WorldCat Identities

Hoekman, Bernard M.

Overview
Works: 21 works in 100 publications in 1 language and 246 library holdings
Genres: Commercial treaties 
Roles: Author, Editor, Other
Classifications: HG3881.5.W57, 382.9
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Bernard M Hoekman
Catching up with Eastern Europe? the European Union's Mediterranean Free Trade Initiative by Bernard M Hoekman( )

12 editions published between 1995 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 54 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

January 1996 The option of a Euro-Mediterranean Agreement gives the Mediterranean countries a unique opportunity to credibly pursue far-reaching trade liberalization gradually. Further unilateral efforts will be required to ensure that Mediterranean countries gain. Liberalization of foreign direct investment and the service sector are essential to ensure a supply response and create new job opportunities. Many countries in the Middle East and North Africa that are considering liberalizing, privatizing, and deregulating markets face difficult policy issues. Gradual, piecemeal reform efforts have had limited success. The option of a Euro-Mediterranean Agreement (EMA) offers a new opportunity to implement structural reform. Two questions can be posed: (1) Why pursue regional integration? and (2) Is an EMA sufficient? Justifications for regional integration include the following: * The EMA may offer a stronger mechanism for locking in economic reform than does the World Trade Organization (WTO), while the preferential nature of an EMA might help overcome domestic resistance to liberalization. * Harmonization of regulatory regimes and administrative requirements could facilitate trade. * Market access could be more secure if countries agreed not to impose contingent protection, such as antidumping actions. * Transfers from the European Union to partner countries (financial or technical assistance) would help offset lost tariff revenue and the costs of trade diversion. The EMA signed between Tunisia and the European Union does not go significantly beyond existing multilateral (WTO) disciplines. The long 12 - year transition path may reduce incentives to initiate rapid restructuring and may create problems in implementing future tariff reductions. While the EMA option gives the Mediterranean countries a unique opportunity to pursue far-reaching trade liberalization credibly and gradually, the economic benefits will be limited if trade liberalization is restricted to manufactured products. Service markets and foreign investment must also be liberalized to ensure a supply response and create new employment opportunities. Equally important are factors that cannot be imported through an agreement with the European Union: efficient public institutions, domestic competition, investment in education, high rates of private savings and investment, a stable economy, and openness to the world economy. The greater the extent to which the EMA-based preferential liberalization is extended to non-European countries, the greater the benefits for participating Mediterranean countries. This paper-a product of the Private Sector and Finance Team, Technical Department, Europe and Central Asia, and Middle East and North Africa Regions-is part of a larger effort in the department to monitor trade policy developments in the region
Protection and trade in services a survey by Bernard M Hoekman( )

15 editions published in 1997 in English and Undetermined and held by 49 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In the past, international economists have ignored trade in services, but technological progress and international trade negotiations are likely to keep liberalization of trade in services a high-profile policy issue. Until recently, trade in services was mostly ignored by international economists, reflecting a perception that services were nontradable. This has never been true. Transportation and travel, for example, have always been important economic activities. In 1995, services trade had climbed to a 20-percent share of global trade - no doubt an underestimate, as the most dynamic component of trade in services is telecommunications, which is not being properly captured in conventional balance of payment statistics. Hoekman and Braga survey the literature on trade in services, focusing on the policies used to restrict such trade, the gains from liberalization, and the institutional mechanisms adopted in pursuit of liberalization. They argue that technological progress (which makes services more tradable) and international trade negotiations are likely to keep liberalization of trade in services a high-profile policy issue. They suggest that research focus on developing better estimates of the welfare costs of protectionism in the service sector. This will require quantifying barriers to the international exchange of services. This paper - a product of the International Trade Division, International Economics Department - was prepared for The Open Economies Review
Determinants of intra-industry trade between East and West Europe by Chonira Aturupane( )

1 edition published in 1997 in English and held by 33 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Determinants of intra-industry trade between East and West Europe by Chonira Aturupane( Book )

11 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 17 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Regional partners in global markets : limits and possibilities of the Euro-Med agreements( Book )

7 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 16 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The WTO, the EU and the Arab world : trade policy priorities and pitfalls by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )

7 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The WTO's agreement on government procurement : expanding disciplines, declining membership by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )

6 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 8 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Effective protection and investment incentives in Egypt and Jordan during the transition to free trade with Europe by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )

6 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 8 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Competition, competition policy and the GATT by Bernard Marco Hoekman( Book )

4 editions published between 1993 and 1994 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Developing countries and the Uruguay Round negotiations on services by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )

6 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Developing Country Agriculture and the New Trade Agenda by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )

6 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

May 1999 - In the new round of World Trade Organization talks expected in late 1999, negotiations about access to agricultural and services markets should be given top priority, but new trade agenda issues should also be discussed. Including new trade agenda issues would increase market discipline's role in the allocation of resources in agriculture and would encourage nonagricultural groups with interests in the new issues to take part in the round, counterbalancing forces favoring agricultural protection. A new round of World Trade Organization negotiations on agriculture, services, and perhaps other issues is expected in late 1999. To what extent should those negotiations include new trade agenda items aimed at ensuring that domestic regulatory policies do not discriminate against foreign suppliers? Hoekman and Anderson argue that negotiations about market access should be given priority, as the potential welfare gains from liberalizing access to agricultural (and services) markets are still huge, but new issues should be included too. Including new trade agenda issues would increase the role of market discipline in the allocation of resources in agriculture and would encourage nonagricultural groups with interests in the new issues to take part in the round, counterbalancing forces in favor of agricultural protection. They also argue, however, that rule-making efforts to accommodate the new issues should be de-linked from negotiations about access to agricultural markets, because the issues affect activity in all sectors. This paper-a product of the Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to analyze options and priorities for developing countries in the run-up to a new round of WTO negotiations. Bernard Hoekman may be contacted at bhoekman@worldbank.org or kanderson@economics.adelaide.edu.au
Rules of origin for goods and services : conceptual issues and economic considerations by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )

4 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Deep Integration, Nondiscrimination, and Euro-Mediterranean Free Trade by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )

5 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Scenarios, welfare may increase by more than 10 percent of GDP, compared with close to zero under a shallow agreement. Given Egypt's highly diversified trading patterns, a shallow PTA with the European Union could be merely diversionary, leading to a small decline in welfare. Egypt already has duty-free access to the European Union for manufactures, so the loss in tariff revenues incurred would outweigh any new trade created. Large gains in welfare from the PTA are conditional on eliminating regulatory barriers and red tape-in which case welfare gains may be substantial: 4 to 20 percent growth in real GNP. This paper-a product of the Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to analyze regional integration agreements. The authors may be contacted at bhoekman@worldbank.org or konan@hawaii.edu
The political economy of the world trading system the WTO and beyond( )

1 edition published in 2004 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Competition, competition policy and the GATT by Bernard M Hoekman( )

2 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Rules of Origin for Goods and Services. Conceptual Issues and Economic Considerations by Bernard M Hoekman( )

2 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The aim of this article is threefold: to provide a basic introduction to the conceptual issues that arise in this area; to discuss both origin rules for products and producers, the latter being crucial in the context of trade in services; and to summarize what the economic literature has to say with respect to rules of origin. The intention is to provide a "primer" to this increasingly complex area.--SCAD summary
Conceptual and political economy issues in liberalizing international transactions in services by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )

1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Linking competition and trade policies in Central and Eastern European countries by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )

1 edition published in 1994 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Conceptual and political economy issues in liberalizing international transactions in services( )

1 edition published in 1993 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Conceptual and political economy issues in liberalizing international transactions in services by Bernard M Hoekman( )

1 edition published in 1994 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

 
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Regional partners in global markets : limits and possibilities of the Euro-Med agreements
Alternative Names
Hoekman, Bernard, 1959-

Languages
English (97)

Covers
The political economy of the world trading system the WTO and beyond