WorldCat Identities

Ljungqvist, Alexander

Works: 58 works in 301 publications in 1 language and 1,956 library holdings
Roles: Author, Other, Editor
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Alexander Ljungqvist
Going public : the theory and evidence on how companies raise equity finance by Tim Jenkinson( Book )

33 editions published between 1996 and 2007 in English and Undetermined and held by 740 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In recent years there has been an enormous amount of research into the way companies raise finance from stock markets. Going Public is the first book to investigate the issues in a non-technical manner, drawing upon international evidence from private sector companies and privatizations
The cash flow, return and risk characterstics of private equity by Alexander Ljungqvist( Book )

12 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 98 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using a unique dataset of private equity funds over the last two decades, this paper analyzes the cash flow, return, and risk characteristics of private equity. We document the draw down and capital return schedules for the typical private equity fund, and show that it takes several years for capital to be invested, and over ten years for capital to be returned to generate excess returns. We provide several determining factors for these schedules, including existing investment opportunities and competition amongst private equity funds. In terms of performance, we document that private equity generates excess returns on the order of five plus percent per annum relative to the aggregate public equity market. One interpretation of this magnitude is that it represents compensation for holding a 10-year illiquid investment
The investment behavior of buyout funds : theory and evidence by Alexander Ljungqvist( )

9 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 65 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper analyzes the determinants of buyout funds' investment decisions. In a model in which the supply of capital is "sticky" in the short run, we link the timing of funds' investment decisions, their risk-taking behavior, and the returns they subsequently earn on their buyouts to changes in the demand for private equity, conditions in the credit market, and funds' ability to influence their perceived talent in the market. Using a proprietary dataset of 207 buyout funds that invested in 2,274 buyout targets over the last two decades, we then investigate the implications of the model. Our dataset contains precisely dated cash inflows and outflows in every portfolio company, links every buyout target to an identifiable buyout fund, and is free from reporting and survivor biases. Thus, we are able to characterize every buyout fund's precise investment choices. Our empirical findings are consistent with the model. First, established funds accelerate their investment flows and earn higher returns when investment opportunities improve, competition for deal flow eases, and credit market conditions loosen. Second, the investment behavior of first-time funds is less sensitive to market conditions. Third, younger funds invest in riskier buyouts, in an effort to establish a track record. Fourth, following periods of good performance, funds become more conservative, and this effect is stronger for younger funds
Liquidity and governance by Kerry Back( )

10 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Is greater trading liquidity good or bad for corporate governance? We address this question both theoretically and empirically. We solve a model consisting of an optimal IPO followed by a dynamic Kyle market in which the large investor's private information concerns her own plans for taking an active role in governance. We show that an increase in the liquidity of the firm's stock increases the likelihood of the large investor 'taking the Wall Street walk.' Thus, higher liquidity is harmful for governance. Empirical tests using three distinct sources of exogenous variation in liquidity confirm the negative relation between liquidity and blockholder activism
Comparing the investment behavior of public and private firms by John Asker( )

6 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We evaluate differences in investment behavior between stock market listed and privately held firms in the U.S. using a rich new data source on private firms. Listed firms invest less and are less responsive to changes in investment opportunities compared to observably similar, matched private firms, especially in industries in which stock prices are particularly sensitive to current earnings. These differences do not appear to be due to unobserved differences between public and private firms, how we measure investment opportunities, lifecycle differences, or our matching criteria. We suggest that the patterns we document are most consistent with theoretical models emphasizing the role of managerial myopia
What is a patent worth? : evidence from the U.S. patent "lottery" by Joan Farre-Mensa( )

5 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 59 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We provide evidence on the value of patents to startups by leveraging the random assignment of applications to examiners with different propensities to grant patents. Using unique data on all first-time applications filed at the U.S. Patent Office since 2001, we find that startups that win the patent "lottery" by drawing lenient examiners have, on average, 55% higher employment growth and 80% higher sales growth five years later. Patent winners also pursue more, and higher quality, follow-on innovation. Winning a first patent boosts a startup's subsequent growth and innovation by facilitating access to funding from VCs, banks, and public investors
As certain as debt and taxes : estimating the tax sensitivity of leverage from exogenous state tax changes by Florian Heider( )

7 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 57 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: We use a natural experiment in the form of staggered changes in corporate income tax rates across U.S. states and time to show that tax considerations are a first-order determinant of firms' capital structure choices. Over the period 1990-2011, firms increase leverage by 114 basis points on average (equivalent to $62.1 million in extra debt) when their home state raises tax rates. Contrary to standard trade-off theory, the tax sensitivity of leverage is asymmetric: Firms do not reduce leverage in response to tax cuts. Using treatment reversals, we find this to be true even within-firm: Tax increases that are later reversed nonetheless lead to permanent increases in a firm's leverage an unexpected and novel form of hysteresis. Our findings are robust to various confounds due to unobserved variation in local business conditions or investment opportunities, union power, or states' political leanings. Treatment effects are heterogeneous, with greater tax sensitivity among profitable and investment-grade firms which have a greater marginal tax benefit and lower marginal cost of issuing debt, respectively
Do measures of financial constraints measure financial constraints? by Joan Farre-Mensa( )

9 editions published between 2013 and 2015 in English and held by 57 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Financial constraints are not directly observable, so empirical research relies on indirect measures. We evaluate how well five popular measures (paying dividends, having a credit rating, and the Kaplan-Zingales, Whited-Wu, and Hadlock-Pierce indices) identify firms that are financially constrained, using three novel tests: an exogenous increase in a firm's demand for credit; exogenous variation in the supply of bank loans; and the tendency for firms to pay out the proceeds of equity issues to their shareholders (“equity recycling”). We find that none of the five measures identifies firms that behave as if they were constrained: public firms classified as constrained have no trouble raising debt when their demand for debt increases, are unaffected by changes in the supply of bank loans, and engage in equity recycling. The point estimates are little different for supposedly constrained and unconstrained firms, even though we find important differences in their characteristics and sources of financing. On the other hand, privately held firms (particularly small ones) and public firms with below investment-grade ratings appear to be financially constrained
How constraining are limits to arbitrage? : evidence from a recent financial innovation by Alexander Ljungqvist( )

6 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 48 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Limits to arbitrage play a central role in behavioral finance. They are thought to interfere with arbitrage processes so that security prices can deviate from true values for extended periods of time. We describe a recent financial innovation that allows limits to arbitrage to be sidestepped, and overvaluation thereby to be corrected, even in settings characterized by extreme costs of information discovery and severe short-sale constraints. We report evidence of shallow-pocketed “arbitrageurs” expending considerable resources to identify overvalued companies and profitably correcting overpricing. The innovation that allows the arbitrageurs to sidestep limits to arbitrage involves credibly revealing their information to the market, in an effort to induce long investors to sell so that prices fall. This simple but apparently effective way around the limits suggests that limits to arbitrage may not always be as constraining as sometimes assumed
State capitalism vs. private enterprise by Donghua Chen( )

8 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 47 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We study the efficiency of internal capital markets at state-controlled and privately owned business groups in China. Using highly granular data on within-group capital flows, we document stark differences: while private groups allocate more capital to units with better investment opportunities, state groups do the opposite. Minority shareholders in state owned firms suffer as a result. Product market competition and external monitoring by outside investors help discipline state groups' tendency to ignore investment opportunities. We conjecture that capital allocations at state groups reflect the private career objectives of their chairmen. We show that promotion depends not on increasing profitability but on avoiding layoffs. Consistent with a career motive, we find that capital allocations are used to prop up large and struggling employers, but only if the chairman has a realistic chance of being promoted and if the cost of self-interested behavior is not too high
The bright side of patents by Joan Farre-Mensa( )

9 editions published between 2015 and 2016 in English and held by 46 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Motivated by concerns that the patent system is hindering innovation, particularly for small inventors, this study investigates the bright side of patents. We examine whether patents help startups grow and succeed using detailed micro data on all patent applications filed by startups at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) since 2001 and approved or rejected before 2014. We leverage the fact that patent applications are assigned quasi-randomly to USPTO examiners and instrument for the probability that an application is approved with individual examiners' historical approval rates. We find that patent approvals help startups create jobs, grow their sales, innovate, and reward their investors. Exogenous delays in the patent examination process significantly reduce firm growth, job creation, and innovation, even when a firm's patent application is eventually approved. Our results suggest that patents act as a catalyst that sets startups on a growth path by facilitating their access to capital. Proposals for patent reform should consider these benefits of patents alongside their alleged costs
Private equity's unintended dark side : on the economic consequences of excessive delistings by Alexander Ljungqvist( )

9 editions published in 2016 in English and held by 45 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Over the past two decades, private equity has contributed to a shrinking of the U.S. stock market. We develop a political economy model of private equity activity to study the wider economic consequences of this trend. We show that private and social incentives to delist firms from the stock market are not always aligned. Private equity firms could inadvertently impose an externality on the economy by reducing citizen-investors' exposure to corporate profits and thus undermining popular support for business-friendly policies. This can lead to long-term reductions in aggregate investment, productivity, and employment
Busy directors : strategic interaction and monitoring synergies by Alexander Ljungqvist( )

6 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 44 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We derive conditions for when having a "busy" director on the board is harmful to shareholders and when it is beneficial. Our model allows directors to condition their monitoring choices on their co-directors' choices and to experience positive or negative monitoring synergies across firms. Whether busyness benefits or harms shareholders depends on whether directors' effort choices are strategic substitutes or complements and on the sign of the cross-firm synergies. Our empirical analysis exploits plausibly exogenous shocks that make directors busier on one board and examines how this spills over to other boards. Our results suggest that monitoring efforts typically are strategic complements, except when a firm finds itself facing a crisis. Consistent with the model, we find that busy directors increase monitoring at spillover firms when synergies are positive (which we show increases expected firm value) and reduce monitoring at spillover firms when synergies are negative (which we show reduces expected firm value)
To cut or not to cut? : on the impact of corporate taxes on employment and income by Alexander Ljungqvist( )

7 editions published between 2014 and 2015 in English and held by 44 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Do corporate tax increases destroy jobs? And do corporate tax cuts boost employment? Answering these questions has proved empirically challenging. We propose an identification strategy that exploits variation in corporate income tax rates across U.S. states. Comparing contiguous counties straddling state borders over the period 1970 to 2010, we find that increases in corporate tax rates lead to significant reductions in employment and income. We find little evidence that corporate tax cuts boost economic activity, unless implemented during recessions when they lead to significant increases in employment and income. Our spatial-discontinuity approach permits a causal interpretation of these findings by both establishing a plausible counterfactual and overcoming biases resulting from the fact that tax changes are often prompted by changes in economic conditions
Sharing risk with the government : on the causal effects of taxes on corporate risk-taking by Alexander Ljungqvist( )

6 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 41 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using a natural experiment in the form of 113 staggered changes in corporate income tax rates across U.S. states, we provide causal evidence on how taxes affect corporate risk-taking decisions. Higher taxes are expected to reduce the expected profit per unit of risk, as the government shares in a firm's upside but not in its downside. Consistent with this prediction, we find that firms respond to tax increases by reducing risk. We find no corresponding sensitivity to tax cuts, suggesting that firms find it easier to reduce risk than to increase it. Tax loss-offset rules moderate firms' sensitivity to taxes by allowing firms to partly share downside risk with the government
Activism, strategic trading, and liquidity by K Back( )

8 editions published between 2016 and 2017 in English and held by 40 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We analyze dynamic trading in an anonymous market by an activist investor who can expend costly effort to affect firm value. We obtain the equilibrium in closed form for a general activism technology, including both binary and continuous outcomes. The optimal continuous trading strategy is independent of the activism technology. Activism, prices, and liquidity are jointly determined in equilibrium. Variation in noise trading volatility can produce either positive or negative effects on both efficiency and liquidity, depending on the activism technology and model parameters, because future effort depends on the realized amount of noise trading. The `lock in' effect emphasized in previous literature (e.g., Maug (1998)) holds only for special forms of the activism technology. Reducing the uncertainty about the activist's position improves market liquidity, but the effect on efficiency depends on the specification of the effort cost function. Variation in the activist's productivity produces a negative cross-sectional relation between efficiency and liquidity as the possibility of more activism exacerbates the risk of adverse selection
On the decision to go public: evidence from privately-held firms by Ekkehart Boehmer( Book )

2 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 39 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Hostile stakes and the role of banks in German corporate governance by Tim Jenkinson( Book )

12 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 34 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Headline underpricing and entrepreneurial wealth losses in IPOS : theory and evidence by Michel A Habib( Book )

11 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 30 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An analysis of shareholder agreements by Gilles Chemla( Book )

9 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 25 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

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Going public : the theory and evidence on how companies raise equity finance
Alternative Names
Alexander Ljungqvist Swedish academic

Ljungqvist, A.

Ljungqvist, Alexander P.

Ljungqvist, Alexandr

English (183)