WorldCat Identities

Ellwood, David T.

Works: 66 works in 256 publications in 3 languages and 5,853 library holdings
Roles: Author, Other
Classifications: HV91, 361.60973
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by David T Ellwood
A working nation : workers, work, and government in the new economy by David T Ellwood( )

9 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 1,399 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The nature of work in the United States is changing dramatically, as new technologies, a global economy, and more demanding investors combine to create a far more competitive marketplace. Corporate efforts to respond to these new challenges have yielded mixed results. Headlines about instant millionaires and innovative "e-businesses" mingle with coverage of increasing job insecurity and record wage gaps between upper management and hourly workers. A Working Nation tracks the profound implications the changing workplace has had for all workers and shows who the real economic winners and losers have been in the past twenty-five years." "A Working Nation sorts fact from fiction about the new relationship between workers and firms, and addresses several critical issues. Who are the real winners and losers in this economy? Has the relationship between workers and firms really been transformed? How have employees become more integrated into - or disconnected from - corporate strategies and performance? Should government step into this new economic reality and how should it intervene?"--Jacket
Poor support : poverty in the American family by David T Ellwood( Book )

19 editions published between 1988 and 1995 in English and Italian and held by 1,310 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Examines the forms that poverty takes in American families and what can be done to remedy it
Welfare realities : from rhetoric to reform by Mary Jo Bane( Book )

15 editions published between 1994 and 1997 in English and held by 1,019 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The topic of welfare arouses a flood of emotional and often knee-jerk reactions - allegations of gross abuse and corruption, accounts of bureaucratic nightmares, pronouncements of moral outrage, and not a few ill-concealed racial stereotypes. In this book, two of the leading experts uncover the reality of welfare and point the way to practical and thoughtful new policies. The authors cover a very broad landscape, ranging from the nature of welfare administration to the duration and dynamics of welfare to explanations for welfare "dependency" to policy proposals, both modest and bold. They attempt what is nearly impossible: to examine welfare, its recipients, its providers, and the swirl of policy ideas with calm and clarity. Concentrating on the program called AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children), they examine the demographics of the populations receiving assistance, the duration of that aid - who receives benefits for a long time and who only briefly, during important transitional periods - and the prospects facing AFDC recipients within the current administrative culture. The authors identify three models that have been used to explain "welfare dependency" and test them against an accumulating body of evidence. They offer suggestions for identifying potential long-term recipients so that resources can be targeted to encourage self-sufficiency. Finally, the authors present recommendations for changing the current welfare system. Welfare realities is must-reading for policy analysts and policymakers, and of great interest to everyone who wants to know: can the current system be reformed - or should it be replaced?
Welfare policy for the 1990s( Book )

5 editions published in 1989 in English and Hungarian and held by 476 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Divide and conquer : responsible security for America's poor by David T Ellwood( Book )

6 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 460 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

By dividing poor families into groups based on the reasons for their poverty, a system of income support can be developed that is both effective in reducing poverty and compatible with basic American values about personal responsibility and work. Social values dictate that individuals must take responsibility for their situations and that all able-bodied individuals should work for a living. A new social welfare system should encompass the following propositions: (1) people who are already doing as much work as society deems acceptable ought to be able to support their families at or above the poverty level without relying on welfare or welfare-like supports; (2) people who are poor and are not working as much as society would hope ought to be offered short-term transitional assistance that includes short-term cash income coupled with services designed to help them become self-supporting; (3) long-term maintenance for people not working as much as society would hope ought to be provided for in the form of jobs and work, not in the form of cash welfare of indefinite duration; and (4) absent parents ought to be required to share any income that they have with their children. The situations of two-parent working poor families, female-headed families, and ghetto families are discussed in detail. Statistical data are included on three tables and two graphs. (Fmw)
Whither poverty in Great Britain and the United States? : the determinants of changing poverty and whether work will work by Richard Dickens( Book )

18 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 131 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Scholars emphasize that poverty in Britain has risen sharply since the late 1970s. Meanwhile in the United States, both official figures and traditional poverty scholars report sharp declines in poverty. We seek to provide a comparison of poverty levels in Britain and the US based on a set of common definitions. We then proceed to ask what factors-demographic, economic, or policy-account for the observed changes in poverty in the two nations and what role could policy play in reducing poverty? We develop a procedure that allows one to trace out the relative impacts of altered demographics, rising wage inequality, work changes, and policy innovations in explaining changing poverty patterns. We find that the forces influencing poverty differ between nations and across absolute and relative poverty measures. Demographic and wage change is a dominant force in both nations. Britain has experienced a dramatic rise in workless households while the US has simultaneously had a sharp fall. These differences had a sizable impact on absolute poverty in both nations and a significant impact on relative poverty in Britain. Government benefits directly reduced relative and absolute poverty considerably in Britain over this period but had little impact in the US. However, changing patterns of benefits and work suggest that policy changes have significantly increased work in the US, particularly among single parents. In Britain, policy changes may have had the reverse effect, reducing work among many groups. The UK government has committed itself to reducing child poverty by half over the next 10 years and to its abolition within 20 years, largely through policy changes designed to make work pay. We conclude that any purely work-based strategy, which doesn't tackle demographics and wage dispersion, may not have a dramatic effect on relative poverty
The Clinton legacy for America's poor by Rebecca M Blank( )

15 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 120 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the impact of Clinton era social policy changes on the poor. It explores shifts in incentives, behavior, and incomes and discusses the role Clinton did or did not play in influencing the policy mix and the nature of the political debate surrounding poverty. Policy changes included a radical shift in welfare policy, a sizable expansion in supports for low income workers with children, new child support enforcement measures, more restricted support for immigrants, and altered housing policies. Partly as a result of these policies, but also in part due to the strong economy, welfare use plummeted, work rose dramatically among single parents, and poverty was reduced. At the same time, there are indications that some families are doing worse than before and that some working families are not getting health and food benefits to which they are entitled. Significant questions remain about what will happen to poor families in the next recession
The middle class parent penalty : child benefits in the U.S. tax code by David T Ellwood( )

14 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 119 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Low-income families with children receive large tax benefits from the Earned Income Tax Credit, while high income taxpayers receive large tax benefits from dependent exemptions (whose value is greater to those in higher tax brackets). In contrast, middle-income parents receive substantially smaller tax benefits associated with children. This U-shaped pattern of benefits by income, which we call the middle-class parent penalty, ' not only raises issues of fairness; it also generates marginal tax rates and marriage penalties for moderate income families that are as high or higher than those facing more well-to-do taxpayers. This paper documents how the tax benefits of children vary with income, and illustrates their impact on marginal tax rates and marriage penalties. It then examines five options for reducing or eliminating the middle-class parent penalty and the high marginal tax rates and marriage penalties it produces
The sputtering labor force of the 21st century : can social policy help? by David T Ellwood( )

14 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 112 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines two questions: how will the labor force change over the next 20 years, and can social policy significantly alter its size and shape. In the last twenty years, the overall labor force grew by 35 percent and the so-called prime age workforce those aged 25-54 grew by a remarkable 54 percent. The number of college educated workers more than doubled, and increased as a fraction of the labor force from 22 percent of the total to over 30 percent. In the next twenty, there will be virtually no growth in the prime age workforce at all. Indeed the number of native born white workers in that group will fall by 10%. Growth will be almost exclusively among older workers and people of color, in part due to immigration. Whether a sharply slowing labor force is a problem is debatable, but more troubling is the finding that even under the most optimistic scenario, the educational level of the workforce will improve far less in the next 20 years. At best college graduates might rise from 30% to 35% as a share of the workforce. The second part of the paper examines in detail what we know about the incentive effects of a variety of social programs from welfare, to the Earned Income Tax Credit, to UI, to disability programs to Social Security. There is clear evidence that incentives matter. But when I examine what plausible policy changes might accomplish the aggregate impact is not large. Moreover, most of these changes would tend to bring the least educated and most marginal workers into the labor force, while the need will be greatest for more skilled workers. Only strategies that would encourage more wives to work or that would significantly retard retirement are likely to generate many more educated workers. The findings suggest that immigration and education and training changes will loom far larger in future years and may be a better place to look for answers
Poverty in America : is welfare the answer or the problem? by David T Ellwood( )

11 editions published in 1985 in English and held by 85 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper reviews the current policies for fighting poverty and explores the impact they have had. We begin by reviewing trends in poverty, poverty spending and economic performance. It is immediately apparent that economic performance is the dominant determinant of the measured poverty rate over the past two decades. Government assistance programs expanded greatly over this period, but the growth in cash assistance was too modest to have major effects, and the large growth in in-kind benefits could not reduce measured poverty since such benefits are not counted as income. Next we focus on three groups: the disabled, female family heads, and unemployed black youth. We find little evidence that government deserves the blame for the problems of each group, and suggest that the broad outlines of current policies are defensible on economic grounds
The American way of aging : an event history analysis by David T Ellwood( )

8 editions published in 1989 in English and held by 82 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The paper presents a methodology for studying the sequence and timing of life events past age 65. After estimating models of marital status, disability, living arrangements and income from the scattered segments of old age captured within the 17 year window of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we simulated up to 35 years of old age, using a sample of those turning 65 between 1980 and 1984" The simulated life expectancies correspond quite well with life-table estimates published by the National Center for Health Statistics. Even in this initial effort, we report some interesting findings: First, the prospects for rich and poor at age 65 were very different, those with high incomes living 4 years longer than those with low incomes. Second, women who were ever institutionalized were hardly identifiable at age 65, having similar income, marital status and disability status as other women at age 65. Third, women are much more vulnerable to changes in marital status, suffering a permanent 20% decline in their standard of living upon widowhood compared to a 10% decline for men. Fourth, poor widows at age 80 were likely to have been widows or poor already when they turned 65
The mommy track divides : the impact of childbearing on wages of women of differing skill levels by Elizabeth Ty Wilde( )

7 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 73 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper explores how the wage and career consequences of motherhood differ by skill and timing. Past work has often found smaller or even negligible effects from childbearing for high-skill women, but we find the opposite. Wage trajectories diverge sharply for high scoring women after, but not before, they have children, while there is little change for low-skill women. It appears that the lifetime costs of childbearing, especially early childbearing, are particularly high for skilled women. These differential costs of childbearing may account for the far greater tendency of high-skill women to delay or avoid childbearing altogether
The spatial mismatch hypothesis : are there teenage jobs missing in the ghetto? by David T Ellwood( )

8 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 71 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the hypothesis that the extraordinarily highrates of unemployment among black youth can be linked to a geographic mismatch between the residences of black youth and the jobs they might occupy. Chicago's labor market is examined in detail. The paper reports that black youth do in fact seem to live further from jobs than white youth do. However, the differences are not great enough to generate large differences in employment rates unless geographic search costs are very high. To explore the possible impact the differences really do have, a wide variety of models are examined and estimated. These models uniformly reject the hypothesis that a geographic mismatch is a major cause for black-white differences. Blacks who live near large concentrations of jobs seem to fair only slightly better than those who live far from such concentrations. And in areas where whites and blacks live in close geographic proximity, the racial employment differences remain very large
The impact of right-to-work laws on union organizing by David T Ellwood( )

7 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In contrast to previous studies which have examined the impact of Right-to-Work (RTW) laws on the level or stock of union membership, this paper examines their impact on the most updated flow into membership and the organizing of workers through certified elections. Since detailed annual data are available by state, we are able to estimate an accelerator model of the flow into unionism, and adjust for possible omitted variable and simultaneity bias. The results show dramatic falls in organizing immediately after the passage of a RTW law, with more moderate declines in later years, just as an accelerator model could predict. Overall, the results are consistent with a 5-10 percent reduction in unionism as a result of the passage of RTW laws
Youth employment in the seventies : the changing circumstances of young adults by David T Ellwood( )

6 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the changing employment patterns for young men and women aged 16 to 24 over the 1970s and pays particular attention to the widening racial differences. Between 1970 and 1980 employment rates for both black men and women in this age range fell roughly 14 points relative to those of whites. Macroeconomic conditions, the reduction in the size of the military, changing schooling patterns,family structure, fertility patterns, and several public policies, are all examined in an attempt to understand the patterns of the seventies.The conclusion reached is that perhaps one-half of the diverging racial employment patterns can be "explained" by the variables we examine. For young men the most important forces appear to be the changing structure of the military, worsening macroeconomic conditions,and increased school enrollment among blacks. For women, the military is less important, of course, but shifts in family structure and fertility are rather important
Teenage unemployment : permanent scars or temporary blemishes by David T Ellwood( )

6 editions published between 1979 and 1983 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the persistence and long-term impacts of early labor force experiences. The paper reports a rise in employment rates for a cohort of young men as they age, but points out that those persons with poor employment records early have comparatively poor records later. In order to asses the extent to which differences in later employment and wages are causally related to these earlier employment experiences, the methodologies of Heckman, Chamberlain, and others are extended to account for Markov type persistence and a straight forward estimation technique results. In addition, a Sims type causality test is used to measure the true impact of work experience on wages. The paper concludes that the effects of a period without work do not end with that spell. A teenager who spends time out of work in one year will probably spend less time working in the next than he would have had he worked the entire year. Furthermore, the lost work experience will be reflected in considerably lower wages. At the same time, the data provide no evidence that early unemployment sets off a vicious cycle of recurrent unemployment. The reduced employment effects die off very quickly. What appears to persist are effects of lost work experience on wages
Slipping into and out of poverty : the dynamics of spells by Mary Jo Bane( )

7 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 51 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the dynamics of poverty. Previous analyses of the dynamics of poverty have either examined only fluctuations in the male heads earnings or looked at the frequency of poverty periods over a fixed time frame. We argue that a more appropriate way to understand the dynamics of poverty is to define spells of poverty. Using this methodology we find that the majority of poor persons at any point in time are in fact in the midst of a rather long spell of poverty. The methodology also allows us to estimate the extent to which poverty spell beginnings and endings are associated with changes in income or changes in family structure. Less than 40 percent of poverty spell beginnings seem to be caused by a drop in the heads earnings,while 60 percent of endings occur when the head's earnings increase. As a result we argue that to understand the causes and potential remedies for poverty, researchers must focus on household formation decisions and on the behavior of so called secondary family members
Teenage unemployment : what is the problem? by Martin S Feldstein( )

5 editions published between 1979 and 1982 in English and held by 42 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This nontechnical paper was prepared as a background study for the NBER Conference on Youth Joblessness and Employment. Our analysis of data collected in the March 1976 and October 1976 Current Population Surveys leads us to the following conclusions: Unemployment is not a serious problem for the vast majority of teenage boys. Less than 5 percent of teenage boys are out of school, unemployed and looking for full-time work. Many out of school teenagers are neither working nor looking for work and most of these report no desire to work. Virtually all teenagers who are out of work live at hone. Among those who do seek work, unemployment spells tend to be quite short; over half end within one month when these boys find work or stop looking for work. Nevertheless, much of the total amount of unemployment is the result of quite long spells among a small portion of those who experience unemployment during the year. Although nonwhites have considerably higher unemployment rates than whites, the overwhelming majority of the teenage unemployed are white. Approximately half of the difference between the unemployment rates of whites and blacks can be accounted for by demographic and economic differences. There is a small group of teenagers with relatively little schooling for whom unemployment does seen to be a serious and persistent problem. This group suffers most of the teenage unemployment. Although their unemployment rate improves markedly as they move into their twenties, it remains very high relative to the unemp1oynent rate of better educated and more able young men
Working off of welfare : prospects and policies for self-sufficiency of women heading families by David T Ellwood( Book )

4 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 22 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The dynamics of dependence : the routes to self-sufficiency by Mary Jo Bane( Book )

3 editions published between 1982 and 1983 in English and held by 18 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

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Poor support : poverty in the American family
Poor support : poverty in the American familyWelfare realities : from rhetoric to reform
Alternative Names
David T. Ellwood académico estadounidense

David T. Ellwood American academic

Ellwood, David

Ellwood, David 1953-