WorldCat Identities

Cohen, Wesley Marc

Overview
Works: 42 works in 121 publications in 2 languages and 2,829 library holdings
Genres: History  Patents 
Roles: Author, Editor
Classifications: T211.C64, 346.730486
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Wesley Marc Cohen
Patents in the knowledge-based economy by Wesley Marc Cohen( )

14 editions published between 2003 and 2004 in English and held by 2,017 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This volume assembles papers commissioned by the National Research Council's Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP) to inform judgments about the significant institutional and policy changes in the patent system made over the past
Technological and organizational diversity and technical advance in the early history of the American semiconductor industry by Wesley Marc Cohen( )

1 edition published in 1993 in English and held by 239 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Protecting their intellectual assets : appropriability conditions and why U.S. manufacturing firms patent (or not) by Wesley Marc Cohen( Book )

15 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 113 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: Based on a survey questionnaire administered to 1478 R & D labs in the U.S. manufacturing sector in 1994, we find that firms typically protect the profits due to invention with a range of mechanisms, including patents, secrecy, lead time advantages and the use of complementary marketing and manufacturing capabilities. Of these mechanisms, however, patents tend to be the least emphasized by firms in the majority of manufacturing industries, and secrecy and lead time tend to be emphasized most heavily. A comparison of our results with the earlier survey findings of Levin et al. [1987] suggest that patents may be relied upon somewhat more heavily by larger firms now than in the early 1980s. For the protection of product innovations, secrecy now appears to be much more heavily employed across most industries than previously. Our results on the motives to patent indicate that firms patent for reasons that often extend beyond directly profiting from a patented innovation through either its commercialization or licensing. In addition to the prevention of copying, the most prominent motives for patenting include the prevention of rivals from patenting related inventions (i.e., patent blocking'), the use of patents in negotiations and the prevention of suits. We find that firms commonly patent for different reasons in discrete' product industries, such as chemicals, versus complex' product industries, such as telecommunications equipment or semiconductors. In the former, firms appear to use their patents commonly to block the development of substitutes by rivals, and in the latter, firms are much more likely to use patents to force rivals into negotiations
R & D and the patent premium by Ashish Arora( Book )

11 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 82 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We analyze the effect of patenting on R & D with a model linking a firm's R & D effort with its decision to patent, recognizing that R & D and patenting affect one another and are both driven by many of the same factors. Using survey data for the U.S. manufacturing sector, we estimate the increment to the value of an innovation realized by patenting it, and then analyze the effect on R & D of changing that premium. Although patent protection is found to provide a positive premium on average in only a few industries, our results also imply that it stimulates R & D across almost all manufacturing industries, with the magnitude of that effect varying substantially
What makes them tick? : employee motives and firm innovation by Henry Sauermann( )

8 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 67 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We examine the impact of individual-level motives upon innovative effort and performance in firms. Drawing from economics and social psychology, we develop a model of the impact of individuals' motives and incentives upon their innovative effort and performance. Using data on over 11,000 industrial scientists and engineers (SESTAT 2003), we find that individuals' motives have significant effects upon innovative effort and performance. These effects vary significantly, however, by the particular kind of motive (e.g., desire for intellectual challenge vs. pay). We also find that intrinsic and extrinsic motives affect innovative performance even when controlling for effort, suggesting that motives affect not only the level of individual effort, but also its quality. Overall, intrinsic motives, particularly the desire for intellectual challenge, appear to benefit innovation more than extrinsic motives such as pay
Lens or prism? : patent citations as a measure of knowledge flows from public research by Michael Wayne Roach( )

8 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 66 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper assesses the validity and accuracy of firms' backward patent citations as a measure of knowledge flows from public research by employing a newly constructed dataset that matches patents to survey data at the level of the R&D lab. Using survey-based measures of the dimensions of knowledge flows, we identify sources of systematic measurement error associated with backward citations to both patent and nonpatent references. We find that patent citations reflect the codified knowledge flows from public research, but they appear to miss knowledge flows that are more private and contract-based in nature, as well as those used in firm basic research. We also find that firms' patenting and citing strategies affect patent citations, making citations less indicative of knowledge flows. In addition, an illustrative analysis examining the magnitude and direction of measurement error bias suggests that measuring knowledge flows with patent citations can lead to substantial underestimation of the effect of public research on firms' innovative performance. Throughout our analyses we find that nonpatent references (e.g., journals, conferences, etc.), not the more commonly used patent references, are a better measure of knowledge originating from public research
Firm size and R & D intensity : a re-examination by Wesley Marc Cohen( )

8 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 63 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using data from the Federal Trade Commission's Line of Business Program and survey measures of technological opportunity and appropriability conditions, this paper finds that overall firm size has a very small, statistically in- significant effect on business unit R & D intensity when either fixed industry effects or measured industry characteristics are taken into account. Business unit size has no effect on the R & D intensity of business units that perform R & D, but it affects the probability of conducting R & D. Business unit and firm size jointly explain less than one per cent of the variance in R & D intensity; industry effects explain nearly half the variance
The acquisition and commercialization of invention in American manufacturing : incidence and impact by Ashish Arora( )

5 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 51 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper reports on a recent survey of over 6000 American manufacturing and service sector firms on the extent to which innovators rely upon external sources of invention. Our results indicate that, between 2007 and 2009, 18% of manufacturing firms had innovated – meaning had introduced a product that was new to the market. Of these, 49% report that their most important new product had originated from an outside source, notably customers, suppliers and technology specialists. We also estimate the contribution of each source to innovation in the US economy. Although customers are the most frequent outside source, inventions acquired from customers tend to be economically less significant than those from technology specialists. As a group, external sources of invention make a significant contribution to the overall rate of innovation in the economy. Indeed, results from a multinomial logit model suggest that, were the outside availability of innovation to be removed, the percentage of innovating firms in the U.S. manufacturing sector would drop from 18% to 10%
Academics’ Motives, Opportunity Costs and Commercial Activities Across Fields by Wesley Marc Cohen( )

4 editions published in 2018 in English and held by 31 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Scholarly work seeking to understand academics' commercial activities often draws on abstract notions of the institution of science and of the representative scientist. Few scholars have examined whether and how scientists' motives to engage in commercial activities differ across fields. Similarly, efforts to understand academics' choices have focused on three self-interested motives - recognition, challenge, and money - ignoring the potential role of the desire to have an impact on others. Using panel data for a national sample of over 2,000 academics employed at U.S. institutions, we examine how the four motives are related to patenting activities. We find that all four motives predict patenting, but their role differs systematically between the life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. These field differences are consistent with differences in the payoffs from commercial activities, as well as with differences in the opportunity costs of time spent away from "traditional" research, reflecting the degree of overlap between traditional and commercializable research. We discuss implications for future research on the scientific enterprise as well as for policy makers, administrators, and managers
Inventive Capabilities in the Division of Innovative Labor by Ashish Arora( )

4 editions published in 2018 in English and held by 29 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We study how the inventive capability of a firm conditions its participation in a division of innovative labor. Capable firms are, by definition, able to invent; for them, external inventions substitute for their own R&D. However, external knowledge is an input into internal invention, and thus, more valuable to firms with inventive capability. Using a simple model of innovation and imitation, we explore how inventive capability affects a firm's R&D investments, and thus whether and how it innovates, imitates, or does neither. Further, we study how these outcomes are conditioned by the supply of external knowledge as well as the supply of external inventions. In an advance over the literature, we treat firm inventive capability as unobserved, and use a latent class multinomial model to infer its value. Using a recent survey of product innovation and the division of innovative labor among US manufacturing firms, we find that high capability firms tend to use internal, rather than externally generated inventions, to innovate, and they use external knowledge to enhance their internal inventive activity. By contrast, lower capability firms are more likely to introduce "me-too" or imitative products, and when they innovate, are more likely to rely on external sources of inventions. Our findings suggest the successful pursuit of R&D-led growth depends both on firm inventive capability and the external knowledge environment
R&D and the patent premium by Ashish Arora( )

3 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 21 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We analyze the effect of patenting on R&D with a model linking a firm's R&D effort with its decision to patent, recognizing that R&D and patenting affect one another and are both driven by many of the same factors. Using survey data for the U.S. manufacturing sector, we estimate the increment to the value of an innovation realized by patenting it, and then analyze the effect on R&D of changing that premium. Although patent protection is found to provide a positive premium on average in only a few industries, our results also imply that it stimulates R&D across almost all manufacturing industries, with the magnitude of that effect varying substantially
Patents in the Knowledge-Based Economy by National Research Council( Book )

1 edition published in 1900 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Firm size versus diversity in the achievement of technological advance by Wesley Marc Cohen( Book )

1 edition published in 1990 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Firm size and R & R intensity : a re-examination by Wesley Marc Cohen( Book )

4 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using data from the Federal Trade Commission's Line of Business Program and survey measures of technological opportunity and appropriability conditions, this paper finds that overall firm size has a very small, statistically in- significant effect on business unit R & D intensity when either fixed industry effects or measured industry characteristics are taken into account. Business unit size has no effect on the R & D intensity of business units that perform R & D, but it affects the probability of conducting R & D. Business unit and firm size jointly explain less than one per cent of the variance in R & D intensity; industry effects explain nearly half the variance
Firm size versus diversity in the achievement of technological advance by Wesley Marc Cohen( Book )

1 edition published in 1990 in German and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

University-industry research centers in the United States by Wesley Marc Cohen( Book )

2 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Empirical studies of innovation and market structure by Wesley Marc Cohen( )

2 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Innovation and learning the two faces of R & D by Wesley Marc Cohen( )

2 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Absorptive capacity : a new perspective on learning and innovation by Wesley Marc Cohen( Book )

2 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Special issue: industry evolution, entrepreneurship, and geography contributions in honor of Steven Klepper( Book )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

 
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Patents in the knowledge-based economy Patents in the Knowledge-Based Economy
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Patents in the Knowledge-Based Economy
Alternative Names
Cohen, W. M.

Cohen, Wesley

Wesley M. Cohen Amerikaans econoom

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Languages
English (96)

German (1)