WorldCat Identities

Pavan, Barbara Nelson

Overview
Works: 34 works in 46 publications in 1 language and 533 library holdings
Genres: Abstracts  Case studies 
Roles: Author
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Barbara Nelson Pavan
Nongradedness : helping it to happen by Robert Henry Anderson( Book )

7 editions published between 1993 and 2012 in English and held by 441 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Discusses the need, theory, and specifics for the creation or improvement of a nongraded school
The Nongraded school( Visual )

1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 26 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Anderson and Pavan discuss the findings of their lengthy and ambitious study of nongraded schools
Moving elementary schools toward nongradedness : commitment, assessment, and tactics by Barbara Nelson Pavan( )

4 editions published between 1972 and 1974 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The nongraded school by Robert Henry Anderson( Visual )

1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Lowell Rose interviews educators and authors Robert H. Anderson and Barbara Nelson Pavan who discuss the findings of their lengthy and ambitious study of nongraded schools
Reflections of Female School Administrators Regarding Their Careers by Barbara Nelson Pavan( Book )

2 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To obtain information from female school administrators about their career paths, mentoring, external barriers and strategies used to overcome them, and differences in attitude toward their careers since 5 years ago, 18 of 26 Pennsylvania administrators selected from a total population of 93 were interviewed. The women tended to follow staff rather than line career paths and remained in the classroom longer than men. Mentoring occurred as frequently with women as with men. External barriers tended to be systemic and closely tied to sex-stereotyping. Strategies used to overcome these barriers included determination, open communication, and patience. Twelve of the women reported a change in attitude regarding future growth and development over a 5-year time period. Issues discussed are illustrated by numerous personal accounts, and a table is used to identify respondents by position and geographic location. (23 references) (ejs)
Certified But Not Hired Women Administrators in Pennsylvania by Barbara Nelson Pavan( Book )

1 edition published in 1985 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this study, the percentage of certificates issued and jobs held by women in Pennsylvania from 1970 through 1984 for the positions of superintendent, assistant superintendent, secondary principal, and elementary principal were compared. Findings reveal that the percentage of women being certified each year is increasing in much greater proportion than the percentage of women who actually hold positions at each administrative level. Data on the number of withdrawals from each position indicate numerous opportunities for the hiring of women. If, during the past 15 years, a certified woman had been hired whenever a position became available, 73 percent of the administrative jobs would now be held by women. Yet the latest data available show that only 3.3 percent of superintendents, 7.6 percent of assistant superintendents, 3.5 percent of secondary principals, and 16.9 percent of elementary principals are women. Possible reasons for this disparity include differences in aspiration levels of men and women and internal or external barriers to achieving administrative positions. Strategies for overcoming these barriers are discussed. References are included, along with statistical tables and charts. (Author/TE)
Gender Differences in the Career Paths of Aspiring and Incumbent Educational Administrators by Barbara Nelson Pavan( Book )

1 edition published in 1990 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A study was undertaken to investigate gender differences in the career paths of aspirant and incumbent certificate holders for line positions within educational administration. In October 1985, 1,338 Pennsylvania certificate holders were mailed a 4-page survey probing the areas of career pathways, job search strategies, time usage, mentor's functions, and barriers experienced. The 622 respondents included 205 male incumbents, 173 male aspirants, 93 female incumbents, and 151 female aspirants. The results indicate that two-thirds of the female certificate holders were channeled into staff positions where their performance is directed by line officers. These women's contributions may remain largely unrecognized or undervalued because organizations tend to recognized only overall goal accomplishment which is typically attributed to the line officer. While the men in this study served 2.5 years longer than the women in terms of their educational experience, the men had gained 4 years by the time they attained their first administrative position. These findings cannot be attributed to either an unwillingness of women to move or to extended absences due to female parental obligations; it is apparent that administrators must reexamine their promotion policies and attitudes to determine whether opportunities for women to assume line positions are being provided. Tables indicating the quantitative results of the survey are included. (23 references) (km)
Writing of Teaching Cases by Students Integrating Practice and Administrative Theory by Barbara Nelson Pavan( Book )

1 edition published in 1996 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper describes the writing of teaching cases by students to help them understand and use multiple theoretical frames for practical decision making. It describes a doctoral level course called "Theoretical Perspectives" and the doctoral program at Temple University's Department of Educational Leadership. Students are required to study the cases before class sessions and share their analyses and action plans during the class discussion. One of the students' term assignments is to write their own teaching case. A survey of students indicate that most viewed the case-study approach positively and reported that they learned to value the usefulness of theory in practical situations. (Contains 21 references.) (LMI)
Hunter's Clinical Supervision and Instruction Models Research in Schools Utilizing Comparative Measures by Barbara Nelson Pavan( Book )

1 edition published in 1985 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To many people, the term "clinical supervision" now means the Hunter Model, which involves monitoring of teachers' classroom behavior for usage of Hunter's essential elements of instruction, feedback of these results, reinforcement of desired practice, and a prescription for remediation of teachers' performance. In contrast, the Goldhammer-Cogan clinical supervision model involves the teacher in a collaborative process whereby both teacher and supervisor decide on observation objectives and changes in the teacher's classroom behavior following discussion of classroom observational data. Research relating to the implementation and results of these two models indicates that they are very different. This paper reviews that research in terms of: (1) effects of training; (2) model usage by administrators and teachers; (3) the relationship of clinical supervision to student academic achievement; (4) model implementation; and (5) model costs. (CB)
Gender Differences in the Career Paths of Educational Administrators in Pennsylvania by Barbara Nelson Pavan( Book )

1 edition published in 1988 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study explored possible gender differences between the career paths of incumbent educational administrators holding the positions of superintendent, assistant superintendent, secondary principal, and elementary principal. Study data had been obtained from an earlier comprehensive survey of 622 incumbent and aspiring Pennsylvania administrators. That study explored five areas: career pathways, job search strategies, time usage, mentors and their functions, and barriers experienced with strategies to overcome them. The present study, which did not include aspirants, focused on line versus staff career patterns, the use of leaves, the number of moves among districts, degrees obtained, age at beginning administrative positions, and family characteristics. A majority of respondents pursued a line career path, with men (71 percent) more likely than women (52 percent) to have one. For both the superintendency and the elementary principalship, line paths were followed by men (82 percent) and women (54 percent). Both genders used line paths to reach the secondary principalship. For the assistant superintendency, women followed a staff path (73 percent) and men a line path (54 percent). Results for leaves, district moves, length of teaching service, and age and family characteristics are also discussed. Recommendations for practitioners are provided, including the importance of obtaining line positions, developing employment strategies for females, reviewing hiring and promotion standards and analyzing them for equity, and encouraging support groups. Recommendations for further research are also provided. Included are 14 references and 11 tables. (Mlh)
Eight Years Later Has the Superintendency Changed for Women? by Barbara Nelson Pavan( Book )

1 edition published in 1995 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Despite the passage of affirmative-action legislation over the last 25 years, the percentage of women school superintendents has increased at a very slow pace. This paper compares the results of three separate research studies that examined women superintendents in Pennsylvania. One study was conducted in 1985 and the other two were conducted in 1993. The women superintendents in the studies matched the career aspirations of their male counterparts but put forth greater efforts to obtain their positions. Although the female administrators of 1993 were older, more likely to have a doctorate, more likely to be married, and somewhat more experienced than the 1985 respondents, they shared a strong motivation to make schools a good place for children to learn. In addition, the women had to demonstrate "toughness" and the ability to survive in the male-dominated world of educational administration. A conclusion is that an increased proportion of women administrators is more likely to foster collaboration than competition within the organization. Men have an ethic of justice while women have an ethic of caring or responsibility for others. The increase in women leaders must be accompanied by a change in societal attitudes toward the role of women and the value of nurturing. (LMI)
Schools of thought : current issues in education( Visual )

2 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Nine educators discuss issues that affect education
Mentors and Mentoring Functions Perceived as Helpful to Certified Aspiring and Incumbent Female and Male Public School Administrators by Barbara Nelson Pavan( Book )

1 edition published in 1986 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Women seeking or holding administrative positions in Pennsylvania schools reported having mentors as frequently as men, according to a statewide survey. A questionnaire was sent to 1,324 people holding administrative certificates and currently employed in public schools, and 622 responded. These were divided into 16 subgroups according to the position concerned (elementary principal, secondary principal, assistant superintendent, or superintendent), whether the respondent held the position or was seeking it, and the sex of the respondent. Among the topics addressed in the survey were mentors and mentoring functions. Respondents were asked to identify the sex and role of 3 mentors and to rate these mentors' helpfulness in 21 mentoring areas. Fewer job aspirants than incumbents reported having mentors. Males were mentors in 1,133 pairs and women in 252 pairs. Men served as mentors for women in 434 cases and women for men in 128. Mentors for superintendents were most frequently superintendents, and mentors for all other groups were most frequently principals. Psychosocial rather than career functions were deemed more helpful by both men and women. Since women, both incumbents and aspirants, reported mentoring support, it was difficult to reconcile this with the lack of women in school administrative positions. (Pgd)
School Effectiveness and Nongraded Schools by Barbara Nelson Pavan( Book )

1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Findings from a study that examined the relationship between two educational movements--effective schools and nongradedness--are presented in this paper. Methodology involved: (1) a research review of studies conducted from January 1968 to June 1991 that compared graded and nongraded student performance using standardized objective measures; and (2) the development of a set on nongradedness assumptions by a panel of experts, which was compared to effective schools correlates. Findings indicate that comparisons of graded and nongraded schools using standardized achievement tests continue to favor nongradedness. Nongraded schools also offer improved chances for good mental health, positive school attitudes, academic accomplishment, and benefits to disadvantaged students. In general, the principles of nongradedness offer a holistic approach that focuses more on the classroom, while the correlates of effective schools provide a strategic approach that emphasizes school management. Despite the differences, the two movements are compatible in their shared goal of improving students' performance. The principles of nongradedness use a different language and are more specific. One table outlines the principles of nongradedness. (12 references) (lmi)
Aspiration Levels of Certified Aspiring and Incumbent Female and Male Public School Administrators by Barbara Nelson Pavan( Book )

1 edition published in 1987 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To determine if women or men have lower aspiration levels for school administrative positions, male and female administrative certificate holders were asked for their ultimate career goal. The most frequent response was superintendent (36 percent), followed by elementary principal, out of education, and professor (12 percent for each choice). The next anticipated job was out of education (21 percent), superintendent (17 percent), elementary principal (15 percent), secondary principal (13 percent), and assistant superintendent (12 percent). The ultimate goal would be sought in 4.9 years with the next job move in 2.7 years. The choice of ultimate career goal is influenced by aspirant-incumbent position, possession of a doctorate, age of children, and gender. Gender differences, however, disappear for all but those holding the superintendent certificate, when the analysis is by gender and certificate held. In addition to the variables mentioned thus far, age and marital status also influence choice of the next anticipated position. Implications of the study for assisting women to gain administrative positions are suggested for state departments, universities, school boards, and professional organizations. Two reference pages and appendices of data conclude the report. (Author/CJH)
Building School Cultures in Achieving Urban Elementary Schools The Leadership Behaviors of Principals by Barbara Nelson Pavan( Book )

1 edition published in 1990 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Identification of principals' instructional leadership behaviors and the time they spend involved in the process of school improvement is the purpose of this study. A second focus is on the ways in which principals build school cultures. The Principals Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS) (Hallinger 1983), the National Task-Time Survey (NTTS) (Howell, 1980), and semistructured interviews with principals were used to collect data. The sample included all principals and 151 teachers (97 percent) in the five most effective Chapter I elementary schools participating in a school improvement program. Principals indicated that their most frequent behaviors were related to academic concerns, followed by interactive behaviors, and then by behaviors requiring intensive time commitment. Purkey and Smith's model of four process variables, or culture concepts, necessary to sustain a productive school culture are applied to the principals' reported behaviors. They include collaboration, community, expectations, and order. Findings indicate that most principals have internalized the norm of high expectations for their students and teachers, and were least concerned with behaviors related to maintaining order. Recommendations call for building positive school cultures to promote academic success, and for providing principals with the necessary knowledge and training. The primary focus should be on the development of a sense of community and collaboration, with an understanding of culture concepts. Tables present the statistical results of the three methodologies. (21 references) (LMI)
Principal Change Facilitator Styles and the Implementation of Instructional Support Teams by Barbara Nelson Pavan( Book )

2 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Findings from a study that examined the role of the principal and effects of the principal's change facilitator style (cfs) on the institutionalization of intervention programs are presented in this paper. Subjects were 13 principals involved in Project Link, a Pennsylvania-granted collaborative project to train prereferral child study teams. Questionnaires were administered to 234 teachers in the 13 schools to determine principals' leadership styles in implementing the project. Data were also obtained from assessments of principals by four project consultants and interviews with teachers, team members, and principals during three school visitations during 1989-90. Findings indicate that the five principals classified as initiators scored higher on the informal, meaningful, efficiency, and vision scales, and demonstrated a higher positive correlation with implementation scores. A conclusion is that the informal dimension should be included in the initiator profile to emphasize the "people" dimension of the principal's leadership style. Successful implementation of Project Link depends on team-building and leadership. Three tables and 14 figures are included. (13 references) (lmi)
Searching for Female Leaders for America's Schools Are the Women To Blame? by Barbara Nelson Pavan( Book )

1 edition published in 1989 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In spite of affirmative action efforts, the percentage of female school administrators has barely risen since 1970. When nearly half of the educational administration students are women who are completing both certification and doctoral programs in record numbers, this seems especially puzzling. As it has become more difficult to blame the shortage of women administrators on their unwillingness to earn the necessary credentials, there has been a shift toward blaming women for not applying for the jobs. While all the studies conducted in the 1970s found that men were much more persistent in their job search efforts, the results of studies done in the 1980s indicate a change in that pattern: women were more likely to be making greater job search efforts than men. Additionally, studies revealed that men are twice as likely as women to be preselected for the position of secondary school principal and women reach this administrative position only after much effort. The only administrative job for which women had to make less effort than men was the position of elementary school principal. Women continue to indicate that they are asked illegal questions during the hiring process. In fact, the women perceived more sex discrimination in hiring in recent years. (16 references) (KM)
Clinical Supervision Research in Schools Utilizing Comparative Measures by Barbara Nelson Pavan( Book )

1 edition published in 1985 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An extensive search of the literature on clinical supervision yielded 29 research studies and 3 works in progress. Studies using comparative measures conducted in K-12 school settings with inservice not preservice personnel were selected. These were grouped into four areas: attitudes toward supervision, effects of training, characteristics of school personnel, and student achievement. While many of the studies reported findings that tended to favor clinical supervision over other supervision practices, these findings were generally not statistically significant. The discussion presented issues involving difficulties in findings references and obtaining copies of research studies, the limited scope and methodological problems in the studies, and the design problems inherent in field-based studies. (Author)
Determining the Usages of Clinical Supervision by Barbara Nelson Pavan( Book )

1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Clinical supervision at its best is a collaborative process whereby teacher and observer work together for instructional improvement. The Snyder-Pavan Supervision Practices Questionnaire seeks to obtain a description of the clinical supervision practiced by administrators, supervisors, and teachers. The majority of items are scored five through one for "always" through "never" respectively. The data obtained from the questionnaire are analyzed with descriptive statistics. Five research studies have been conducted in Pennsylvania using the questionnaire with similar results, but further comparisons need to be made. With wider usage, further refinements in the instrument can be made. The instrument provides a tool for diagnosing the level of clinical supervision usage in a school or school district. Data from the instrument would enable the practitioner to determine if further training is needed or desired. Tables provide: an outline of the clinical supervision process; the Snyder-Pavan Clinical Supervision Practices Questionnaire; the questionnaire scoring guide; categories of use; Pavan elements present in "Instructional Improvement through Inquiry"; the concepts of clinical supervision and their respective question clusters; and a comparison of questionnaire items 1-28. (amh)
 
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English (32)