WorldCat Identities

Lavy, Victor

Works: 182 works in 725 publications in 1 language and 7,191 library holdings
Genres: History 
Roles: Author, Other, Editor, Honoree
Classifications: HC830, 338.9110956
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Victor Lavy
Changing patterns of illiteracy in Morocco : assessment methods compared by Victor Lavy( )

18 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 636 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study estimates the incidence, characteristics, and patterns of change over time of illiteracy in Morocco. The study compares the results from direct literacy assessment to the conventional methods of self-reported literacy. This effort has provided more detailed, objective information with which patterns of literacy skills in the country may be determined, and their relationship to other important social and economic behaviors and outcomes analyzed. It also examines more closely the reliability and validity of common proxy indicators used to estimate literacy rates and skill levels. Results show that Morocco has been able to halve its literacy rate during the last 30 years; however, large disparities remain between men and women and between urban and rural areas. Implications for methods of measuring literacy and for formulating policy to increase literacy are discussed. (EH)
Investment in human capital : schooling supply constraints in rural Ghana by Victor Lavy( )

19 editions published in 1992 in English and Undetermined and held by 604 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper hypothesizes that the cost differential between primary school and middle or secondary schooling will affect household decisions to invest in any one schooling level in Ghana. Human capital investment is usually modeled in an intertemporal optimization framework in which households or individuals maximize the present value of life-time utility. The main cost emphasized in these models is foregone earnings while in school. Direct costs such as user fees and travel costs are given much less attention. In many developing countries, however, direct costs such as travel expenses can be an important component in household educational decisions. This paper introduces into the Ben-Porath/Heckman model a convex cost function of schooling, and analyzes its implications for school attendance and attainment. Data were drawn from a survey of 1,902 primary school age children in Ghana. The empirical work confirms the prediction of the theoretical model: the cost of advanced levels of education influences primary schooling decisions. If the direct cost of enrollment in middle or secondary schools is much higher than for primary schools, the households reduce investment in primary education. This may be the case because completion of several years of schooling or even a primary school diploma does not lead to the accumulation of any significant amount of human capital; the market consequently treats this level of schooling as no schooling. Thus, the supply constraints on middle and secondary education are at least as important as the supply of primary schools in holding down enrollment rates and causing students to drop out of the education system early. This document contains numerous tables throughout the text and in the appendix. (KS)
The Impact of the quality of health care on children's nutrition and survival in Ghana by Victor Lavy( )

16 editions published between 1994 and 1995 in English and held by 578 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Health care in Jamaica : quality, outcomes, and labor supply by Victor Lavy( )

16 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 327 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Investigates relationships among labor force participation, health outcomes, and quality of health care in Jamaica. Develops an econometric model linking demand for health care, health status outcomes, and labor force participation"--Handbook of Latin American Studies, v. 57
School quality, achievement bias, and dropout behavior in Egypt by Eric A Hanushek( )

18 editions published between 1994 and 1995 in English and held by 307 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Foreign aid and economic development in the Middle East : Egypt, Syria, and Jordan by Victor Lavy( Book )

6 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 301 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Schooling and cognitive achievements of children in Morocco : can the government improve outcomes? by Shahidur R Khandker( )

16 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 284 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Does teacher training affect pupil learning? : evidence from matched comparisons in Jerusalem public schools by Joshua David Angrist( )

16 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 138 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper estimates the effect of inservice teacher training on children's reading and mathematics achievement in Jerusalem elementary schools. The training was based on pedagogical methods developed in U.S. schools. The research used a matched-comparison design that exploited the fact that only a few schools received extra funds for training. Differences-in-differences, regression, and nonparametric matching estimates are reported. The results suggest that the training received by teachers in the non-religious branch of the Jerusalem school system led to an improvement in their students' test scores. The estimates for religious schools are not clear, but this may be because the training program in religious schools started later and was implemented on a smaller scale. The estimates for non-religious schools suggest that, at least in this case, teacher training provided a less costly means of increasing test scores than reducing class size or adding school hours. (Contains 33 references.) (SM)
New evidence on classroom computers and pupil learning by Joshua David Angrist( )

18 editions published between 1999 and 2001 in English and held by 132 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The question of how technology affects learning has been at the center of recent debates over educational inputs. In 1994, the Israeli State Lottery sponsored the installation of computers in many elementary and middle schools. This program provides an opportunity to estimate the impact of computerization on both the instructional use of computers and on pupils' test scores. Results from a survey of Israeli school-teachers show that the influx of new computers increased teachers' use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) in the 4th grade, with a smaller effect on CAI in 8th grade. CAI does not appear to have had educational benefits that translated into higher test scores. Results for 4th graders show sharply lower Math scores in the group that was awarded computers, with smaller (insignificant) negative effects on verbal scores. Results for 8th graders' test scores are very imprecise, probably reflecting the much weaker first-stage relationship between program funding and the use of CAI in 8th grade. The estimates for 8th grade Math scores are also negative, however
Quality and cost in health care choice in developing countries by Victor Lavy( Book )

10 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 129 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The effect of high school matriculation awards : evidence from randomized trials by Joshua David Angrist( )

19 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 128 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In Israel, as in many other countries, a high school matriculation certificate is required by universities and some jobs. In spite of the certificate's value, Israeli society is marked by vast differences in matriculation rates by region and socioeconomic status. We attempted to increase the likelihood of matriculation among low-achieving students by offering substantial cash incentives in two demonstration programs. As a theoretical matter, cash incentives may be helpful if low-achieving students reduce investment in schooling because of high discount rates, part-time work, or face peer pressure not to study. A small pilot program selected individual students within schools for treatment, with treatment status determined by previous test scores and a partially randomized cutoff for low socioeconomic status. In a larger follow-up program, entire schools were randomly selected for treatment and the program operated with the cooperation of principals and teachers. The results suggest the Achievement Awards program that randomized treatment at the school level raised matriculation rates, while the student-based program did not
Willingness to pay for the quality and intensity of medical care : low-income households in Ghana by Victor Lavy( Book )

13 editions published between 1991 and 1993 in English and held by 128 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The effect of teen childbearing and single parenthood on childhood disabilities and progress in school by Joshua David Angrist( )

14 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 125 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Be responsible for poor health and low levels of schooling among the children of young mothers. This paper uses special disability and grade repetition questions from the school enrollment supplement to the 1992 Current Population Survey to estimate the effect of maternal age and single parenthood on children's disability status and school progress. Our results suggest that there is little association between maternal age at birth and children's disabilities. But the children of teen mothers are much more likely to repeat one or more grades than other children, and within-household estimates of this relationship are even larger than OLS estimates. The grade repetition findings from the CPS are replicated using a smaller sample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Another finding of interest is that having a father in the household is associated with lower disability prevalence and fewer grade repetitions. But many of the effects of single parenthood on disability, as well as the effect on grade repetition, appear to be explained by higher incomes in two-parent families
Does immigration affect the long-term educational outcomes of natives? quasi-experimental evidence by Eric D Gould( )

19 editions published between 2004 and 2006 in English and held by 120 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper uses the mass migration wave to Israel in the 1990s to examine the impact of immigrant concentration in elementary school on the long-term academic outcomes of native students in high school. To identify the causal effect of immigrant children on their peers, we exploit random variation in the number of immigrants across grades within the same school. The results suggest that the overall presence of immigrants had essentially no effect on the quality of the high school attended by native Israelis and on dropout rates, and at most a mild negative effect on high school matriculation rates. However, when we break up the sample by parents' education and by ethnic origin, we find that disadvantaged children were more likely to have been adversely affected by a higher immigrant concentration in elementary school. Focusing on the impact of Ethiopian immigrants who are from a much lower socio-economic background, we find stronger evidence of adverse effects, especially for disadvantaged students and in classes where immigrant concentration was particularly high
Children's health and achievement in school by Jere R Behrman( Book )

9 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 119 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The commonly held view is that extremely poor health hurts educational achievement. This study examined the possibility of biases in standard estimation of effects and illustrated empirically, based on Ghanaian Living Standard of Measurement Study data, that there was not a significant effect of child health on child cognitive achievement. Consideration was given to the endogenous determination of child health. Child health was determined by anthropometry. Cognitive achievement test scores and preschool ability measured schooling success and child endowments respectively. Household and community characteristics and sibling data were used to measure family and community fixed effects. The conclusion, based on ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation and instrumental variable level estimates, was that child health did not impact on child cognitive achievement. The differences between the instrumental variable estimates and the within family and within community estimates suggested bias. Four basic conclusions were drawn. 1) Considerable bias occurred in prior studies, because there was a failure to account for estimation problems. 2) Inclusion of instrumental variables, assumed to be independent of the disturbance term in the cognitive achievement production function, and without controls for simultaneity, suggested a downward bias. 3) The bias was upward when estimates with sibling data were accounted for. Unobserved family and community effects can cause upward biases. 4) Coefficients, which are supposed to represent the impact of child health on schooling, may not do so. In the discussion of model specification, it was pointed out that upward bias can occur with heterogeneity in preferences regarding child quality, in unobserved predetermined family endowments that affect production of child quality, and in unobserved predetermined community endowments that affect child quality production. The unobserved predetermined child characteristics affect both child health and cognitive achievement in the same direction. There can be unobserved heterogeneity in access to capital markets. The 2 stage least squares procedure was found to overstate the impact of child health and cause greater distortions than OLS estimates
Targeted remedial education for underperforming teenagers : costs and benefits by Victor Lavy( )

15 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 116 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

There is renewed interest in ways to enhance secondary education, especially among disadvantaged students. This study evaluates the short-term effects of a remedial-education program that provided additional instruction to under-performing high-school students in Israel. The program targeted 10th twelfth graders who needed additional help to pass the matriculation exams. Using a comparison group of schools that enrolled in the program later and implementing a differences-in-differences estimation strategy, we found that the program raised the school mean matriculation rate by 3.3 percentage points. This gain reflects mainly an effect on targeted participants and the absence of externalities on their untreated peers. The program was found to be less cost-effective than two alternative interventions based on incentives for teachers and students
New evidence on the causal link between the quantity and quality of children by Joshua David Angrist( )

18 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 114 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A longstanding question in the economics of the family is the relationship between sibship size and subsequent human capital formation and economic welfare. If there is a "quantity-quality trade-off," then policies that discourage large families should lead to increased human capital, higher earnings, and, at the macro level, promote economic development. Ordinary least squares regression estimates and a large theoretical literature suggest that this is indeed the case. This paper provides new evidence on the child-quantity/child-quality trade-off. Our empirical strategy exploits exogenous variation in family size due to twin births and preferences for a mixed sibling-sex composition, as well as ethnic differences in the effects of these variables, and preferences for boys in some ethnic groups. We use these sources of variation to look at the causal effect of family size on completed educational attainment, fertility, and earnings. For the purposes of this analysis, we constructed a unique matched data set linking Israeli Census data with information on the demographic structure of families drawn from a population registry. Our results show no evidence of a quantity-quality trade-off, though some estimates suggest that first-born girls from large families marry sooner
Do gender stereotypes reduce girls' human capital outcomes? : evidence from a natural experiment by Victor Lavy( )

11 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 105 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Schools and teachers are often said to be a source of stereotypes that harm girls. This paper tests for the existence of gender stereotyping and discrimination by public high-school teachers in Israel. It uses a natural experiment based on blind and non-blind scores that students receive on matriculation exams in their senior year. Using data on test results in several subjects in the humanities and sciences, I found, contrary to expectations, that male students face discrimination in each subject. These biases widen the female male achievement gap because girls outperform boys in all subjects, except English, and at all levels of the curriculum. The bias is evident in all segments of the ability and performance distribution and is robust to various individual controls. Several explanations based on differential behavior between boys and girls are not supported empirically. However, the size of the bias is very sensitive to teachers' characteristics, suggesting that the bias against male students is the result of teachers', and not students', behavior
Performance pay and teachers' effort, productivity and grading ethics by Victor Lavy( )

10 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 105 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Performance-related incentive pay for teachers is being introduced in many countries, but there is little evidence of its effects. This paper evaluates a rank-order tournament among teachers of English, Hebrew, and mathematics in Israel. Teachers were rewarded with cash bonuses for improving their students' performance on high-school matriculation exams. Two identification strategies were used to estimate the program effects, a regression discontinuity design and propensity score matching. The regression discontinuity method exploits both a natural experiment stemming from measurement error in the assignment variable and a sharp discontinuity in the assignment-to-treatment variable. The results suggest that performance incentives have a significant effect on directly affected students with some minor spillover effects on untreated subjects. The improvements appear to derive from changes in teaching methods, after-school teaching, and increased responsiveness to students' needs. No evidence found for teachers' manipulation of test scores. The program appears to have been more cost-effective than school-group cash bonuses or extra instruction time and is as effective as cash bonuses for students
Mechanisms and impacts of gender peer effects at school by Victor Lavy( )

15 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 96 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The consequences of gender social and learning interactions in the classroom are of interest to parents, policy makers, and researchers. However, little is known about gender peer effects in schools and their operational channels. In this paper, we estimate the effects of classroom gender composition on scholastic achievements of boys and girls in Israeli primary, middle, and high schools and identify the mechanisms through which these peer effects are enacted. In particular, we examine whether gender peer effects work through changes in classroom learning and social environment, teaching methods and pedagogy, and teacher burnout and work satisfaction. In assessing these mechanisms, we distinguish between the effects generated by changes in the classroom gender composition and those generated by changes in the behavior of students. To control for potentially confounding unobserved characteristics of schools and students that might be correlated with peer gender composition, we rely on idiosyncratic variations in gender composition across adjacent cohorts within the same schools. Our results suggest that an increase in the proportion of girls leads to a significant improvement in students' cognitive outcomes. The estimated effects are of similar magnitude for boys and girls. As important mechanisms, we find that a higher proportion of female peers lowers the level of classroom disruption and violence, improves inter-student and student-teacher relationships as well as students' overall satisfaction in school, and lessens teachers' fatigue. We find, however, no effect on individual behavior of boys or girls, which suggests that the positive peer effects of girls on classroom environment are due mostly to compositional change, namely due to having more girls in the classroom and not due to improved behavior of peers
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Audience Level
Audience Level
  Kids General Special  
Audience level: 0.44 (from 0.16 for Changing p ... to 0.71 for Children's ...)

The Impact of the quality of health care on children's nutrition and survival in Ghana
Foreign aid and economic development in the Middle East : Egypt, Syria, and Jordan
Alternative Names
Lavi, Ṿiḳṭor

Laviʾ, Ṿiḳṭor 1949-

Lavie, Victor 1949-

Lavy, V. 1949-

Victor Chaim Lavy economist (University of Warwick; Hebrew University of Jerusalem)

Victor Lavy econoom

לביא, ויקטור

English (294)