WorldCat Identities
Thu Oct 16 17:50:05 2014 UTClccn-n882477470.17Dinner rush0.720.93Plants and productivity in international trade /112262212Andrew_Bernardn 882477472444666Barnes Bernard, Andrew 1963-Bernard, A. B. 1963-Bernard, Andrew 1963-Bernard, Andrew Barnes 1963-lccn-n79139286National Bureau of Economic Researchlccn-no98054492Jensen, J. Bradfordlccn-nr2001010438Schott, Peter K.lccn-nb98037798Redding, Stephenlccn-no99019994McGlone, Michaellccn-no91008680Aiello, Danny1933-np-ives, timIves, Timviaf-103265461Giraldi, Bob1939-lccn-no97071412Wu, Vivian1966-np-kalata, brian$1964Kalata, Brian1964-Bernard, Andrew B.1963-DramaUnited StatesRestaurantsNew York (State)--New YorkBookmakers (Gambling)CooksManufacturing industriesAppalachian RegionExports--Econometric modelsIndustrial productivity--Econometric modelsGreat BritainRice--PricesRice--Prices--Government policyBangladeshIndustrial productivityWage differentialsManufacturing industries--Econometric modelsDiversification in industryBlues (Music)Labor turnover--Econometric modelsIndustrial efficiency--Econometric modelsInternational tradeIndustriesWagesEconomic history--Regional disparitiesProduct management--Mathematical modelsGermanyLabor costsPlant shutdownsMarketing--ManagementProduct lines--Mathematical modelsCommerce--Econometric modelsProduct life cycle--Mathematical modelsExportsEconomic developmentOlympics--Economic aspectsCompetitionWages--Econometric modelsIndustrial organization (Economic theory)International trade--Mathematical modelsInternational trade--Econometric modelsHeckscher-Ohlin principleForeign trade promotionTariff--Econometric modelsFree trade--Econometric modelsRegional economic disparitiesForeign trade and employmentCapital costsResource allocation--Econometric modelsLabor market--U.S. states--Econometric modelsIncome distribution--U.S. states--Econometric models19631968197119841987198819891990199119931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320143708119607791.4372HB1ocn7323728044662ocn051225857visu20030.17Dinner rushDramaAt New York's hottest restaurant, things are really heating up. Owner and bookie Louis Cropa lost a friend to a mob hit and now his chef's gambling problem has brought the unwelcome mobsters into their restaurant2101ocn243478723file20050.70Bernard, Andrew BAssessing the impact of trade liberalization on import-competing industries in the Appalachian Region1477ocn019265981book19890.92Ahmed, RaisuddinRice price fluctuation and an approach to price stabilization in BangladeshIntroduction; Price stabilization issues; Fluctuation in rice prices; Causes of luctuations in annual and seasonal prices; Intermarket links and regional prices; An approach to price stabilization10215ocn039274850book19980.86Bernard, Andrew BExport entry and exit by German firmsAbstract: This paper examines the decision to enter the export market by German firms. While exports have played an important role in recent German business cycle movements, little is known about the export supply response of German firms. This paper presents a dynamic model of the export decision by a profit-maximizing firm. Using a panel of German manufacturing plants, we test for the role of plant characteristics and sunk costs in the entry decision. We find evidence for substantial sunk costs in export entry; exporting today by a plant increases the probability that the plant will export tomorrow by 50%. This advantage depreciates quickly, falling by two thirds in a year. We also find evidence that plant success, as measured by size and productivity, increases the likelihood of exporting10118ocn050414868book20020.88Bernard, Andrew BFactor price equalization in the UK?Abstract: This paper develops a general test of factor price equalization that is robust to unobserved regional productivity differences, unobserved region-industry factor quality differences and variation in production technology across industries. We test relative factor price equalization across regions of the UK. Although the UK is small and densely-populated, we find evidence of statistically significant and economically important departures from relative factor price equalization. Our estimates suggest three distinct relative factor price areas with a clear spatial structure. We explore explanations for these findings, including multiple cones of diversification, region-industry technology differences, agglomeration and increasing returns to scale9517ocn052714765book20030.88Bernard, Andrew BProduct choice and product switchingAbstract: This paper develops a model of endogenous product selection by firms. The theory is motivated by new evidence we present on the importance of product switching by U.S. manufacturers. Two-thirds of continuing firms change their product mix every five years, and product switches involve more than 40% of firm output and almost half of existing products. The theoretical model incorporates heterogeneous firms, heterogeneous products, and ongoing entry and exit. In equilibrium, firm productivity is correlated with product fixed costs, with the most productive firms choosing to make the products with the highest fixed costs. Changes in market structure result in systematic patterns of firm entry/exit and product switching9315ocn039494960book19980.92Bernard, Andrew BUnderstanding increasing and decreasing wage inequalityAbstract: This paper uses data on inequality within U.S. states to test hypotheses about the sources of rising wage inequality during the 1970s and 1980s. State labor markets are found to respond to local demand shocks in the short and medium run and to national (industry) demand shocks only after long intervals. The measure of wage inequality employed in the paper is the (log) ratio of the weekly wage at the 90th percentile to that at the 10th percentile in the state after controlling for observable characteristics of the workers. Individual states are found to have very different levels and changes of inequality. For example, Pennsylvania and Georgia had the second lowest and ninth highest 90-10 ratios respectively in 1970. By 1990, Georgia's 90-10 ratio had fallen 4% while Pennsylvania's had risen 21%. This paper finds that changes in industrial composition, in particular the loss of durable manufacturing jobs, are strongly correlated with inequality increases9217ocn053402233book20030.90Bernard, Andrew BRelative wage variation and industry locationAbstract: Relative wages vary considerably across regions of the United Kingdom, with skill-abundant regions exhibiting lower skill premia than skill-scarce regions. This paper shows that the location of economic activity is correlated with the variation in relative wages. U.K. regions with low skill premia produce different sets of manufacturing industries than regions with high skill premia. Relative wages are also linked to subsequent economic development: over time, increases in the employment share of skill-intensive industries are greater in regions with lower initial skill premia. Both results suggest firms adjust production across and within regions in response to relative wage differences9120ocn045839682book20000.90Bernard, Andrew BFactor price equality and the economies of the United StatesDo New York and Nashville face the same pressures from increased trade? This paper considers the role of international trade in shaping the product mix and relative wages for regions within the US. Using the predictions from a Heckscher-Ohlin trade model, we ask whether all the regions in the US face the same relative factor prices. Using the production side of the HO model, we derive a general test of relative factor price equality that is robust to unobserved regional productivity differences, unobserved regional factor quality differences, and variations in production technology across industries. Using data from 1972-1992, we reject the the hypothesis that all regions face the same relative factor prices in favor of an alternative with at least three distinct factor price cones. Sort regions into cones with similar relative factor prices, we find that industry mix varies systematically across the groups. Regions that switch cones over time have more churning of industries8814ocn044119441book20000.93Bernard, Andrew BPlants and productivity in international tradeAbstract: We reconcile international trade theory with findings of enormous plant-level heterogeneity in exporting and productivity. Our model extends basic Ricardian theory to accommodate many countries, geographic barriers, and imperfect competition. Fitting the model to bilateral trade among the United States and its 46 major trade partners, we see how well it can explain basic facts about U.S. plants: (i) productivity dispersion, (ii) the productivity advantage of exporters, (iii) the small fraction who export, (iv) the small fraction of revenues from exporting among those that do, and (v) the much larger size of exporters. We pick up all these basic qualitative features, and go quite far in matching them quantitatively. We examine counterfactuals to assess the impact of various global shifts on productivity, plant entry and exit, and labor turnover in U.S. manufacturing8813ocn041792002book19980.90Bernard, Andrew BExporting and productivityAbstract: Exporting is often touted as a way to increase economic growth. This paper examines whether exporting has played any role in increasing productivity growth in U.S. manufacturing. Contemporaneous levels of exports and productivity are indeed positively correlated across manufacturing industries. However, tests on industry data show causality from productivity to exporting but not the reverse. While exporting plants have substantially higher productivity levels, we find no evidence that exporting increases plant productivity growth rates. However, within the same industry, exporters do grow faster than non-exporters in terms of both shipments and employment. We show that exporting is associated with the reallocation of resources from less efficient to more efficient plants. In the aggregate, these reallocation effects are quite large, making up over 40% of total factor productivity growth in the manufacturing sector. Half of this reallocation to more productive plants occurs within industries and the direction of the reallocation is towards exporting plants. The positive contribution of exporters even shows up in import-competing industries and non-tradable sectors. The overall contribution of exporters to manufacturing productivity growth far exceeds their shares of employment and output8716ocn056516005book20040.92Bernard, Andrew BComparative advantage and heterogeneous firms"This paper presents a model of international trade that features heterogeneous firms, relative endowment differences across countries, and consumer taste for variety. The paper demonstrates that firm reactions to trade liberalization generate endogenous Ricardian productivity responses at the industry level that magnify countries' comparative advantage. Focusing on the wide range of firm-level reactions to falling trade costs, the model also shows that, as trade costs fall, firms in comparative advantage industries are more likely to export, that relative firm size and the relative number of firms increases more in comparative advantage industries and that job turnover is higher in comparative advantage industries than in comparative disadvantage industries"--NBER website8615ocn038195881book19960.90Bernard, Andrew BExceptional exporter performance : cause, effect, or both?Abstract: A growing body of empirical work has documented the superior performance characteristics" of exporting plants and firms relative to non-exporters. Employment, shipments and capital intensity are all higher at exporters at any given moment. This paper asks whether good" firms become exporters or whether exporting improves firm performance. The evidence is quite" clear on one point: good firms become exporters, both growth rates and levels of success measures" are higher ex-ante for exporters. The benefits of exporting for the firm are less clear. Employment" growth and the probability of survival are both higher for exporters; however growth is not superior, particularly over longer horizons8015ocn047353430book19970.93Bernard, Andrew BWhy some firms exportAbstract: This paper presents a dynamic model of the export decision by a profit-maximizing firm. Using a panel of U.S. manufacturing plants, we test for the role of plant characteristics, spillovers from neighboring exporters, entry costs and government export promotion expenditures. Entry and exit in the export market by U.S. plants is substantial, past exporters are apt to reenter, and plants are likely to export in consecutive years. However, we find that entry costs are significant and spillovers from the export activity of other plants negligible. State export promotion expenditures have no significant effect on the probability of exporting. Plant characteristics, especially those indicative of past success, strongly increase the probability of exporting as do favorable exchange rate shocks7814ocn052279100book20030.93Bernard, Andrew BFalling trade costs, heterogeneous firms, and industry dynamicsAbstract: This paper examines the response of industries and firms to changes in trade costs. Several new firm-level models of international trade with heterogeneous firms predict that industry productivity will rise as trade costs fall due to the reallocation of activity across plants within an industry. Using disaggregated U.S. import data, we create a new measure of trade costs over time and industries. As the models predict, productivity growth is faster in industries with falling trade costs. We also find evidence supporting the major hypotheses of the heterogenous-firm models. Plants in industries with falling trade costs are more likely to die or become exporters. Existing exporters increase their shipments abroad. The results do not apply equally across all sectors but are strongest for industries most likely to be producing horizontally-differentiated tradeable goods771ocn042544971rcrd19910.25Smith, BessieBessie Smith, the complete recordings7711ocn050406319book20020.93Bernard, Andrew BThe deaths of manufacturing plantsAbstract: This paper examines the causes of manufacturing plant deaths within and across industries in the U.S. from 1977-1997. The effects of international competition from low wage countries, exporting, ownership structure, product diversity, productivity, geography, and plant characteristics are considered. The probability of shutdowns is higher in industries that face increased competition from low-income countries, especially for low-wage, labor-intensive plants within those industries. Conditional on industry and plant characteristics, closures occur more often at plants that are part of a multi-plant firm and at plants that have recently experienced a change in ownership. Plants owned by U.S. multinationals are more likely to close than similar plants at non-multinational firms. Exits occur less frequently at multi-product plants, at exporters, at plants that pay above average wages, and at large, older, more productive and more capital-intensive plants7511ocn047211148book20010.93Bernard, Andrew BWho dies? : international trade, market structure, and industrial restructuringAbstract: This paper examines the role of changing factor endowments in the growth and decline of industries and regions. The implications of an endowment-based Heckscher-Ohlin trade model for plant entry and exit are tested on 20 years of data for the entire US manufacturing sector. The trade model provides predictions for which industries will see growth through the positive net entry of plants. A multi-region version of the same model has predictions for which regions will see high turnover and net entry of plants. In a country such as the U.S. that is augmenting both its physical and human capital, the least capital-intensive, least skill-intensive industries are correctly predicted to have the lowest rate of net entry. In addition, increases in regional capital and skill intensity are associated with higher probabilities of shutdown, especially for plants in industries with low initial capital and skill intensities7510ocn050798550book20020.93Bernard, Andrew BSurvival of the best fit : competition from low wage countries and the uneven growth of US manufacturing plantsAbstract: We examine the relationship between import competition from low wage countries and the reallocation of US manufacturing from 1977 to 1997. Both employment and output growth are slower for plants that face higher levels of low wage import competition in their industry. As a result, US manufacturing is reallocated over time towards industries that are more capital and skill intensive. Differential growth is driven by a combination of increased plant failure rates and slower growth of surviving plants. Within industries, low wage import competition has the strongest effects on the least capital and skill intensive plants. Surviving plants that switch industries move into more capital and skill intensive sectors when they face low wage competition7511ocn045462084book20000.93Bernard, Andrew BWho wins the Olympic Games : economic development and medal totalsAbstract: This paper examines determinants of Olympic success at the country level. Does the U.S. win its fair share of Olympic medals? Why does China win 6% of the medals even though it has 1/5 of the world's population? We consider the role of population and economic development in determining medal totals from 1960-1996. We also provide out of sample predictions for the 2000 Olympics in SydneyThu Oct 16 15:18:59 EDT 2014batch31785