towards skill-intensive industries, or (3) the effects of broader institutions such as rule of law and control of corruption
Improved access to foreign markets raises plant-level productivity ... for some plants by Alla Lileeva( Book )

8 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 15 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We weigh into the debate about whether rising productivity is ever a consequence rather than a cause of exporting. Exporting and investing to raise productivity are complimentary activities. For lower-productivity firms, incurring the fixed costs of such investments is justifiable only if accompanied by the larger sales volumes that come with exporting. Lower foreign tariffs will induce these firms to simultaneously export and invest in productivity. In contrast, lower foreign tariffs will induce higher-productivity firms to export without investing, as in Melitz (2003). We model this econometrically using a heterogeneous response model. Unique 'plant-specific' tariff cuts serve as our instrument for the decision of Canadian plants to start exporting to the United States. We find that those lower-productivity Canadian plants that were induced by the tariff cuts to start exporting (a) increased their labor productivity, (b) engaged in more product innovation, and (c) had high adoption rates of advanced manufacturing technologies. These new exporters also increased their domestic (Canadian) market share at the expense of non-exporters, which suggests that the labor productivity gains reflect underlying gains in TFP. In contrast, we find no effects for higher-productivity plants, just as predicted by our complementarity theory
International trade and institutional change : medieval Venice's response to globalization by Diego Puga( Book )

10 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 14 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

International trade can have profound effects on domestic institutions. We examine this proposition in the context of medieval Venice circa 800-1350. We show that (initially exogenous) increases in long-distance trade enriched a large group of merchants and these merchants used their new-found muscle to push for constraints on the executive i.e., for the end of a de facto hereditary Doge in 1032 and for the establishment of a parliament or Great Council in 1172. The merchants also pushed for remarkably modern innovations in contracting institutions (such as the colleganza) that facilitated large-scale mobilization of capital for risky long-distance trade. Over time, a group of extraordinarily rich merchants emerged and in the almost four decades following 1297 they used their resources to block political and economic competition. In particular, they made parliamentary participation hereditary and erected barriers to participation in the most lucrative aspects of long-distance trade. We document this 'oligarchization' using a unique database on the names of 8,103 parliamentarians and their families' use of the colleganza. In short, long-distance trade first encouraged and then discouraged institutional dynamism and these changes operated via the impacts of trade on the distribution of wealth and power
Much ado about nothing : American jobs and the rise of service outsourcing to China and India by Runjuan Liu( Book )

8 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 12 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We examine the impact on U.S. labor markets of offshore outsourcing in services to China and India. We also consider the reverse flow or 'inshoring' which is the sale of services produced in the United States to unaffiliated buyers in China and India. Using March-to-March matched CPS data for 1996-2006 we examine the impacts on (1) occupation and industry switching, (2) weeks spent unemployed as a share of weeks in the labor force, and (3) earnings. We precisely estimate small positive effects of inshoring and smaller negative effects of offshore outsourcing. The net effect is positive. To illustrate how small the effects are, suppose that over the next nine years all of inshoring and offshore outsourcing grew at rates experienced during 1996-2005 in business, professional and technical services i.e., in segments where China and India have been particularly strong. Then workers in occupations that are exposed to inshoring and offshore outsourcing (1) would switch 4-digit occupations 2 percent less often, (2) would spend 0.1 percent less time unemployed, and (3) would earn 1.5 percent more. These are not annual changes -- they are changes over nine years -- and are thus best described as small positive effects
The labour market consequences of the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement by Noel G Gaston( Book )

4 editions published between 1995 and 1997 in English and held by 8 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Canadian policy responses to offshore outsourcing by Daniel Trefler( Book )

7 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This policy brief is a summary of the views on offshore outsourcing expressed by Canadian and international thought leaders at two conferences co-organized by Industry Canada and the Rotman School of Management. The Roundtable on Offshoring was held on March 30, 2005 at the Chateau Laurier, Ottawa and led to the commissioning of 16 new studies that fully describe all that is relevant to Canadian policy makers about the rise of offshore outsourcing. The papers were then presented at a conference held on October 26-27, 2006 at the Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto. From these papers and the lively conference debates comes a comprehensive inventory of possible policy responses to the rise of offshore outsourcing. These policies are reviewed here and the effectiveness of each is evaluated."--Document
A Sorted Tale of Globalization White Collar Jobs and the Rise of Service Offshoring by Runjuan Liu( Book )

6 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We study how the rise of trade in services with China and India has impacted U.S. labour markets. The topic has two understudied aspects: it deals with service trade (most studies deal with manufacturing trade) and it examines the historical first of U.S. workers competing with educated but low-wage foreign workers. Our empirical agenda is made complicated by the endogeneity of service imports and the endogenous sorting of workers across occupations. To develop an estimation framework that deals with these, we imbed a partial equilibrium model of 'trade in tasks' within a general equilibrium model of occupational choice. The model highlights the need to estimate labour market outcomes using changes in the outcomes of individual workers and, in particular, to distinguish workers who switch 'up' from those who switch 'down'. (Switching 'down' means switching to an occupation that pays less on average than the current occupation). We apply these insights to matched CPS data for 1996-2007. The cumulative 10-year impact of rising service imports from China and India has been as follows. (1) Downward and upward occupational switching increased by 17% and 4%, respectively. (2) Transitions to unemployment increased by a large 0.9 percentage points. (3) The earnings of occupational 'stayers' fell by a tiny 2.3%. (4) The earnings impact for occupational switchers is not identified without an assumption about worker sorting. Under the assumption of no worker sorting, downward (upward) switching was associated with an earning change of -13.9% (+12.1%). Under the assumption of worker sorting, there is no statistically significant impact on earnings -- National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Policy responses to the new offshoring : think globally, invest locally by Daniel Trefler( Book )

4 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the issues surrounding outsourcing and offshoring of goods and services. In considering international offshoring, two trends stand out. The first is the rise of China as the world's manufacturer. The second is the rapid growth of traded services involving innovative, technology-intensive processes and employing high-paid white collar workers. Offshoring enables firms to concentrate on core activities and their competiveness. Thus, the paper argues that offshoring is both a threat and an opportunity. Many Canadian firms have yet to recognize the sea change in their sourcing possibilities. Better information about the strategic offshoring option is needed. Offshoring has important policy implications for Canada and other major economies
Domestic Institutions as a Source of Comparative Advantage by Nathan Nunn( Book )

4 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Domestic institutions can have profound effects on international trade. This chapter reviews the theoretical and empirical underpinnings of this insight. Particular attention is paid to contracting institutions and to comparative advantage, where the bulk of the research has been concentrated -- National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Deductions from the Export Basket : Capabilities, Wealth and Trade by John Sutton( Book )

6 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper re-explores the relation between a country's level of wealth and the mix of products it exports. We argue that both are simultaneously determined by countries' capabilities i.e. by countries' productivity and quality levels for each good. Our theoretical setup has two features. (1) Some goods have fewer high-quality producers/countries than others i.e. there is Ricardian comparative advantage. (2) Imperfect competition allows high- and low-quality producers to coexist, which we refer to as 'product ranges'. These two features generate a very particular non-monotonic, general equilibrium relationship between a country's export mix and its wage (GDP per capita). We show that this non-monotonicity permeates the 1980-2005 international data on trade and GDP per capita. Our setup also explains two other facets of the data: (1) Product ranges are huge and (2) for the poorest third of countries, changes in export mix substantially over-predict growth in GDP per capita. This suggests that the main challenge for low-income countries is to raise quality and productivity in their existing product lines
The Rents From Trade and Coercive Institutions Removing the Sugar Coating by Christian Dippel( )

2 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The 19th century collapse of world sugar prices should have depressed wages in the British West Indies sugar colonies. It did not. We explain this by showing how lower prices weakened the power of the white planter elite and thus led to an easing of the coercive institutions that depressed wages e.g., institutions that kept land out of the hands of peasants. Using unique data for 14 British West Indies sugar colonies from 1838 to 1913, we examine the impact of the collapse of sugar prices on wages and incarceration rates. We find that in colonies that were poorly suited for sugar cane cultivation (an exogenous colony characteristic), the planter elite declined in power and the institutions they created and supported became less coercive. As a result, wages rose by 20% and incarceration rates per capita were cut in half. In contrast, in colonies that were highly suited for sugar cane there was little change in the power of the planter elite -- as a result, institutions did not change, the market-based mechanisms of standard trade theory were salient, and wages fell by 24%. In short, movements in the terms of trade induced changes in coercive institutions, changes that are central for understanding how the terms of trade affects wages
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