WorldCat Identities

Stephan, Paula E.

Works: 71 works in 266 publications in 3 languages and 6,160 library holdings
Roles: Author, Editor, Contributor, 958, Opponent, Other
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Paula E Stephan
Understanding regression analysis : an introductory guide by Larry D Schroeder( )

23 editions published between 1986 and 2017 in English and held by 1,840 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Providing beginners with a background to the frequently-used technique of linear regression, this text provides a heuristic explanation of the procedures and terms used in regression analysis and has been written at the most elementary level
Science and the university by Paula E Stephan( )

12 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 1,754 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Science and the University investigates the tremendous changes that have taken place in university research over the past several decades, gauging the current state of research in higher education and examining issues and challenges crucial to its future. Scientific research increasingly dominates the aims and agendas of many American universities, and this proliferation--and changes in the way research is conducted--has given rise to important questions about the interrelations of higher education, funding for scientific research, and government policy. The cost of doing science, the commercialization of university research, the changing composition and number of Ph. D. students, the effect of scientific research on other university programs--these are just a few of the many issues explored in this volume from the vantage points of scholars in such diverse fields as economics, biochemistry, genetics, and labor studies
How economics shapes science by Paula E Stephan( )

20 editions published between 2011 and 2016 in 3 languages and held by 1,107 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The beauty of science may be pure and eternal, but the practice of science costs money. And scientists, being human, respond to incentives and costs, in money and glory. Choosing a research topic, deciding what papers to write and where to publish them, sticking with a familiar area or going into something new - the payoff may be tenure or a job at a highly ranked university or a prestigious award or a bump in salary. The risk may be not getting any of that. At a time when science is seen as an engine of economic growth, Paula Stephan brings a keen understanding of the ongoing cost-benefit calculations made by individuals and institutions as they compete for resources and reputation. She shows how universities offload risks by increasing the percentage of non-tenure-track faculty, requiring tenured faculty to pay salaries from outside grants, and staffing labs with foreign workers on temporary visas. With funding tight, investigators pursue safe projects rather than less fundable ones with uncertain but potentially path-breaking outcomes. Career prospects in science are increasingly dismal for the young, because of ever-lengthening apprenticeships, scarcity of permanent academic positions, and the difficulty of getting funded. Vivid, thorough, and bold, "The Economics of Science" highlights the growing gap between the haves and have-nots - especially the vast imbalance between the biomedical sciences and physics/engineering - and offers a persuasive vision of a more productive, more creative research system that would lead and benefit the world. -- From Inside Flap
Striking the mother lode in science : the importance of age, place, and time by Paula E Stephan( Book )

12 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 409 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"How much truth is there to the popular belief that science is a young person's game? Is America's older scientific community retarding economic growth? Using a unique data base and an interdisciplinary approach, the authors address these and other questions. They find evidence that exceptional contributions to science are more likely to be made by those under 40. Age matters, but not nearly as much for "average" scientists. Success in science also depends on RPRT--being in the "right place at the right time.""--BOOK JACKET. "Not all generations of scientists have equal access to the type of jobs that foster productivity, nor do they have the good fortune to be educated when path-breaking events are occurring in their field. Changing economic conditions in science have conspired to make those who entered science during the last 25 years less productive than their predecessors. In addition, extreme competition for jobs and grants can make scientists behave in a dysfunctional manner."--BOOK JACKET. "The authors conclude that the absence of a national science policy can cause serious problems for the United States, and they outline a policy to boost productivity in American science. Clearly written, with many pointed examples, this work will appeal to anyone interested in science or science policy."--BOOK JACKET
The economics of science and innovation( Book )

10 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 125 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Standing on academic shoulders : measuring scientific influence in universities by James D Adams( )

9 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 88 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This article measures scientific influence by means of citations to academic papers. The data source is the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI); the scientific institutions included are the top 110 U.S. research universities; the 12 main fields that classify the data cover nearly all of science; and the time period is 1981-1999. Altogether the database includes 2.4 million papers and 18.8 million citations. Thus the evidence underlying our findings accounts for much of the basic research conducted in the United States during the last quarter of the 20th century. This research in turn contributes a significant part of knowledge production in the U.S. during the same period
How rapidly does science leak out? by James D Adams( )

11 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 76 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In science as well as technology, the diffusion of new ideas influences innovation and productive efficiency. With this as motivation we use citations to scientific papers to measure the diffusion of science through the U.S. economy. To indicate the speed of diffusion we rely primarily on the modal or most frequent lag. Using this measure we find that diffusion between universities as well as between firms and universities takes an average of three years. The lag on science diffusion between firms is 3.3 years, compared with 4.8 years in technology for the same companies using the same methodology. Industrial science diffuses fifty per cent more rapidly than technology, and academic science diffuses still faster. Thus the priority publication system in science appears to distribute information more rapidly than the patent system, although other interpretations are possible. We also find that the speed of science diffusion in the same field varies by a factor of two across industries. The industry variation turns out to be driven by frictional publication lags and firm size in R & D and science decrease it. Industries having a lot of R & D or science and composed of fields with little friction exhibit rapid diffusion. Industries where the reverse is true exhibit slow diffusion
Conveying quality and value in emerging industries : star scientists and the role of learning in biotechnology by Matthew J Higgins( )

10 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Managers of private entrepreneurial firms face obstacles in raising capital both in placing a value on a firm and conveying value to investors. These problems are exacerbated when the firm is small, has limited assets (except for human capital) and has yet to have a lead product. In such cases metrics are necessary to convey the value of the firm to investors. Here we explore the importance within the biotechnology industry of the non-financial metrics firms used to convey value during two important initial public offerings (IPO) windows (1989 to 1992 and 1996 to 2000). We also examine whether there was a change over time in the importance of various metrics in determining the value of a biotechnology firm. We find that firms with an affiliated Nobel laureate succeeded in raising the value of their firms by more than $30 million compared to firms without a Nobel laureate during the first period, suggesting that a Nobel laureate served as a powerful signal of firm value. Our results also suggest that the biotechnology regime changed and the Nobel Prize lost its luster as a signal of value in the second period. The importance of several other non-financial metrics changed as well. We conclude that these non-financial metrics of value change in relative importance to potential investors and financial markets as learning occurs and as an industry matures
Twins or strangers? : differences and similarities between industrial and academic science by Henry Sauermann( )

7 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 64 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Some scholars view academic and industrial science as qualitatively different knowledge production regimes. Others claim that the two sectors are increasingly similar. Large-scale empirical evidence regarding similarities and differences, however, has been missing. Drawing on prior work on the organization of science, we first develop a framework to compare and contrast the two sectors along four key dimensions: (1) the nature of research (e.g., basic versus applied); (2) organizational characteristics (e.g., degree of independence, pay); (3) researchers' preferences (e.g., taste for independence); and (4) the use of alternative disclosure mechanisms (e.g., patenting and publishing). We then compare the two sectors empirically using detailed survey data from a representative sample of over 5,000 life scientists and physical scientists employed in a wide range of academic institutions and private firms. Building on prior work that has emphasized different ₃research missions₄, we also examine how the nature of research is related to other characteristics of science within and across the two sectors. Our results paint a complex picture of academic and industrial science. While we find significant industry-academia differences with respect to all four dimensions, we also observe remarkable similarities. For example, both academic institutions and private firms appear to allow their scientists to stay actively involved in the broader scientific community and provide them with considerable levels of independence in their jobs. Second, we find significant differences not just between industrial and academic science but also within each of the two sectors as well as across fields. Finally, while the nature of research is a significant predictor of other dimensions such as the use of patenting and publishing, it does not fully explain the observed industry-academia differences in those dimensions. Overall, our results suggest that stereotypical views of industrial and academic science may be misleading and that future work may benefit from a richer and more nuanced description of the organization of science
Foreign born scientists : mobility patterns for sixteen countries by Chiara Franzoni( )

7 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: We report results from the first systematic study of the mobility of scientists engaged in research in a large number of countries. Data were collected from 17,182 respondents using a web-based survey of corresponding authors in 16 countries in four fields during 2011. We find considerable variation across countries, both in terms of immigration and emigration patterns. Switzerland has the largest percent of immigrant scientists working in country (56.7); Canada, and Australia trail by nine or more percent; the U.S. and Sweden by approximately eighteen percent. India has the lowest (0.8), followed closely by Italy and Japan. The most likely reason to come to a country for postdoctoral study or work is professional. Our survey methodology also allows us to study emigration patterns of individuals who were living in one of the 16 countries at age 18. Again, considerable variation exists by country. India heads the list with three in eight of those living in country when they were 18 out of country in 2011. The country with the lowest diaspora is Japan. Return rates also vary by country, with emigrants from Spain being most likely to return and those from India being least like to return. Regardless of country, the most likely reason respondents report for returning to one's home country is family or personal
Mobile scientists and international networks by Giuseppe Scellato( )

6 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 55 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper explores the link between mobility and the presence of international research networks. Data come from the GlobSci survey of authors of articles published in 2009 in four fields of science working in sixteen countries. Summary evidence suggests that migration plays an important role in the formation of international networks. Approximately 40 percent of the foreign-born researchers report having kept research links with colleagues in their country of origin. Non-mobile researchers are less likely to collaborate with someone outside their country than are either the foreign born or returnees. When the non-mobile collaborate, their networks span fewer countries. Econometric results are consistent with the hypothesis that internationally mobile researchers contribute significantly to extending the international scope and quality of the research network in destination countries at no detriment to the quality of the research performed. Results also suggest that the "foreign premium" on collaboration propensity is driven in large part by mobile researchers who either trained or worked outside the destination country where they were surveyed in 2011. With but one exception, the mobility findings persist when we estimate models separately for the US, Europe, and other countries
Choice of country by the foreign born for PhD and postdoctoral study : a sixteen-country perspective by Paula E Stephan( )

5 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 53 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We analyze the decisions of foreign-born PhD and postdoctoral trainees to come to the United States vs. go to another country for training. Data are drawn from the GlobSci survey of scientists in sixteen countries working in four fields. We find that individuals come to the U.S. to train because of the prestige of its programs and/or career prospects. They are discouraged from training in the United States because of the perceived lifestyle. The availability of exchange programs elsewhere discourages coming for PhD study; the relative unattractiveness of fringe benefits discourages coming for postdoctoral study. Countries that have been nibbling at the U.S.-PhD and postdoc share are Australia, Germany, and Switzerland; France and Great Britain have gained appeal in attracting postdocs, but not in attracting PhD students. Canada has made gains in neither
Understanding regression analysis : an introductory guide by Larry D Schroeder( Book )

18 editions published between 1986 and 2002 in English and Undetermined and held by 52 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Endless Frontier : reaping what Bush sowed? by Paula E Stephan( )

6 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 50 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

I examine and document how the Endless Frontier changed the research landscape at universities and how universities responded to the initiative. I show that the agencies it established and funded initially recruited research proposals from faculty and applications from students for fellowships and scholarships. By the 1960s the tables had begun to turn and universities had begun to push for more resources from the federal government for research, support for faculty salary and research assistants and higher indirect costs. The process transformed the relationship between universities and federal funders; it also transformed the relationship between universities and faculty. The university research system that has grown and evolved faces a number of challenges that threaten the health of universities and the research enterprise and have implications for discovery and innovation. Five are discussed in the closing section. They are (1) a proclivity on the part of faculty and funding agencies to be risk averse; (2) the tendency to produce more PhDs than the market for research positions demands; (3) a heavy concentration of research in the biomedical sciences; (4) a continued expansion on the part of universities that may place universities at increased financial risk and (5) a flat or declining amount of federal funds for research
The mover's advantage : scientific performance of mobile academics by Chiara Franzoni( )

7 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 47 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We investigate performance differentials associated with mobility for research active scientists residing in a broad spectrum of countries and working in a broad spectrum of fields using data from the GlobSci survey. We distinguish between two categories of mobile scientists: (1) those studying or working in a country other than that of origin and (2) those who have returned to their native country after a spell of study or work abroad. We compare the performance of these mobile scientists to natives who have never experienced a spell of mobility and are studying or working in their country of origin. We find evidence that mobile scientists perform better than those who have not experienced mobility. Among the mobile, we find some evidence that those who return perform better than the foreign born save in the United States, suggesting that positive selection is not at work in determining who remains outside the country. This is supported by the finding that for most countries the performance of returnees is no different than that of compatriots who remain abroad after controlling for other effects
Bias against novelty in science : a cautionary tale for users of bibliometric indicators by Jian Wang( )

9 editions published between 2015 and 2016 in English and held by 46 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Research which explores unchartered waters has a high potential for major impact but also carries a higher uncertainty of having impact. Such explorative research is often described as taking a novel approach. This study examines the complex relationship between pursuing a novel approach and impact. Viewing scientific research as a combinatorial process, we measure novelty in science by examining whether a published paper makes first time ever combinations of referenced journals, taking into account the difficulty of making such combinations. We apply this newly developed measure of novelty to all Web of Science research articles published in 2001 across all scientific disciplines. We find that highly novel papers, defined to be those that make more (distant) new combinations, deliver high gains to science: they are more likely to be a top 1% highly cited paper in the long run, to inspire follow on highly cited research, and to be cited in a broader set of disciplines. At the same time, novel research is also more risky, reflected by a higher variance in its citation performance. In addition, we find that novel research is significantly more highly cited in "foreign" fields but not in its "home" field. We also find strong evidence of delayed recognition of novel papers and that novel papers are less likely to be top cited when using a short time window. Finally, novel papers typically are published in journals with a lower than expected Impact Factor. These findings suggest that science policy, in particular funding decisions which rely on traditional bibliometric indicators based on short-term direct citation counts and Journal Impact Factors, may be biased against "high risk/high gain" novel research. The findings also caution against a mono-disciplinary approach in peer review to assess the true value of novel research
How and why does knowledge spill over? : the case of biotechnology by David B Audretsch( Book )

9 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 27 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Understanding regression analysis : an introductory guide by Larry D Schroeder( Book )

5 editions published between 1987 and 2017 in Undetermined and English and held by 27 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Interpreting linear regression analysis : a heuristic approach by David L Sjoquist( Book )

5 editions published in 1974 in English and Undetermined and held by 25 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Academics' motives, opportunity costs and commercial activities across fields by Wesley Marc Cohen( )

3 editions published in 2018 in English and held by 22 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Scholarly work seeking to understand academics’ commercial activities often draws on abstract notions of the institution of science and of the representative scientist. Few scholars have examined whether and how scientists’ motives to engage in commercial activities differ across fields. Similarly, efforts to understand academics’ choices have focused on three self-interested motives – recognition, challenge, and money – ignoring the potential role of the desire to have an impact on others. Using panel data for a national sample of over 2,000 academics employed at U.S. institutions, we examine how the four motives are related to patenting activities. We find that all four motives predict patenting, but their role differs systematically between the life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. These field differences are consistent with differences in the payoffs from commercial activities, as well as with differences in the opportunity costs of time spent away from “traditional” research, reflecting the degree of overlap between traditional and commercializable research. We discuss implications for future research on the scientific enterprise as well as for policy makers, administrators, and managers
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Understanding regression analysis : an introductory guide Understanding regression analysis : an introductory guide Understanding regression analysis : an introductory guide
Science and the universityThe economics of science and innovationUnderstanding regression analysis : an introductory guideUnderstanding regression analysis : an introductory guide
Alternative Names
Stephan, P.E. 1945-

Stephan Paula

Stephan Paula 1945-....

Stephan, Paula E

스테판, 폴라

스테판, 폴라 E

ステファン, ポーラ

English (187)

Chinese (1)

German (1)