WorldCat Identities

National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Law and Justice

Overview
Works: 39 works in 157 publications in 1 language and 34,748 library holdings
Genres: Case studies  Conference papers and proceedings  Abstracts 
Roles: Other, Editor
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by National Research Council (U.S.).
Understanding violence against women by Nancy A Crowell( )

6 editions published between 1996 and 2009 in English and held by 2,872 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Panel on Research on Violence Against Women, Committee on Law and Justice, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council."
Deadly lessons : understanding lethal school violence : case studies of School Violence Committee by Mark H Moore( )

6 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 2,405 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This book presents six case studies of student-perpetrated school shootings and discusses possible effective interventions. Between 1992 and 2001, 35 incidents occurred in which students started firing at schoolmates and teachers at their school or at a school-sponsored event. These incidents, including the Columbine High School incident, left 53 dead and 144 injured. These incidents shocked the public because so many were killed in single incidents, the targets seemed arbitrarily selected, and they occurred in such unexpected places. Communities that thought they were insulated from lethal youth violence discovered that they were vulnerable. Congress asked that detailed case studies be developed of the circumstances that led to violence in schools. The goal was to use these cases to learn about the important causes and consequences of such incidents, and to decide what actions could be taken to prevent these events. The consequences of such incidents were significant and there was long lasting harm in each of the communities studied. Those closest to the center of the incidents continue to be traumatized; victims' civil suits against the shooters' families and the schools are still pending; and some businesses continue to suffer because of the harm to the communities' reputations. It was found that these events represented a separate strain of violence even though it followed closely other earlier violence. The inner-city epidemic was fueled by poverty, racial segregation, and illicit drug trade. The violence in suburban and rural schools more closely resembled "rampage" shootings that occurred in places other than schools, such as workplaces. This idea was supported by the differences in the motives of the shooters and the circumstances under which the shootings occurred. The inner-city shootings involved specific grievances between individuals whereas the suburban and rural school shooting cases involved youth that had exaggerated and abstract grievances. There was a spike for all kinds of rampage killings in the late 1990's. Further exploration is needed of the precursors to these incidents, including bullying in schools, illegal gun carrying by adolescents, and mental health problems of youth
Pathological gambling : a critical review( )

4 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 2,355 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"As states have moved from merely tolerating gambling to running their own games, as communities have increasingly turned to gambling for an economic boost, important questions arise. Has the new age of gambling increased the proportion of pathological or problem gamblers in the U.S. population? Where is the threshold between "social betting" and pathology? Pathological Gambling explores America's experience of gambling." "This book provides the most up-to-date information available on the prevalence of pathological and problem gambling in the United States. It describes the effects of problem gambling on families, friendships, employment, finances, and propensity to crime."--Jacket
Firearms and violence : a critical review by National Research Council (U.S.)( )

3 editions published between 2004 and 2005 in English and held by 2,348 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

For years proposals for gun control and the ownership of firearms have been among the most contentious issues in American politics. For public authorities to make reasonable decisions on these matters, they must take into account facts about the relationship between guns and violence as well as conflicting constitutional claims and divided public opinion. In performing these tasks, legislators need adequate data and research to judge both the effects of firearms on violence and the effects of different violence control policies. Readers of the research literature on firearms may sometimes find themselves unable to distinguish scholarship from advocacy. Given the importance of this issue, there is a pressing need for a clear and unbiased assessment of the existing portfolio of data and research. Firearms and Violence uses conventional standards of science to examine three major themes - firearms and violence, the quality of research, and the quality of data available. The book assesses the strengths and limitations of current databases, examining current research studies on firearm use and the efforts to reduce unjustified firearm use and suggests ways in which they can be improved
Advancing the federal research agenda on violence against women by Candace Kruttschnitt( )

4 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 2,046 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Based on the presentations and deliberations of a workshop convened by the National Research Council in January 2002 to develop a detailed research agenda on violence against women, this report addresses the nature and scope of violence against women, social ecological risks of violence against women, prevention and deterrence, identifying and treating offenders, and the future of research on violence against women. This report expands on the work of an earlier National Research Council panel whose report, "Understanding Violence Against Women," was published in 1996. Although some of the research recommended in that report has been funded and performed, important gaps in research remain. The current report presents the conclusions and recommendations of the workshop as subsequently framed by the steering committee. Regarding the research focus, the steering committee questions whether the general origins and behavioral patterns of the various forms of violence are sufficiently different to warrant the degree of separation that has occurred. The committee believes some level of integration of research on violence against and by women with the larger literature on crime and violence would enrich the former research intellectually, increase the amount of attention it receives, extend the lessons that can be learned about violence against women, and provide a more solid basis for prevention and deterrence strategies. The committee further believes that the research agenda of the Federal Government regarding violence against women would benefit from integration with efforts to determine the causes, consequences, prevention, treatment, and deterrence of violence more broadly. Regarding the prevalence of violence against women, the committee recommends a more coordinated research strategy to help improve prevalence data. Regarding research on the causes of violence against women, the committee recommends that work be initiated to examine the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of conducting longitudinal studies on violence against and by women. The committee also recommends event-based studies that would address the situational contexts and dynamic interactions that lead to violence against women, with attention to research on the processes that underlie victim selection, location selection, and victim-offender interaction patterns. Recommendations on social ecological studies pertain to the social and spatial epidemiology of violence, the distribution of services, the social area effects on sanctions and services, and data needs. Research recommendations are offered on prevention and treatment, as well as deterrence
Violence in urban America : mobilizing a response : summary of a conference by National Research Council Staff( )

5 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 2,012 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Informing America's policy on illegal drugs : what we don't know keeps hurting us by National Research Council (U.S.)( )

3 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 1,851 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Transnational organized crime : summary of a workshop by National Research Council Staff( )

4 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1,830 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Improving evaluation of anticrime programs by National Research Council Committee on Improving Evaluation of Anti-Crime Programs( )

3 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 1,705 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Measurement problems in criminal justice research : workshop summary by John Pepper( )

5 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 1,679 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Workshop convened on July 24, 2000 "to examine an array of measurement issues in the area of crime victimization and offending and to explore possible areas for future research to improve measurement methods"--Page 1
Crime victims with developmental disabilities : report of a workshop by Joan Petersilia( )

4 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 1,551 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Understanding the demand for illegal drugs by National Research Council (U.S.)( )

5 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 1,513 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Despite efforts to reduce drug consumption in the United States over the past 35 years, drugs are just as cheap and available as they have ever been. Cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamines continue to cause great harm in the country, particularly in minority communities in the major cities. Marijuana use remains a part of adolescent development for about half of the country's young people, although there is controversy about the extent of its harm. Given the persistence of drug demand in the face of lengthy and expensive efforts to control the markets, the National Institute of Justice asked the National Research Council to undertake a study of current research on the demand for drugs in order to help better focus national efforts to reduce that demand. This study complements the 2003 book, Informing America's Policy on Illegal Drugs by giving more attention to the sources of demand and assessing the potential of demand-side interventions to make a substantial difference to the nation's drug problems. Understanding the Demand for Illegal Drugs therefore focuses tightly on demand models in the field of economics and evaluates the data needs for advancing this relatively undeveloped area of investigation
Ensuring the quality, credibility, and relevance of U.S. justice statistics by National Research Council (U.S.)( )

5 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 1,468 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) of the U.S. Department of Justice is one of the smallest of the U.S. principal statistical agencies but shoulders one of the most expansive and detailed legal mandates among those agencies. Ensuring the Quality, Credibility, and Relevance of U.S. Justice Statistics examines the full range of BJS programs and suggests priorities for data collection. BJS's data collection portfolio is a solid body of work, well justified by public information needs or legal requirements and a commendable effort to meet its broad mandate given less-than-commensurate fiscal resources. The book identifies some major gaps in the substantive coverage of BJS data, but notes that filling those gaps would require increased and sustained support in terms of staff and fiscal resources. In suggesting strategic goals for BJS, the book argues that the bureau's foremost goal should be to establish and maintain a strong position of independence. To avoid structural or political interference in BJS work, the report suggests changing the administrative placement of BJS within the Justice Department and making the BJS directorship a fixed-term appointment. In its thirtieth year, BJS can look back on a solid body of accomplishment; this book suggests further directions for improvement to give the nation the justice statistics -- and the BJS -- that it deserves
Understanding crime trends : workshop report by Committee on Understanding Crime Trends( )

2 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 1,413 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Changes over time in the levels and patterns of crime have significant consequences that affect not only the criminal justice system but also other critical policy sectors. Yet compared with such areas as health status, housing, and employment, the nation lacks timely information and comprehensive research on crime trends.<br /> Descriptive information and explanatory research on crime trends across the nation that are not only accurate, but also timely, are pressing needs in the nation's crime-control efforts. <br /> <br /> In April 2007, the National Research Council held a two-day workshop to address key substantive and methodological issues underlying the study of crime trends and to lay the groundwork for a proposed multiyear NRC panel study of these issues. Six papers were commissioned from leading researchers and discussed at the workshop by experts in sociology, criminology, law, economics, and statistics. The authors revised their papers based on the discussants' comments, and the papers were then reviewed again externally. The six final workshop papers are the basis of this volume, which represents some of the most serious thinking and research on crime trends currently available.<br />
Implementing juvenile justice reform : the federal role by National Research Council (U.S.)( )

3 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 1,045 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"In the past decade, a number of state, local, and tribal jurisdictions have begun to take significant steps to overhaul their juvenile justice systems - for example, reducing the use of juvenile detention and out-of-home placement, bringing greater attention to racial and ethnic disparities, looking for ways to engage affected families in the process, and raising the age at which juvenile court jurisdiction ends. These changes are the result of heightening awareness of the ineffectiveness of punitive practices and accumulating knowledge about adolescent development. Momentum for reform is growing. However, many more state, local, and tribal jurisdictions need assistance, and practitioners in the juvenile justice field are looking for guidance from the federal government, particularly from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) in the Department of Justice. Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform identifies and prioritizes strategies and policies to effectively facilitate reform of the juvenile justice system and develop an implementation plan for OJJDP. Based on the 2013 report Reforming Juvenile Justice, this report is designed to provide specific guidance to OJJDP regarding the steps that it should take, both internally and externally, to facilitate juvenile justice reform grounded in knowledge about adolescent development. The report identifies seven hallmarks of a developmental approach to juvenile justice to guide system reform: accountability without criminalization, alternatives to justice system involvement, individualized response based on needs and risks, confinement only when necessary for public safety, genuine commitment to fairness, sensitivity to disparate treatment, and family engagement. Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform outlines how these hallmarks should be incorporated into policies and practices within OJJDP, as well as in actions extended to state, local, and tribal jurisdictions to achieve the goals of the juvenile justice system through a developmentally informed approach. This report sets forth a detailed and prioritized strategic plan for the federal government to support and facilitate developmentally oriented juvenile justice reform. The pivotal component of the plan is to strengthen the role, capacity, and commitment of OJJDP, the lead federal agency in the field. By carrying out the recommendations of Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform, the federal government will both reaffirm and advance the promise of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act."--Publisher's description
Identifying the culprit : assessing eyewitness identification by National Research Council (U.S.)( )

8 editions published between 2014 and 2015 in English and held by 1,036 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Eyewitnesses play an important role in criminal cases when they can identify culprits. Estimates suggest that tens of thousands of eyewitnesses make identifications in criminal investigations each year. Research on factors that affect the accuracy of eyewitness identification procedures has given us an increasingly clear picture of how identifications are made, and more importantly, an improved understanding of the principled limits on vision and memory that can lead to failure of identification. Factors such as viewing conditions, duress, elevated emotions, and biases influence the visual perception experience. Perceptual experiences are stored by a system of memory that is highly malleable and continuously evolving, neither retaining nor divulging content in an informational vacuum. As such, the fidelity of our memories to actual events may be compromised by many factors at all stages of processing, from encoding to storage and retrieval. Unknown to the individual, memories are forgotten, reconstructed, updated, and distorted. Complicating the process further, policies governing law enforcement procedures for conducting and recording identifications are not standard, and policies and practices to address the issue of misidentification vary widely. These limitations can produce mistaken identifications with significant consequences. What can we do to make certain that eyewitness identification convicts the guilty and exonerates the innocent? Identifying the Culprit makes the case that better data collection and research on eyewitness identification, new law enforcement training protocols, standardized procedures for administering line-ups, and improvements in the handling of eyewitness identification in court can increase the chances that accurate identifications are made. This report explains the science that has emerged during the past 30 years on eyewitness identifications and identifies best practices in eyewitness procedures for the law enforcement community and in the presentation of eyewitness evidence in the courtroom. In order to continue the advancement of eyewitness identification research, the report recommends a focused research agenda. Identifying the Culprit will be an essential resource to assist the law enforcement and legal communities as they seek to understand the value and the limitations of eyewitness identification and make improvements to procedures."--Publisher's description
Reforming juvenile justice : a developmental approach by Richard J Bonnie( )

3 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 1,000 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Overview: Adolescence is a distinct, yet transient, period of development between childhood and adulthood characterized by increased experimentation and risk-taking, a tendency to discount long-term consequences, and heightened sensitivity to peers and other social influences. A key function of adolescence is developing an integrated sense of self, including individualization, separation from parents, and personal identity. Experimentation and novelty-seeking behavior, such as alcohol and drug use, unsafe sex, and reckless driving, are thought to serve a number of adaptive functions despite their risks. Research indicates that for most youth, the period of risky experimentation does not extend beyond adolescence, ceasing as identity becomes settled with maturity. Much adolescent involvement in criminal activity is part of the normal developmental process of identity formation and most adolescents will mature out of these tendencies. Evidence of significant changes in brain structure and function during adolescence strongly suggests that these cognitive tendencies characteristic of adolescents are associated with biological immaturity of the brain and with an imbalance among developing brain systems. This imbalance model implies dual systems: one involved in cognitive and behavioral control and one involved in socio-emotional processes. Accordingly adolescents lack mature capacity for self-regulations because the brain system that influences pleasure-seeking and emotional reactivity develops more rapidly than the brain system that supports self-control. This knowledge of adolescent development has underscored important differences between adults and adolescents with direct bearing on the design and operation of the justice system, raising doubts about the core assumptions driving the criminalization of juvenile justice policy in the late decades of the 20th century. It was in this context that the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) asked the National Research Council to convene a committee to conduct a study of juvenile justice reform. The goal of Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach was to review recent advances in behavioral and neuroscience research and draw out the implications of this knowledge for juvenile justice reform, to assess the new generation of reform activities occurring in the United States, and to assess the performance of OJJDP in carrying out its statutory mission as well as its potential role in supporting scientifically based reform efforts
Deterrence and the death penalty by Charles F Manski( )

4 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 802 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

1. Introduction -- 2. Capital punishment in the Post-Gregg era -- 3. Determining the deterrent effect of capital punishment: key issues -- 4. Panel studies -- 5. Time-series studies -- 6. Challenges to identifying deterrent effects
Parole, desistance from crime, and community integration by National Research Council (U.S.)( )

3 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 783 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Every day, about 1,600 people are released from prisons in the United States. Of these 600,000 new releasees every year, about 480,000 are subject to parole or some other kind of post release supervision. Prison releasees represent a challenge, both to themselves and to the communities to which they return. Will the releasees see parole as an opportunity to be reintegrated into society, with jobs and homes and supportive families and friends? Or will they commit new crimes or violate the terms of their parole contracts? If so, will they be returned to prison or placed under more stringent community supervision? Will the communities to which they return see them as people to be reintegrated or people to be avoided? And, the institution of parole itself is challenged with three different functions: to facilitate reintegration for parolees who are ready for rehabilitation; to deter crime; and to apprehend those parolees who commit new crimes and return them to prison. In recent decades, policy makers, researchers, and program administrators have focused almost exclusively on "recidivism," which is essentially the failure of releasees to refrain from crime or stay out of prison. In contrast, for this study the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) of the U.S. Department of Justice asked the National Research Council to focus on "desistance," which broadly covers continued absence of criminal activity and requires reintegration into society. Specifically, the committee was asked (1) to consider the current state of parole practices, new and emerging models of community supervision, and what is necessary for successful reentry and (2) to provide a research agenda on the effects of community supervision on desistance from criminal activity, adherence to conditions of parole, and successful reentry into the community. To carry out its charge, the committee organized and held a workshop focused on traditional and new models of community supervision, the empirical underpinnings of such models, and the infrastructure necessary to support successful reentry. Parole, Desistance from Crime, and Community Integration also reviews the literature on desistance from crime, community supervision, and the evaluation research on selected types of intervention"--Publisher's description
Understanding the U.S. illicit tobacco market : characteristics, policy context, and lessons from international experiences by Peter Reuter( )

3 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 782 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Tobacco use has declined because of measures such as high taxes on tobacco products and bans on advertising, but worldwide there are still more than one billion people who regularly use tobacco, including many who purchase products illicitly. By contrast to many other commodities, taxes comprise a substantial portion of the retail price of cigarettes in the United States and most other nations. Large tax differentials between jurisdictions increase incentives for participation in existing illicit tobacco markets. In the United States, the illicit tobacco market consists mostly of bootlegging from low-tax states to high-tax states and is less affected by large-scale smuggling or illegal production as in other countries. In the future, nonprice regulation of cigarettes - such as product design, formulation, and packaging - could in principle, contribute to the development of new types of illicit tobacco markets. Understanding the U.S. Illicit Tobacco Market reviews the nature of illicit tobacco markets, evidence for policy effects, and variations among different countries with a focus on implications for the United States. This report estimates the portion of the total U.S. tobacco market represented by illicit sales has grown in recent years and is now between 8.5 percent and 21 percent. This represents between 1.24 to 2.91 billion packs of cigarettes annually and between 2.95 billion and 6.92 billion in lost gross state and local tax revenues. Understanding the U.S. Illicit Tobacco Market describes the complex system associated with illicit tobacco use by exploring some of the key features of that market - the cigarette supply chain, illicit procurement schemes, the major actors in the illicit trade, and the characteristics of users of illicit tobacco. This report draws on domestic and international experiences with the illicit tobacco trade to identify a range of possible policy and enforcement interventions by the U.S. federal government and/or states and localities."--Publisher's description
 
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Advancing the federal research agenda on violence against women
Alternative Names

controlled identityNational Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Law and Justice

Commission on behavioral and social sciences and education

Commission on behavioral and social sciences and education Etats-Unis Committee on law and justice

Committee on Law and Justice.

Committee on Law and Justice Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Committee on Law and Justice (Spojené státy americké)

Committee on Law and Justice (U.S.)

National research council

National Research Council Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Committee on Law and Justice

National Research Council Committee on Law and Justice

National Research Council Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Committee on Law and Justice

National research council Etats-Unis Committee on law and justice

National Research Council (Spojené státy americké). Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Committee on Law and Justice

National Research Council (Spojené státy americké) Committee on Law and Justice

National Research Council (U.S.). Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Committee on Law and Justice

National Research Council (U.S.) Committee on Law and Justice

National Research Council (U.S.). Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Committee on Law and Justice

National Research Council (Waszyngton). Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Committee on Law and Justice.

National Research Council (Waszyngton). Division od Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Committee on Law and Justice.

Languages
English (83)

Covers
Deadly lessons : understanding lethal school violence : case studies of School Violence CommitteePathological gambling : a critical reviewFirearms and violence : a critical reviewAdvancing the federal research agenda on violence against womenViolence in urban America : mobilizing a response : summary of a conferenceInforming America's policy on illegal drugs : what we don't know keeps hurting usTransnational organized crime : summary of a workshopImproving evaluation of anticrime programs