WorldCat Identities

Irwin, Douglas A. 1962-

Works: 138 works in 833 publications in 3 languages and 13,115 library holdings
Genres: History  Conference papers and proceedings 
Roles: Author, Editor, Other
Classifications: HF1756, 382.71
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Douglas A Irwin
Free trade under fire by Douglas A Irwin( Book )

43 editions published between 2002 and 2015 in 3 languages and held by 2,099 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Publisher Description (unedited publisher data) The 1990s began with fears of a "great sucking sound" of jobs lost due to the North American Free Trade Agreement and ended with opponents of the World Trade Organization taking to the streets in the "Battle of Seattle." Why has global trade become so controversial? Does free trade deserve its bad reputation? In Free Trade under Fire, Douglas Irwin sweeps aside the misconceptions that litter the debate over trade and gives the reader a clear understanding of the issues involved. Putting the findings of an extensive body of economic research at the disposal of the general public, Irwin examines the positions of the proponents and critics of free trade--and makes plain the stakes involved in their disagreement, particularly for the United States. He explains the economic benefits of trade, not just for corporations but for people and the environment. He illustrates how protectionist policies damage the economy and fail to save jobs. Examining U.S. trade policy, he shows how "fair trade" measures are arbitrary, unfair, and often harmful. He then demystifies the World Trade Organization and sets the record straight about its controversial rulings on trade and the environment. Irwin does not hold up free trade as a panacea but demonstrates why it is our best alternative. In a debate where assertions often masquerade as arguments, Irwin's analysis is firmly evidence-based--rooted in empirical research and relying on specific examples and illustrations. Finely argued, Free Trade under Fire makes a vast body of economic learning accessible to nonspecialists. It is an essential primer for anyone who wants to understand one of the most burning controversies of our time
Against the tide : an intellectual history of free trade by Douglas A Irwin( Book )

19 editions published between 1996 and 2013 in 3 languages and held by 1,295 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

About two hundred years ago, largely as a result of Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, free trade achieved an intellectual status unrivaled by any other doctrine in the field of economics. What accounts for the success of free trade against then prevailing mecantilist doctrines? And how well has free trade withstood various theoretical attacks that have challenged it since Adam Smith's time? In this readable intellectual history, Douglas Irwin explains how the idea of free trade has endured against the tide of the abundant criticisms that have been leveled against it from the ancient world and Adam Smith's day through the present. An accessible, nontechnical look at one of the most important concepts in the field of economics. Against the Tide will allow the reader to put the ever new guises of protectionist thinking into the context of the past and discover why the idea of free trade has so successfully prevailed over time. Irwin traces the origins of the free trade doctrine from premercantilist times up to Adam Smith and the classical economists. In lucid and careful terms he shows how Smith's compelling arguments in favor of free trade overthrew mercantilist views that domestic industries should be protected from import competition. Once a presumption about the economic benefits of free trade arose in the form of major arguments for protectionism, such as those relating to the terms of trade, infant industries, increasing returns, wage distortions, income distribution, unemployment, and strategic trade policy. Discussing the contentious historical controversies surrounding each of these arguments, Irwin reveals the serious analytical and practical weaknesses of each, and in the process shows why free trade remains among the most durable and robust propositions that economics has to offer for the conduct of economic policy
Peddling protectionism : Smoot-Hawley and the Great Depression by Douglas A Irwin( Book )

9 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 530 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Smoot-Hawley tariff of 1930, which raised U.S. duties on hundreds of imported goods to record levels, is America's most infamous trade law. It is often associated with---and sometimes blamed for---the onset of the Great Depression, the collapse of world trade, and the global spread of protectionism in the 1930s. Even today, the ghosts of congressmen Reed Smoot and Willis Hawley haunt anyone arguing for higher trade barriers; almost single-handedly, they make protectionism an insult rather than a compliment. In Peddling Protectionism, Douglas Irwin provides the first comprehensive history of the causes and effects of this notorious measure, explaining why it largely deserves its reputation for combining bad politics and bad economics and harming the U.S. and world economies during the Depression. While Smoot-Hawley was hardly responsible for the Great Depression, Irwin argues, it contributed to a decline in world trade and provoked discrimination against U.S. exports that lasted decades
Political economy and international economics by Jagdish N Bhagwati( Book )

13 editions published between 1991 and 1996 in English and held by 523 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The genesis of the GATT by Douglas A Irwin( Book )

21 editions published between 2008 and 2009 in English and held by 452 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This book is part of a wider project on the economic logic behind the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). This volume asks: What does the historical record indicate about the aims and objectives of the frames of the GATT? Where did the provisions of the GATT come from and how did they evolve through various international meetings and drafts? To what extent does the historical record provide support for one or more of the economic rationales for the GATT? This book examines the motivations and contributions of the two main framers of the GATT, the United States and the united Kingdom, as well as the smaller role of other countries. The framers desired a commercial agreement on trade practices as well as negotiated reductions in trade barriers. Both were sought as a way to expand international trade to promote world prosperity, restrict the use of discriminatory policies to reduce conflict over trade, and thereby establish economic foundations for maintaining world peace."--Jacket
Essays on the intellectual history of economics by Jacob Viner( Book )

12 editions published between 1991 and 2014 in English and held by 432 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Trade policy disaster : lessons from the 1930s by Douglas A Irwin( Book )

12 editions published between 2011 and 2012 in English and held by 352 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The recent economic crisis-with the plunge in the stock market, numerous bank failures and widespread financial distress, declining output and rising unemployment-has been reminiscent of the Great Depression. The Depression of the 1930s was marked by the spread of protectionist trade policies, which contributed to a collapse in world trade. Although policymakers today claim that they will resist the protectionist temptation, recessions are breeding grounds for economic nationalism, and countries may yet consider imposing higher trade barriers. In Trade Policy Disaster, Douglas Irwin examines what we know about trade policy during the traumatic decade of the 1930s and considers what we can learn from the policy missteps of the time. Irwin argues that the extreme protectionism of the 1930s emerged as a consequence of policymakers' reluctance to abandon the gold standard and allow their currencies to depreciate. By ruling out exchange rate changes as an adjustment mechanism, policymakers turned instead to higher tariffs and other means of restricting imports. He offers a clear and concise exposition of such topics as the effect of higher trade barriers on the implosion of world trade; the impact of the Smoot-Hawley tariff of 1930; the reasons some countries adopted draconian trade restrictions (including exchange controls and import quotas) but others did not; the effect of preferential trade arrangements and bilateral clearing agreements on the multilateral system of world trade; and lessons for avoiding future trade wars
The political economy of trade policy : papers in honor of Jagdish Bhagwati by Robert C Feenstra( Book )

10 editions published in 1996 in English and Undetermined and held by 349 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This collection of papers by colleagues and former students celebrates the profound impact that Jagdish Bhagwati has had on the field of international economics over the past three decades. Bhagwati, who is the Arthur Lehman Professor of Economics at Columbia University, has made pathbreaking contributions to the theory of international trade and commercial policy, including immiserizing growth, domestic distortions, economic development, and political economy. His success and influence as a teacher and mentor is widely recognized among students at both MIT and Columbia, and as founder of the Journal of International Economics, he has encouraged research on many questions of theoretical and policy relevance. The political economy of trade policy, Bhagwati's most recent area of interest, is the theme of this collection, which addresses salient topics including market distortions, income distribution, and the political process of policy-making
Managed trade : the case against import targets by Douglas A Irwin( Book )

7 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 242 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Founding choices : American economic policy in the 1790s by Douglas A Irwin( Book )

10 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 241 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

From the publisher. The political decisions made by the founding fathers were crucial to the success of the early republic. But the economic decisions they made were just as pivotal, ensuring the general welfare and common defense of the United States for decades to come. Founding Choices explores these economic choices and their profound influence on American life, westward expansion, and influence abroad. Among the topics covered are finance, trade, and monetary and banking policy, with a focus on the factors guiding those policies and their end result. This book redresses the relative neglect of the economic achievements of the founders. It will be essential reading for historians and economists alike
Three simple principles of trade policy by Douglas A Irwin( Book )

3 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 176 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The GATT's contribution to economic recovery in post-war Western Europe by Douglas A Irwin( Book )

21 editions published between 1992 and 1994 in English and held by 93 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the role of trade liberalization under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tarrifs and Trade (GATT) in promoting economic recovery and growth in Europe in the decade after World War II. The formation of the GATT does not appear to have stimulated a particularly rapid liberalization of world trade in the decade after 1947. It is therefore difficult to attribute much of a role to the GATT in the dramatic economic recovery during the immediate post-war period beyond that of an effective supporting actor. The principal contribution of the GATT during its first decade of operation rests more in securing binding agreements on early tariff reductions, thereby preventing countries from instituting higher tariffs as import quotas and foreign exchange controls were being phased out during the 1950s under the guidance of other international institutions
Trade blocs, currency blocs and the disintegration of world trade in the 1930s by Barry J Eichengreen( Book )

18 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 83 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The dramatic implosion and regionalization of international trade during the 1930s has often been blamed on the trade and foreign exchange policies that emerged in the interwar period. We provide new evidence on the impact of trade and currency blocs on trade flows from 1928 1938 that suggests a blanket indictment of interwar trade policies and payments arrangements is not warranted. Discriminatory trade policies and international monetary arrangements had neither a uniformly favorable nor unfavorable implication for world trade; instead the balance of trade-creating and trade-diverting effects depended on the motivations of policymakers and hence on the structure of their policies. We find, for example, that British Commonwealth tariff preferences affected trade more significantly than the sterling-bloc currency area, but both promoted within-group trade without diverting trade away from non-members. Exchange controls and bilateral clearing arrangements enacted by German and Central and Eastern European countries, by contrast, dominated other commercial policies in altering trade patterns, but curtailed trade with non-members with no offsetting trade-creating effects. We also find support for Ragnar Nurkse 's famous hypothesis that exchange-rate volatility in the interwar period diminished trade. Our results speak to the emerging regional trade and currency areas of today, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement and the EC's Single Market and European Monetary System, and suggest that their impact lies not in the regional or global character of the policy initiative, but in the structure and design of the underlying policies
Did late nineteenth century U.S. tariffs promote infant industries? : evidence from the tinplate industry by Douglas A Irwin( Book )

13 editions published in 1998 in English and Undetermined and held by 76 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: This paper examines the role of late nineteenth century U.S. tariffs in promoting infant industries by focusing on the much heralded example of the tinplate industry. After earlier failures, the tinplate industry became established and flourished after receiving protection in the McKinley tariff of 1890. Treating the entry and exit decisions of producers as endogenous, a probability model is estimated to determine the conditions under which domestic tinplate production will take place. Counterfactual simulations indicate that, in the absence of the McKinley duties, domestic tinplate production would have arisen about a decade later as U.S. iron and steel prices (comprising three-quarters of production costs) converged with those in Britain. While the tariff accelerated the industry's development, welfare calculations suggest that protection does not pass a cost-benefit test
From Smoot-Hawley to reciprocal trade agreements : changing the course of U.S. trade policy in the 1930s by Douglas A Irwin( Book )

15 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 72 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Four years after passing the infamous Smoot-Hawley tariff in 1930, Congress enacted the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (RTAA), which gave the president the authority to undertake tariff-reduction agreements (without Congressional approval) with foreign countries. The resulting trade agreements reduced U.S. tariffs and culminated in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1947. Was the Great Depression responsible for bringing about this fundamental shift in U.S. trade policy? This paper analyzes the changes in U.S. trade policy during this period and argues that (i) the Depression as an international phenomenon motivated the unprecedented Congressional delegation of tariff-making powers, (ii) economic changes more the result of World War II than the Depression blunted Republican opposition to the RTAA and ensured its post-war survival
Trade politics and the semiconductor industry by Douglas A Irwin( Book )

11 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 72 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: A coalition of well-organized semiconductor producers along with compliant government agencies (USTR and the Commerce Department) brought about a 1986 trade agreement in which the United States forced Japan to end the 'dumping' of semiconductors in all world markets and to help secure 20 percent of the Japanese semiconductor market for foreign firms within five years. The antidumping provisions of the 1986 agreement, which later proved to be partly GATT-illegal, resulted in such steep price rises for certain semiconductors that downstream user industries (primarily computer systems manufacturers) forced the U.S. government to remove those provisions in the 1991 renegotiation of the agreement. The equally controversial 20 percent market share provision - based on circumstantial evidence that the Japanese market was closed -provided 'affirmative action' for the industry in its efforts to sell more in Japan, but has been criticized as constituting 'export protectionism.' This paper examines how the U.S. semiconductor industry became the beneficiary of this unique and unprecedented sectoral trade agreement by analyzing the political and economic forces leading up to the 1986 accord and shaping subsequent events
Changes in U.S. tariffs : prices or policies? by Douglas A Irwin( Book )

13 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 71 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In the century after the Civil War, roughly two-thirds of U.S. dutiable imports were subject to specific duties whose ad valorem equivalent was inversely related to the price level. This paper finds that import price fluctuations easily dominate commercial policies (changes in rates of import duty) in bringing about changes in the average U.S. tariff from 1865-1973. About three-quarters of the post-Smoot Hawley decline in U.S. tariffs, for example, can be attributed to higher import prices, the remainder to negotiated reductions in tariff rates
Airbus versus Boeing revisited : international competition in the aircraft market by Douglas A Irwin( Book )

19 editions published between 2001 and 2004 in English and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines international competition in the commercial aircraft industry. We estimate a discrete choice, differentiated products demand system for wide-body aircraft and examine the Airbus-Boeing rivalry under various assumptions on firm conduct. We then use this structure to evaluate two trade disputes between the United States and European Union. Our results suggest that the aircraft prices increased by about 3 percent after the 1992 U.S. -- E.U. agreement on trade in civil aircraft that limits subsidies. This price hike is consistent with a 7.5 percent increase in firms' marginal costs after the subsidy cuts. We also simulate the impact of the future entry of the Airbus A-380 super-jumbo aircraft on the demand for other wide-bodied aircraft, notably the Boeing 747. We find that the A-380 could reduce the market share of the 747 by up to 14 percent in the long range wide-body market segment (depending upon the discounts offered on the A-380), but would reduce the market for Airbus's existing wide-bodies by an even greater margin
High tech R & D subsidies : estimating the effects of Sematech by Douglas A Irwin( Book )

15 editions published in 1994 in English and Undetermined and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Sparked by concerns about their shrinking market share, 14 leading U.S. semiconductor producers, with the financial assistance of the U.S. government in the form of $100 million in annual subsidies, formed a joint R&D consortium -- Sematech -- in 1987. Using Compustat data on all U.S. semiconductor firms, we estimate the effects of Sematech on members' R&D spending, profitability, investment, and productivity. In so doing we test two hypotheses: the commitment' hypothesis that Sematech obligates member firms to spend more on high- spillover R&D, and the sharing' hypothesis that Sematech reduces duplication of member R&D spending. Whereas the commitment hypothesis provides a rationale for the government subsidies, the sharing hypothesis does not. We find that Sematech induced members to cut their overall R&D spending on the order of $300 million per year, providing support for the sharing hypothesis
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Against the tide : an intellectual history of free trade
Alternative Names
Douglas A. Irwin Amerikaans econoom

Douglas A. Irwin US-amerikanischer Wirtschaftswissenschaftler

Douglas Irwin

Irwin, D.

Irwin, D. A. 1962-

Irwin, Doug 1962-

Irwin, Douglas 1962-

Irwin, Douglas A.

Irwin, Douglas Allen 1962-

アーウィン, ダグラス・A


Against the tide : an intellectual history of free tradePeddling protectionism : Smoot-Hawley and the Great DepressionPolitical economy and international economicsThe genesis of the GATTEssays on the intellectual history of economicsTrade policy disaster : lessons from the 1930sThe political economy of trade policy : papers in honor of Jagdish BhagwatiFounding choices : American economic policy in the 1790sThree simple principles of trade policy