WorldCat Identities

Uleman, James S.

Works: 22 works in 64 publications in 1 language and 2,496 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses 
Roles: Editor, Author
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by James S Uleman
The new unconscious by Ran R Hassin( )

28 editions published between 2004 and 2007 in English and held by 1,826 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Over the past two decades, a new picture of the unconscious has emerged from a variety of disciplines that are broadly part of cognitive science. According to this picture, unconscious processes seem to be capable of doing many things that were thought to require intention, deliberation, and conscious awareness. Moreover, they accomplish these things without the conflict and drama of the psychoanalytic unconscious. These processes range from complex information processing, through goal pursuit and emotions, to cognitive control and self-regulation. This collection of 20 original chapters by leading researchers examines the unconscious from social, cognitive, and neuroscientific viewpoints, presenting some of the most important developments at the heart of this new picture of the unconscious. The New Unconscious will be an important resource on the unconscious for researchers in psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience
Unintended thought( Book )

10 editions published in 1989 in English and Undetermined and held by 616 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The need for influence : development and validation of a measure, and comparison withe the need for power by James S Uleman( Book )

2 editions published in 1972 in English and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A new TAT measure of the need for power by James S Uleman( Book )

5 editions published between 1900 and 1975 in English and Undetermined and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Significant others and prosocial behavior: How do we know how to help? by Jennifer Thorpe( )

1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

I.e., when projection effects ran counter to it. Hence, the effect of significant-other activation on responsive prosocial behavior is clear and well supported. Indeed, all four studies also provided support for the hypothesis that significant-other activation should enhance memory for the target person's internal states. The results are discussed in terms of insights the data offer into when prosocial behavior is likely to be most responsive to the needs and desires of the person in need
The Functional Meaning of Traits and Spontaneous Trait Inferences by Laura M Kressel( )

1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated the ubiquity of unconscious, "spontaneous," trait inferences. When exposed to trait-implying behavioral information about targets (and their photos), people unwittingly infer personality traits, these traits are linked to the representation of the targets whom they reference and influence subsequent trait judgments about targets. An outstanding question in the field of person perception concerns the functional meaning of implicit trait inferences. Until recently, researchers assumed that implicit trait inferences were descriptive inferences and that traits' explanatory function was limited to the domain of explicit causal judgments, as described by classic attribution theories. The present research uses a 'concept-focused' approach to test the hypotheses that trait and actions are causally linked in semantic memory (Study 1), that implicit causal links between traits and actions are activated upon presentation of a trait concept (Study 2), and that the magnitude of causal trait representations corresponds with the formation of spontaneous trait inferences (Study 3). This research provides evidence that the causal function of traits extends to the domain of implicit social cognition
The need for influence: development and validation of a measure, and comparison with the need for power by James S Uleman( )

in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Is Justice Gendered? Reactions to Men's and Women's Fairness Violations by Suzette Caleo( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Research has shown that gender role prescriptions can bias reactions to men's and women's work behaviors. The current dissertation draws upon this idea and extends it to consider violations of distributive and procedural justice rules. I propose that some of the criteria for justice necessitate gender stereotypic behavior and that violations of justice that also entail violations of gender norms are the ones that are met with the most social disapproval. These ideas were tested through four experimental studies. The results suggest that men and women receive differential performance evaluation ratings and reward recommendations when they violate justice norms that coincide with the content of gender stereotypes. Specifically, men were evaluated more negatively than women when they allocated resources equally, but not equitably (Study 1). In addition, women were rated less favorably than men when they exhibited poor interpersonal treatment (Study 2), but not when they behaved in a biased way during the decision-making process (Study 3). Findings also indicate that treatment-related misbehaviors, but not decision-making misbehaviors, are deemed less acceptable for female managers than male managers (Study 4). Overall, the findings suggest that reactions to injustice can be influenced by expectations of how men and women should behave
Binding unintentional inferences to person representations by Alexander T Todorov( )

1 edition published in 2002 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Experiment 14 showed that the certainty and speed of on-line trait judgments of the actor predicted both false recognition of implied traits and response times for correct rejection of implied traits in the context of the actor's face. The findings strongly suggest that STIs are bound to the actor's representation and that this binding process is highly efficient
The role of mental representations of significant others in collective identity by Selahattin Adil Saribay( Book )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Mental representations of significant others, due to their chronic accessibility or when they are contextually activated, are known to influence a variety of intra- and interpersonal responses and outcomes. However, the potential influence of significant-other representations on collective (intergroup) processes has not received much attention. Based on a recently developed model, we hypothesized that activating the mental representation of a shared-ethnicity significant other should increase one's ethnic identity and ethnic intergroup bias, but only when the significant other is known to have an ethnically narrow (vs. diverse) social network. Study 1 showed that a significant other's social network is activated in transference and applied to a new person who resembles the significant other. Study 2 showed that self-reported ethnic identity increases after a significant-other representation is primed, and when this significant other has an ethnically narrow (vs. diverse) social network. In Study 3, participants showed intergroup bias by making more positive trait inferences about ethnic ingroup (vs. outgroup) actors, but only when they had been primed with a significant other whose social network was ethnically narrow (vs. diverse). In Study 4, participants showed implicit outgroup favoritism following activation of a significant-other representation, when this significant other was known to have an ethnically diverse (vs. narrow) social network. Contrary to expectations, in Study 4, participants primed with a significant other whose social network was narrow (vs. diverse) did not show increased implicit ethnic identity. Overall, these studies supported the model and demonstrated specific links between relational and collective processes. Implications of this work are discussed
Implicit and explicit affective and motivational consequences of social ambiguity among depressed individuals with anxiety by Tami Edwards( Book )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The implications of these results as well as limitations of the current research and future directions are discussed
A social-cognitive approach to understanding the positive and negative consequences of social support receipt in close relationships by Christopher T Burke( Book )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Social support is one of the most frequently studied concepts in research on close personal relationships. However, different definitions of social support have led to seemingly contradictory findings about its consequences. On the one hand, individuals who perceive more help to be available to them experience a range of beneficial outcomes. On the other hand, individuals' reports of actually receiving help are frequently associated with increased distress. In this dissertation, I apply principles of social cognition to integrate these findings. Specifically, I propose that support receipt conveys both positive information about one's relationship (i.e., that one is loved and cared for) and negative information about oneself (i.e., that one's own efforts were inadequate). Social support events should simultaneously evoke both types of evaluation, but the extent of each should vary by context. When a stressor is highly self-relevant or when issues of competence are central to the task, support receipt should be more likely to activate negative self-evaluations and less likely to activate positive relational evaluations, compared to when a stressor is not relevant to one's self-concept or when the stressor is temporally distant. I tested this perspective in a daily diary sample of committed romantic couples (N=291 couples) where one member of each couple was a graduating law student preparing to take the state bar examination. I used two single-item measures to assess relationship- and self-relevant evaluations---individuals' daily reports of feeling "loved" and "supported" in their relationships---and I established that reports of feeling supported were associated both with positive relational evaluations and negative self-evaluations. I found that the association between support receipt and distress became stronger as the exam approached and was stronger on days of exam-related versus exam-unrelated stress. These changes were paralleled by changes in the associations between support receipt and feeling loved and supported. I discuss the implications of this work in terms of thinking more broadly about the social-cognitive dynamics of social support, emphasizing the importance of considering social support as an individual-level phenomenon as well as a relationship-level phenomenon
Confronting implicit bias through awareness: The role of IAT performance feedback by Gaelle C Pierre( Book )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In this dissertation, three studies examined whether the expression of racial bias can be reduced by exposing people to evidence that they expressed racial bias. The Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was used to reveal participants' implicit bias because it is a robust reaction-time measure used to assess automatically activated biases. It was theorized that IAT performance feedback exposes individuals to discrepancies between their behavior and standards, which then motivates individuals to engage in discrepancy-reduction efforts. The three studies reported in this dissertation tested and provided support for two main hypotheses: (1) IAT performance feedback leads to a reduction in bias, and (2) a self-regulation process facilitates this effect. Results indicated that the type of IAT performance feedback that people received influenced the degree to which they corrected for racial bias in their judgments (Study 1) and that the receipt of IAT performance feedback played a central role in motivating discrepancy-reduction efforts (Study 2). These findings indicated that IAT performance feedback influenced affective and cognitive processing, but not the salience of people's egalitarian values (Study 3). The implications for contemporary prejudice research and organizations are considered
Relationships between decision stress, the image of a behavior in a situation, self-consciousness, self-monitoring and Fishbein's Intention Model by Kenneth Michael Krieger( )

1 edition published in 1981 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Using a questionnaire and a sample of graduate students, this study measures and analyzes the relationships between four independent variables--the image of behavior in a situation, self-monitoring, self-consciousness, and decision stress--and behavioral intentions, that is, the decision to perform some behavior, within the context of Fishbein's Intention r4odel. This study finds evidence for effects of self-consciousness, image, and decision stress on behavior intention, but finds no evidence for effects of self-monitoring on intention. The implications of these results are discussed
Perceived Dissimilarity: An Informational Basis for the Actor-Observer Divergence by James S Uleman( Book )

1 edition published in 1984 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Considerable evidence has been found to support the hypothesis that actors' and observers' attributions diverge. It is also becoming clear that this divergence is not the result of a single process, but is the result of factors which co-occur and differentiate actors from observers. Observers' beliefs about their similarity to actors were manipulated in two studies to see whether attributional differences between actors and observers covary with informational differences. In the first study, 90 male undergraduates served either as actors, similar observers, or dissimilar observers. Actors either succeeded or failed in changing another's attitude. Significant actor-observer effects occurred on most attribution measures: open-ended internality, actor's motivation, task difficulty, and luck. Similar observers' attributions almost always fell between actors' and dissimilar observers' attributions. In the second study, 175 observers rated a fictional other's personality as less dependent "on the situation" when s/he was more dissimilar. The results support an informational, rather than a perspective or motivational explanation for the actor-observer divergence. (Nrb)
An interactive activation and competition model of person knowledge, suggested by proactive interference by traits spontaneously inferred from behaviours( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract : People unconsciously and unintentionally make inferences about others' personality traits based on their behaviours. In this study, a classic memory phenomenon – proactive interference (PI) – is for the first time used to detect spontaneous trait inferences. PI should occur when lists of behaviour descriptions, all implying the same trait, are to be remembered. Switching to a new trait should produce 'release' from proactive interference (or RPI). Results from two experiments supported these predictions. PI and RPI effects are consistent with an interactive activation and competition model of person perception (e.g., McNeill & Burton, 2002, J. Exp. Psychol ., 55A, 1141), which predicts categorical organization of social behaviours based on personality traits. Advantages of this model are discussed
The new unconscious( Recording )

2 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Cognitive aspects of item order effects in psychological assessment by Tracy R Wellens( Book )

1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This dissertation developed an integrative framework for combining the important focus on cognitive processes in personality and social psychology (e.g., Higgins & Bargh, 1987) with one of the most important applied problems in psychology, the issue of assessment (e.g., Wiggins, 1973). The studies in this dissertation examined the cognitive aspects of item order effects in a standardized assessment instrument, the Beck Depression Inventory. Study 1 examined the effects of differential placement of general and specific items. All of the BDI items were ordered in terms of how general or specific they are in relation to depression. Further, whether an item was termed general or specific was determined empirically. Order of item presentation had dramatic effects on such statistics as total score and variance. Specifically, the general to specific item order evidenced an elevated total score and variance when compared to the standard order
Spontaneous trait inferences are bound to actors' faces : evidence from a false recognition paradigm by Alexander B Todorov( )

1 edition published in 2002 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Distance-dependent focus on causal antecedents vs. causal consequents by Soyon Rim( Book )

1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

When do people think about causal antecedents and when do they focus more on causal consequents? The prediction is that people are more attuned to underlying causes and weight causes more heavily in decision-making when events are psychologically distant, whereas they are more attuned to effects and weight effects more heavily when events are psychologically proximal. Knowledge of causal mechanisms enables prediction across different contexts and affords control while knowledge of consequences enables responding in the here-and-now. This prediction is also supported by construal level theory (CLT; Trope & Liberman, 2010) which posits that consideration of abstract, superordinate features of events (e.g., causes) increases with distance from those events. A high-level and temporally distant mindset both led to greater ease of thinking about causes whereas a low-level and temporal proximal mindset led to greater ease of thinking about effects (Experiments 1 and 2). Experiment 3 provided converging evidence with respect to weighting of causes and effects in distant and near future judgments and Experiment 6 extended this effect to social distance and showed that the tendency for distance-dependent cause-effect focus occurs spontaneously. Other studies originally proposed, Experiments 4 and 5, failed to provide converging evidence. These results, limitations, and broader implications for moral decision-making, leadership, and self-regulation are discussed
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The new unconscious
Unintended thought
Alternative Names
Uleman, James Stephen

Uleman, Jim

English (60)