WorldCat Identities

Froot, Kenneth

Works: 198 works in 881 publications in 1 language and 10,728 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings  History 
Roles: Author, Editor, Other, Performer
Classifications: HB1, 337.1
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Kenneth Froot
The financing of catastrophe risk by Kenneth Froot( )

16 editions published between 1999 and 2007 in English and Undetermined and held by 2,064 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Is it possible that the insurance and reinsurance industries cannot handle a major catastrophe? With ever increasing property-casualty risks and unabated growth in hazard-prone areas, insurers and reinsurers now envision the possibility of disaster losses of $50 to $100 billion in the United States. Against this backdrop, the capitalization of the insurance and reinsurance industries has become a crucial concern. While it remains unlikely that a single event might entirely bankrupt these industries, a big catastrophe could place firms, policy holders, and investors under stress." "The Financing of Catastrophe Risk assembles an impressive roster of experts from academia and industry to explore the important issue of how catastrophe risk should be distributed and financed."--Jacket
The Transition in Eastern Europe by Olivier Blanchard( )

29 editions published between 1994 and 2008 in English and held by 1,264 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

When communism fell in 1989, the question for most Eastern European countries was not whether to go to a market economy, but how to get there. Several years later, the difficult process of privatization and restructuring continues to concern the countries of the region. The Transition in Eastern Europe, Volumes 1 and 2 is an analysis of the experiences of various countries making the transition to market economies and examines the most important challenges still in store. Volume 1, Country Studies, gives an in-depth, country-by-country analysis of various reform experiences, including historical backgrounds and discussions of policies and results to date. The countries analyzed are Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, eastern Germany, Slovenia, and Russia. Written by leading economists, some of whom helped shape local and national reforms, this volume identifies common progress, common difficulties, and tentative solutions to the problems of economic transition. Volume 2, Restructuring, focuses on specific issues of transition, including how to design labor market institutions, privatization, new fiscal structures, and bankruptcy laws; how to reorganize foreign trade; and how to promote foreign direct investment. The articles, written by experts in the field, will be of direct help to those involved in the transition process. These volumes provide a standard reference on economic transition in the region for policymakers in Eastern Europe and in western countries, for international agencies concerned with the transition process, and for anyone interested in learning about the dramatic changes that have recently occurred in Eastern Europe
Foreign direct investment by Kenneth Froot( )

19 editions published between 1993 and 2008 in English and Undetermined and held by 1,184 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Over the past decade, foreign direct investment (FDI) around the world has nearly tripled, and with this surge have come dramatic shifts in FDI flows. The United States, traditionally a major investor abroad, has become the foremost host of FDI from other countries such as England, Japan, and Germany. In Foreign Direct Investment, distinguished economists look at changes in FDI, including historical trends, specific country experiences, developments in the semiconductor industry, and variations in international mergers and acquisitions."--BOOK JACKET. "The first three chapters examine theoretical accounts of FDI patterns, the growth of multinational enterprises, and the influence of exchange rates and trade barriers on FDI. Chapter 1 suggests that multinational enterprises (MNEs) might be growing because of increasing integration of world markets, growing similarity of national markets, improved communications technology, and developing symmetry in international technological capabilities."--BOOK JACKET. "Chapter 2 considers the influence of exchange rates and trade barriers on FDI, proposing that when exchange rates fluctuate widely, MNEs have an advantage over domestic firms because of their ability to shift marginal production and sales in response to changing exchange rates. This chapter suggests that domestic firms are better suited than MNEs to take advantage of trade barriers through domestic investment. Chapter 3 explores changes in MNEs over the last 40 years and forecasts that MNEs will grow in importance in future world trade."--BOOK JACKET. "The second group of essays consists of country studies. Chapter 4 looks at FDI in Japan and argues that Japan's inbound FDI is low because of barriers to entry, not because of low foreign demand. The next essay focuses on the FDI experience of the United States over the past three decades, charting the growth of foreign ownership in the United States, particularly the increase in Japanese ownership. Chapter 6 considers the role of "mobil exporters" companies from relatively high-income developing countries, such as Indonesia, that seek low-cost installations to access third-country markets. Chapter 7 investigates FDI in semiconductors and compares the developments in a specific industry with those on a country and worldwide basis."--BOOK JACKET. "The last two chapters cover changes in international mergers and acquisitions (M&A). Chapter 8 looks at M&A among eleven major industrialized countries between 1985 and 1990 and finds that regulations of intercorporate investment reduce cross-border flows. The final chapter examines foreign M&A in the United States from 1974 to 1990. This study finds that foreign investors tend to purchase U.S. firms with higher growth potential than domestics do."--BOOK JACKET. "This volume presents a valuable overview of the impact of FDI in the past decade in the United States and abroad, and it will interest economists, government officials, and business people concerned with FDI today."--BOOK JACKET
The transition in Eastern Europe by Olivier Jean Blanchard( )

23 editions published between 1994 and 2007 in English and held by 804 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

When communism fell in 1989, the question for most Eastern European countries was not whether to go to a market economy, but how to get there. Several years later, the difficult process of privatization and restructuring continues to concern the countries of the region. The Transition in Eastern Europe, Volumes 1 and 2 is an analysis of the experiences of various countries making the transition to market economies and examines the most important challenges still in store.Volume 1, Country Studies, gives an in-depth, country-by-country analysis of various reform exper
Short-term and long-term expectations of the yen/dollar exchange rate : evidence from survey data by Jeffrey A Frankel( )

15 editions published between 1986 and 1988 in English and held by 282 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Three surveys of exchange rate expectations allow us to measure directly the expected rates of return on yen versus dollars. Expectations of yen appreciation against the dollar have been (1) consistently large, (2) variable, and (3) greater than the forward premium, implying that investors were willing to accept a lower expected return on dollar assets. At short-term horizons expectations exhibit bandwagon effects, while at longer-term horizons they show the reverse. A 10 percent yen appreciation generates the expectation of a further appreciation of 2.4 percent over the following week, for example, but a depreciation of 3.4 percent over the following year. At any horizon, investors would do better to reduce the absolute magnitude of expected depreciation. The true spot rate process behaves more like a random walk
The market for catastrophe risk : a clinical examination by Kenneth Froot( )

28 editions published between 1999 and 2001 in English and held by 228 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the market for catastrophe event risk -- i.e., financial claims that are linked to losses associated with natural hazards, such as hurricanes and earthquakes. This market is in transition as new approaches for transferring risk are being explored. The paper studies several recent transactions by USAA which use reinsurance capacity from capital markets rather than only from reinsurers. We identify two puzzles concerning the cat protection purchased in these transactions: there is no coverage for the largest, most severe events; and premiums appear well above actuarial value. We demonstrate that both features deviate from what theory would predict, yet are characteristic of many transactions, not simply those of USAA. We then explore a number of possible explanations for the facts. The most compelling are combinations of capital market imperfections and market power on the part of reinsurers. Conclusions for broader capital market and risk management issues are discussed
The law of one price over 700 years by Kenneth Froot( )

20 editions published between 1995 and 2001 in English and held by 194 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines annual commodity price data from England and Holland over a span of seven centuries. Our data set incorporates transactions prices on 8 commodities: barley, butter, cheese, eggs, oats, peas, silver, wheat as well as pound/shilling nominal exchange rates going back, in some cases, to 1273. We find that the volatility and persistence of deviations from the law of one price have been remarkably stable over time. LOP deviations are highly correlated across commodities (especially at annual horizons) and, for most pairwise comparisons in most centuries, at least as volatile as relative prices across different goods within the same country. Our analysis challenges the conventional view that the modern floating exchange rate experience is exceptional in terms of the behavior of relative (exchange-rate adjusted) prices across countries
Currency returns, institutional investor flows, and exchange rate fundamentals by Kenneth Froot( Book )

21 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 179 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We explore the interaction between exchange rates, institutional investor currency flows and exchange-rate fundamentals. We find that these flows are highly correlated with contemporaneous and lagged exchange rate changes, and that they carry information for future excess currency returns. This information, however, is not strongly linked to future fundamentals. Flows are important in understanding transitory elements of excess returns, which include short-run underreaction and long-run overreaction. However, flows have a zero or negative correlation with permanent components of excess returns. We find that measured fundamentals - not flows - seem important in understanding permanent elements of excess returns. We conclude that investor flows are important for understanding deviations of exchange rates from fundamentals, but not for understanding the long-run currency values
International economic cooperation by Martin S Feldstein( Book )

4 editions published between 1987 and 1988 in English and held by 143 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference organized to investigate efforts to coordinate economic policy among the developed nations. Four academic economists present non-technical background papers on macroeconomic and exchange rate policy, international trade and the developing country debt crisis. The volume also includes the commentary these papers generated, and personal statements by individuals prominent in government and business, as well as summaries of discussions that followed the presentation. (For sale in India at Rs.94.00)
Interest allocation rules, financing patterns, and the operations of U.S. multinationals by Kenneth Froot( )

15 editions published between 1994 and 1995 in English and held by 133 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the impact of the 1986 change in U.S. interest allocation rules on the investment and financing decisions of American multinationals. The 1986 change reduced the tax deductibility of the interest expenses of firms with excess foreign tax credits. The resulting increase in the cost of debt gives firms incentives to substitute away from using debt finance. Furthermore, to the extent that perfect financing substitutes are not available, the overall cost of capital rises as well. The empirical tests indicate that the loss of tax deductibility of parent-company interest expenses appears to reduce significantly borrowing and investing by firms with excess foreign tax credits. The same firms tend to undertake new lease commitments, which may reflect the use of leases as alternatives to capital ownership. In addition, firms affected by the tax change tend to scale back the scope of their foreign and total operations. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that firms substitute away from debt when debt becomes more expensive, and also with the hypothesis that the loss of interest tax shields increases a firm's cost of capital
The portfolio flows of international investors, I by Kenneth Froot( )

19 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 126 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The paper explores the behavior of daily, international portfolio flows into and out of 46 countries from 1994 through 1998. Our data are from State Street Bank & Trust and encompass over 3 million trades by client institutions. We find a number of interesting facts. First, we detect regional factors within the flows. Second, the flows are strongly persistent--the persistence decays only slowly over time. Third, flows are strongly influenced by past returns, so that investor trend-following is apparent. Fourth, we find that inflows have forecasting power for future emerging markets returns, but not for developed country returns. Fifth, we find the sensitivity of local stock prices to foreign inflows to be positive and determine that transitory inflows impact future returns negatively. Finally, we examine and reject the view that the positive covariance of returns and inflows is associated with an information disadvantage on the part of international investors
The limited financing of catastrophe risk : an overview by Kenneth Froot( )

15 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 123 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper argues that the financial exposure of households and firms to natural catastrophe disasters is borne primarily by insurance companies. Surprisingly, insurers use reinsurance to cover only a small fraction of these exposures, yet many insurers do not have enough capital and surplus to survive medium or large disasters. In a well-functioning financial system, these risks would be more widely shared. This paper articulates eight different explanations that may lie behind the limited risk sharing, relating them both to recent industry developments and financial theory. I then examine how financial innovation can help change the equilibrium toward a more efficient outcome
Perspectives on PPP and long-run real exchange rates by Kenneth Froot( )

14 editions published between 1994 and 1996 in English and held by 122 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper reviews the large and growing literature which tests PPP and other models of the long-run real exchange rate. We distinguish three different stages of PPP testing and focus on what has been learned from each. The most important overall lesson has been that the real exchange rate appears stationary over sufficiently long horizons. Simple, univariate random walk specifications can be rejected in favor of stationary alternatives. However, we argue that multivariate tests, which ask whether any linear combination of prices and exchange rates are stationary, have not necessarily provided meaningful rejections of nonstationarity. We also review a number of other theories of the long run real exchange rate -- including the Balassa-Samuelson hypothesis -- as well as the evidence supporting them. We argue that the persistence of real exchange rate movements can be generated by a number of sensible models and that Balassa- Samuelson effects seem important, but mainly for countries with widely disparate levels of income of growth. Finally, this paper presents new evidence testing the law of one price on 200 years of historical commodity price data for England and France, and uses a century of data from Argentina to test the possibility of sample-selection bias in tests of long-run PPP
Exchange rate forecasting techniques, survey data, and implications for the foreign exchange market by Jeffrey A Frankel( )

17 editions published between 1990 and 1991 in English and held by 121 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The paper presents new empirical results that elucidate the dynamics of the foreign exchange market. The first half of the paper is an updated study of the exchange rate expectations held by market participants, as reflected in responses to surveys, and contains the following conclusions. First, the bias observed in the forward discount as a predictor of the future spot rate is not attributable to an exchange risk premium, as is conventionally believed. Second, at short horizons forecasters tend to extrapolate recent trends, while at long horizons they tend to forecast a reversal. Third, the bias in expectations is robust in the samples, based on eight years of data across five currencies. The second half of the paper abandons the framework in which all market participants share the same forecast, to focus on the importance of heterogeneous expectations. Tests suggest that dispersion of opinion, as reflected in the standard deviation across respondents in the survey, affects the volume of trading in the market, and, in turn, the degree of volatility of the exchange rate. An example of how conflicting forecasts can lead to swings in the exchange rate is the model of "chartists and fundamentalists." The market weights assigned to the two models fluctuate over time in response to recent developments, leading to fluctuations in the demand for foreign currency. The paper ends with one piece of evidence to support the model: the fraction of foreign exchange forecasting services that use "technical analysis" did indeed increase sharply during 1983-85, but declined subsequently
The evolving market for catastrophic event risk by Kenneth Froot( )

13 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 121 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper discusses the recent changes in the market for catastrophe risk. These risks have traditionally been distributed through the insurance and reinsurance systems. However, because insurance companies tend to share relatively small amounts of their cat exposures and because insurance companies' capital is threatened by large event, these risks are now being shared partly through the capital markets. In looking to likely future developments, the paper enumerates five key ingredients that successfully structured cat instruments are likely to share: retentions should be substantial; layers of protection should not be too high; dollar amounts of risk transfer should not be too small; loss triggers should be beyond cendent control; and loss triggers should be symmetrically transparent
Decomposing the persistence of international equity flows by Kenneth Froot( )

13 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 120 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The portfolio flows of institutional investors are widely known to be persistent. What is less well known, however, is the source of this persistence. One possibility is the ?informed trading hypothesis?: that persistence arises from autocorrelated trades of investors who believe they have information about value and who face an imperfectly liquid market. Another possibility is that there are asynchroneities with respect to investment decisions across funds, across investments, or both. These asynchroneities could be due to wealth effects (across investments for a single fund), investor herding (across funds for a single investment), or generalized contagion (across funds and across investments). We use daily data on institutional flows into 21 developed countries by 471 funds to measure and decompose aggregate flow persistence. We find that the informed trading hypothesis explains about 75% of total persistence, and that the remaining amount is attributable entirely to cross-fund own-country persistence. In other words, we find statistically and economically significant flow asynchroneities across funds investing in the same country. There are no meaningful asynchroneities across countries, either within a given fund, or across funds. The cross-fund flow lags we identify might result from different fund investment processes, or from some funds mimicking others? decisions. We reject the hypothesis that wealth effects explain persistence
The information content of international portfolio flows by Kenneth Froot( )

14 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 120 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We examine the forecasting power of international portfolio flows for local equity markets and attempt to attribute it to either better information about fundamentals on the part of international investors, or to price pressure. Price pressure is a potential explanation because flows have positive contemporaneous price impacts and are strongly positively autocorrelated. We find that cross-border flows forecast both individual country equity market prices and associated US closed-end country fund prices, even after controlling for closed-end fund purchases. Cross-border flows have no discernable impact on the difference, the closed-end fund discount. This fact is consistent with the information story, which says that cross-border inflows predict no change in the discount, but forecast positive changes in both net asset values and closed-end fund prices. This fact also contradicts the price pressure story, which predicts that cross-border inflows increase local country equity prices, thereby increasing the closed-end fund discount. We also use our approach to test for the presence of trend following in cross-border flows based on relative, as well as absolute returns. Like other studies, we find evidence of trend following based on absolute returns. Interestingly, however, we find also that flows are trend reversing based on relative returns. Flows therefore seem to be stabilizing with respect to notions of relative, but not absolute, value
On the pricing of intermediated risks : theory and application to catastrophe reinsurance by Kenneth Froot( )

17 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 119 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We model the equilibrium price and quantity of risk transfer between firms and financial intermediaries. Value-maximizing firms have downward sloping demands to cede risk, while intermediaries, who assume risk, provide less-than-fully-elastic supply. We show that equilibrium required returns will be high' in the presence of financing imperfections that make intermediary capital costly. Moreover, financing imperfections can give rise to intermediary market power, so that small changes in financial imperfections can give rise to large changes in price. We develop tests of this alternative against the null that the supply of intermediary capital is perfectly elastic. We take the US catastrophe reinsurance market as an example, using detailed data from Guy Carpenter & Co., covering a large fraction of the catastrophe risks exchanged during 1970-94. Our results suggest that the price of reinsurance generally exceeds fair' values, particularly in the aftermath of large events, that market power of reinsurers is not a complete explanation for such pricing, and that reinsurers' high costs of capital appear to play an important role
The pricing of U.S. catastrophe reinsurance by Kenneth Froot( )

18 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 119 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We explore two theories that have been advanced to explain the patterns in U.S. catastrophe reinsurance pricing. The first is that price variation is tied to demand shocks, driven in effect by changes in actuarially expected losses. The second holds that the supply of capital to the reinsurance industry is less than perfectly elastic, with the consequence that prices are bid up whenever existing funds are depleted by catastrophe losses. Using detailed reinsurance contract data from Guy Carpenter & Co. over a 25-year period, we test these two theories. Our results suggest that capital market imperfections are more important than shifts in actuarial valuation for understanding catastrophe reinsurance pricing. Supply, rather than demand, shifts seem to explain most features of the market in the aftermath of a loss
The persistence of emerging market equity flows by Jessica D Tjornhom( )

14 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 117 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The portfolio flows of institutional investors have been found to be highly persistent across countries and individual investment funds. This paper investigates the source of this persistence in emerging market equities. We employ the decomposition methodology of Froot and Tjornhom (2002), which decomposes the persistence of flows into four components: (i) own-country, own-fund persistence (which might arise from informed trading within each country by individual funds); (ii) own-country, cross-fund persistence (which might arise from asynchronicities across funds); (iii) cross-country, own-fund persistence (which might arise from asynchonicities within a fund) and (iv) cross-country, cross-fund persistence (which might arise from other reaction lags such as contagion across both countries and funds). We find evidence that all four components are positive in emerging markets. Our results differ from those in developed countries, in that we attribute approximately 10%-20% of total persistence to cross-country effects (iii) and (iv). These findings are consistent with stories of contagion, which suggest that demand shifts move predictably from one country to another. They cannot easily be explained by informed trading alone or by wealth effects
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Audience Level
Audience Level
  Kids General Special  
Audience level: 0.31 (from 0.05 for The transi ... to 0.70 for Currency r ...)

The Transition in Eastern Europe
The Transition in Eastern EuropeForeign direct investmentThe transition in Eastern Europe
Alternative Names
Froot, K. A. 1957-

Froot, Kenneth A.

Froot, Kenneth A. 1957-

Kenneth A. Froot economist (Harvard University; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER))

Kenneth A. Froot Wirtschaftswissenschaftler/in (Harvard University; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER))

English (342)