WorldCat Identities

Arora, Ashish

Works: 86 works in 302 publications in 1 language and 4,716 library holdings
Genres: Case studies  History 
Roles: Author, Editor, Other
Classifications: HD62.37, 338.064
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Ashish Arora
Markets for technology : the economics of innovation and corporate strategy by Ashish Arora( )

25 editions published between 2001 and 2004 in English and held by 1,689 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This book examines the nature and workings of markets for intermediate technological inputs. It looks at how industry structure, the nature of knowledge, and intellectual property rights facilitate the development of technology markets and examines the impact of these markets
Chemicals and long-term economic growth : insights from the chemical industry by Ashish Arora( )

11 editions published between 1998 and 2001 in English and held by 1,013 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

With economic and managerial insights supported by specific real-world examples, this book shows how the development of the chemical industry can provide insights for achieving and sustaining economic growth. Scientists and business leaders in the chemical industry and many other technological fields, and economists generally, may benefit from the history and analysis presented in this book. This book examines the role of science, innovation, technology, and organization in creating economic growth and profits; chemical industry growth in Germany, Britain, the United States, and Japan, including an analysis of relative strengths and weaknesses; the impact of macroeconomics, legal and financial institutions, corporate finance, and other policies and institutions on the behavior of chemical companies; and the principle of comparative advantage - why certain industries excel in certain areas
From underdogs to tigers : the rise and growth of the software industry in Brazil, China, India, Ireland, and Israel by Ashish Arora( )

31 editions published between 2005 and 2007 in English and Undetermined and held by 720 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"In 1980 the Indian software industry was practically non-existent. By the 1990s the industry was one of the largest employers in manufacturing. Similar patterns of growth can be found in other emerging economies. Since the software industry is commonly viewed as a high-tech industry, how is it that such spectacular growth has occurred in countries where high-tech industries would not seem likely to develop?" "This book examines the reasons behind this growth, and asks whether the software industry in emerging economies points to a new model of economic development. It explores the lessons the rise of these newcomers hold about industrial development and economic growth, and the role of human capital and firm capabilities in that process."--Jacket
Quality certification and the economics of contract software development : a study of the Indian software industry by Ashish Arora( Book )

15 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 116 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A significant amount of software development is being outsourced to countries such as India. Many Indian software firms have applied for and received quality certifications like the ISO9001, and the number of quality certified software firms has steadily increased. Despite its growing popularity among Indian software developers, there is very little systematic evidence on the relationship of ISO certification to organizational performance. Using data on 95 Indian software firms and their US clients, we develop a stylized model of a firm that develops software for others to articulate the different ways in which ISO certification can affect firm profits. We conclude that ISO certification enhances firm growth. The results provide partial support for the proposition that ISO certification also enhances revenue for a given size, suggesting that firms are receiving a higher price per unit of output. In turn, this is consistent with the notion that ISO certification also enhances the quality of output. Our field studies confirm that although most firms see ISO certification as a marketing ploy, some of them do proceed to institute more systematic and better-defined processes for software development
The globalization of the software industry : perspectives and opportunities for developed and developing countries by Ashish Arora( )

11 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 94 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The spectacular growth of the software industry in some non-G7 economies has aroused both interest and concern. This paper addresses two sets of inter-related issues. First, we explore the determinants of these successful stories. We then touch upon the broader question of what lessons, if any, can be drawn from for economic development more generally. Finally, examining the long term implications of offshoring of software, we conclude that it is unlikely to pose a long term threat to American technological leadership. Instead, the U.S. economy will broadly benefit from the growth of new software producing regions. The U.S. technological leadership rests in part upon the continued position of the U.S. as the primary destination for highly trained and skilled scientists and engineers from the world over. Though this is likely to persist for some time the increasing attractiveness of foreign emerging economy destinations is a long-term concern for continued U.S. technological leadership
R & D and the patent premium by Ashish Arora( Book )

11 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 82 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We analyze the effect of patenting on R & D with a model linking a firm's R & D effort with its decision to patent, recognizing that R & D and patenting affect one another and are both driven by many of the same factors. Using survey data for the U.S. manufacturing sector, we estimate the increment to the value of an innovation realized by patenting it, and then analyze the effect on R & D of changing that premium. Although patent protection is found to provide a positive premium on average in only a few industries, our results also imply that it stimulates R & D across almost all manufacturing industries, with the magnitude of that effect varying substantially
Managing licensing in a market for technology by Ashish Arora( )

11 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 75 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Over the last decade, companies have paid greater attention to the management of their intellectual assets. We build a model that helps understand how licensing activity should be organized within large corporations. More specifically, we compare decentralization - where the business unit using the technology makes licensing decisions - to centralized licensing. The business unit has superior information about licensing opportunities but may not have the appropriate incentives because its rewards depend upon product market performance. If licensing is decentralized, the business unit forgoes valuable licensing opportunities since the rewards for licensing are (optimally) weaker than those for product market profits. This distortion is stronger when production-based incentives are more powerful, making centralization more attractive. Growth of technology markets favors centralization and drives higher licensing rates. Our model conforms to the existing evidence that reports heterogeneity across firms in both licensing propensity and organization of licensing
Securing their future? : entry and survival in the information security industry by Ashish Arora( )

10 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 74 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this paper we study how the existence of a functioning market for technology differentially conditions the entry strategy and survival of different types of entrants, and the role of scale, marketing ability and technical assets. Markets for technology facilitate entry of firms that lack proprietary technology and increase vertical specialization. However, they also increase the relative advantage of downstream capabilities, which is reflected in the relatively improved performance of incumbent Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) firms compared to startups. We find that diversifying entrants perform better relative to startups. Contrary to earlier studies, we find that spin-offs do not perform any better than other startups. Moreover, firms founded by serious hobbyists and tinkerers, whom we call hackers, perform markedly better than other startups. These findings reflect the non-manufacturing setting of this study, as well as the distinctive nature of software technology
Human capital and the Indian software industry by Ashish Arora( )

7 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Though previous studies have noted the role of skilled labor in the growth of the Indian software industry, they have not empirically investigated its importance. In this study we study the effect of the supply of engineers, measured by engineering baccalaureate capacity, on the regional growth of the software exports between 1990 and 2003. We find significant effect of engineering baccalaureate capacity on the growth of software exports even after controlling for other relevant factors. This conclusion is especially interesting because much of this capacity is due to private, rather than publicly supported colleges, and testifies to the private willingness to invest in human capital even in poor countries
Going soft : how the rise of software based innovation led to the decline of Japan's IT industry and the resurgence of Silicon Valley by Ashish Arora( )

8 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in English and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper documents a shift in the nature of innovation in the information technology (IT) industry. Using comprehensive data on all IT patents granted by the USPTO from 1980-2002, we find strong evidence of a change in IT innovation that is systematic, substantial, and increasingly dependent on software. This change in the nature of IT innovation has had differential effects on the performance of the IT industries in the United States and Japan. Using a broad unbalanced panel of US and Japanese publicly listed IT firms in the period 1983-1999, we show that (a) Japanese IT innovation relies less on software advances than US IT innovation, (b) the innovation performance of Japanese IT firms is increasingly lagging behind that of their US counterparts, particularly in IT sectors that are more software intensive, and (c) that US IT firms are increasingly outperforming their Japanese counterparts, particularly in more software intensive sectors. The findings of this paper thus provide a fresh explanation for the relative decline of the Japanese IT industry in the 1990s. Finally, we provide suggestive evidence consistent with the hypothesis that human resource constraints played a role in preventing Japanese firms from adapting to the shift in the nature of innovation in IT
Reversed citations and the localization of knowledge spillovers by Ashish Arora( )

6 editions published between 2017 and 2018 in English and held by 67 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract Spillover of knowledge is considered to be an important cause of agglomeration of inventive activity. Many studies argue that knowledge spillovers are localized based on the observation that patents tend to cite nearby patents disproportionately. Specifically, patent citations are typically interpreted as marking the transmission of knowledge from the cited invention to the citing invention. The localization of patent citations is therefore taken as evidence that such knowledge transmission is also localized. Localization of knowledge transmission, however, may not be the only reason that patent citations are localized. Using a set of citations that are unlikely to be associated with knowledge transmission from the cited to the citing invention, we present evidence that challenges the view that localization of citations is driven by localized knowledge transmission. While we are silent on the question of whether knowledge transmission is localized, to the extent that such localization exists, we argue that it is unlikely to be captured by patent citations
Back to basics : why do firms invest in research? by Ashish Arora( )

5 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 67 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

If scientific knowledge is a public good, why do firms invest in research? This paper revisits this question with new data on patent citations to corporate scientific publications. Using data on 4,736 firms for the period 1980-2006, we explore the relationship between the use of corporate research in invention and the output of corporate scientific publications. Our principal contribution is to document that corporate investment in research is closely related to its use in invention. Specifically, firms that build on their scientific publications in their inventive activity invest more in research than those that are less successful in using their research internally. Consistent with this, research that is internally used is valued more and is more productive
Cash-out or flame-out! opportunity cost and entrepreneurial strategy : theory, and evidence from the information security industry by Ashish Arora( )

9 editions published between 2009 and 2010 in English and held by 64 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We analyze how entrepreneurial opportunity cost conditions performance. We depart from the literature on entrepreneurship which identifies survival with performance. Instead, many entrepreneurs aim for a cash-out (IPO or acquisition), especially in innovation based industries. Striving for a cash-out makes mistakes more likely and increases the probability of failure. High opportunity cost entrepreneurs will attempt to cash-out (IPO or friendly acquisition) quickly, even if it implies a higher risk of failure. Entrepreneurs with fewer outside alternatives may tend to linger on longer. We formalize this intuition with a simple model. Using a novel dataset of information security startups we find that entrepreneurs with high opportunity costs are not only more likely to cash-out but they are also more likely to fail. As well, our results confirm the predicted role of venture quality in conditioning the relationship between entrepreneurial opportunity cost and entrepreneurial performance
Implications for energy innovation from the chemical industry by Ashish Arora( )

8 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 63 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The history of innovation in the chemical industry offers many insights for accelerating energy innovation. In this chapter, we begin by laying out the early history of the chemical industry for an overview of the role innovation has played in its development. We then explore three noteworthy historical experiences. We describe the switch in feedstocks from coal to oil, and briefly analyze two government programs that have attempted to promote innovation: synthetic rubber and synfuels. We take a close look at the role that specialized engineering firms have played in the diffusion of important innovations, and we detail the effect that government policies have had on fostering innovation. In particular, we highlight the role of anti-trust policies, and of policies for protecting intellectual property rights
The organization of R & D in American corporations : the determinants and consequences of decentralization by Ashish Arora( )

5 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We study the relationship between decentralization of R & D, innovation and firm performance using a novel dataset on the organizational structure of 1,290 American publicly-listed corporations, 2,615 of their affiliate firms, as well as characteristics of 594,903 patents that they hold. We explore the tension between centralization and decentralization of R & D, which trades off between responsiveness to immediate and local business needs and the type of research that can benefit the firm as a whole. To do this, we develop two novel measures of decentralization. First, using intra-firm patent assignments, we distinguish between patents that are assigned to the inventing unit rather than to corporate headquarters. Second, we exploit the variation between firms which posses a central corporate R & D labs and those that do not. We find that centralized R & D tends be more scientific, broader in scope, and have more technical impact, while being more likely in firms that operate within a narrower range of businesses, in complex technologies, or that are less reliant upon acquisitions. Additionally, we find that firms with a more decentralized structure, on average, invest less in R & D, generate fewer patents per R & D, and exhibit greater sales growth and higher market value. We discuss several theories that can explain these relationships, as well as potential avenues for future research
The acquisition and commercialization of invention in American manufacturing : incidence and impact by Ashish Arora( )

5 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 51 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper reports on a recent survey of over 6000 American manufacturing and service sector firms on the extent to which innovators rely upon external sources of invention. Our results indicate that, between 2007 and 2009, 18% of manufacturing firms had innovated – meaning had introduced a product that was new to the market. Of these, 49% report that their most important new product had originated from an outside source, notably customers, suppliers and technology specialists. We also estimate the contribution of each source to innovation in the US economy. Although customers are the most frequent outside source, inventions acquired from customers tend to be economically less significant than those from technology specialists. As a group, external sources of invention make a significant contribution to the overall rate of innovation in the economy. Indeed, results from a multinomial logit model suggest that, were the outside availability of innovation to be removed, the percentage of innovating firms in the U.S. manufacturing sector would drop from 18% to 10%
Killing the golden goose? : the decline of science in corporate R & D by Ashish Arora( )

6 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 49 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Scientific knowledge is believed to be the wellspring of innovation. Historically, firms have also invested in research to fuel innovation and growth. In this paper, we document a shift away from scientific research by large corporations between 1980 and 2007. We find that publications by company scientists have declined over time in a range of industries. We also find that the value attributable to scientific research has dropped, whereas the value attributable to technical knowledge (as measured by patents) has remained stable. These effects appear to be associated with globalization and narrower firm scope, rather than changes in publication practices or a decline in the usefulness of science as an input into innovation. Large firms appear to value the golden eggs of science (as reflected in patents) but not the golden goose itself (the scientific capabilities). These findings have important implications for both public policy and management
Waiting for the payday? : the market for startups and the timing of entrepreneurial exit by Ashish Arora( )

7 editions published in 2018 in English and held by 36 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Most technology startups are set up for exit through acquisition by large corporations. In choosing when to sell, startups face a tradeoff. Early acquisition reduces execution errors but later acquisition improves the likelihood of finding a better match since in the early market, there are fewer buyers because early acquisition requires costly absorptive capacity. Moreover, the buyer's decision to invest in absorptive capacity is related to the startup's decision about the timing of the exit sale. In this paper, we build a model to capture this complexity and the related tradeoffs. We find that the early market for startups is inefficiently thin if the timing of exit is a strategic choice, i.e. startups have to commit to whether to exit early or late. Too few startups are sold early, and too few buyers invest in absorptive capacity. Paradoxically, venture capital aggravates the inefficiency. However, if the timing of exit is a tactical choice, i.e. startups can choose to go late after observing the early offers, there are too many early acquisitions and too much investment in absorptive capacity by incumbents
Inventive Capabilities in the Division of Innovative Labor by Ashish Arora( )

4 editions published in 2018 in English and held by 29 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We study how the inventive capability of a firm conditions its participation in a division of innovative labor. Capable firms are, by definition, able to invent; for them, external inventions substitute for their own R&D. However, external knowledge is an input into internal invention, and thus, more valuable to firms with inventive capability. Using a simple model of innovation and imitation, we explore how inventive capability affects a firm's R&D investments, and thus whether and how it innovates, imitates, or does neither. Further, we study how these outcomes are conditioned by the supply of external knowledge as well as the supply of external inventions. In an advance over the literature, we treat firm inventive capability as unobserved, and use a latent class multinomial model to infer its value. Using a recent survey of product innovation and the division of innovative labor among US manufacturing firms, we find that high capability firms tend to use internal, rather than externally generated inventions, to innovate, and they use external knowledge to enhance their internal inventive activity. By contrast, lower capability firms are more likely to introduce "me-too" or imitative products, and when they innovate, are more likely to rely on external sources of inventions. Our findings suggest the successful pursuit of R&D-led growth depends both on firm inventive capability and the external knowledge environment
Licensing the market for technology by Ashish Arora( Book )

8 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 27 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

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Audience level: 0.26 (from 0.07 for Markets fo ... to 0.82 for Licensing ...)

Markets for technology : the economics of innovation and corporate strategy
Chemicals and long-term economic growth : insights from the chemical industryFrom underdogs to tigers : the rise and growth of the software industry in Brazil, China, India, Ireland, and Israel
Alternative Names
Arora, A.

Ashish Arora

ashish arora onderzoeker

English (202)