WorldCat Identities

Krishna, Pravin

Overview
Works: 37 works in 234 publications in 2 languages and 5,173 library holdings
Genres: History 
Roles: Author, Editor, Other
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Pravin Krishna
Trading blocs : alternative approaches to analyzing preferential trade agreements by Jagdish N Bhagwati( )

13 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 2,143 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The recent proliferation of free trade areas and customs unions in the world trading system has led to an explosive revival of interest in the economic analysis of Preferential Trade Arrangements (PTAs). The principal theoretical question of the 1950s and 1960s (Viner) was whether PTAs would create or divert trade, causing welfare improvement or loss. The principal theoretical question (Bhagwati) of the late 1980s and 1990s has been whether PTAs encourage or discourage the worldwide nondiscriminatory freeing of trade. The essays in this volume present the central contributions to the analytical approaches developed to examine these questions
Trade blocs : economics and politics by Pravin Krishna( )

19 editions published between 2005 and 2010 in English and held by 873 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Pravin Krishna investigates the economics and politics of preferential trade agreements in the multilateral trade system
Income Risk, Income Mobility and Welfare by Tom Krebs( )

19 editions published between 2012 and 2017 in 3 languages and held by 438 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper develops a framework for the quantitative analysis of individual income dynamics, mobility and welfare. Individual income is assumed to follow a stochastic process with two (unobserved) components, an i.i.d. component representing measurement error or transitory income shocks and an AR(1) component representing persistent changes in income. We use a tractable consumption-saving model with labor income risk and incomplete markets to relate income dynamics to consumption and welfare, and derive analytical expressions for income mobility and welfare as a function of the various parameters of the underlying income process. The empirical application of our framework using data on individual incomes from Mexico provides striking results. Much of measured income mobility is driven by measurement error or transitory income shocks and therefore (almost) welfare-neutral. A smaller part of measured income mobility is due to either welfare-reducing income risk or welfare-enhancing catching-up of low-income individuals with high-income individuals, both of which have economically significant effects on social welfare. Decomposing mobility into its fundamental components is thus seen to be crucial from the standpoint of welfare evaluation. -- income mobility ; labor market risk ; social welfare
The world trade system : trends and challenges by Jagdish N Bhagwati( Book )

12 editions published between 2016 and 2017 in English and held by 291 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The world trade system : trends and challenges / Jagdish Bhagwati, Pravin Krishna and Arvind Panagariya -- Issues in trade policy -- Border tax equalization / Steve Charnovitz -- Trade, poverty and inequality / Devashish Mitra -- Dispute settlement : the influence of preferential trade agreements on litigation between trading partners / Petros Mavroidis and Andre Sapir -- Anti-dumping provisions within preferential trade agreements / Tom Prusa -- The wto trade facilitation agreement : milestone, mirage, or mistake? / Bernard Hoekman -- Agriculture : food security and trade liberalization / Stefan Tangermann -- Regional perspectives -- Trans Pacific Partnership : perspectives from China / Mary Lovely and Dimitar Gueorguiev -- Trans Atlantic Free trade : the view from Germany / Gabriel Felbermayr -- Administered protection in the eu : implications for TTIP / Jonas Kasteng
Trade policy, income risk, and welfare by Tom Krebs( )

20 editions published between 2004 and 2012 in English and Undetermined and held by 217 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This paper studies empirically the relationship between trade policy and individual income risk faced by workers, and uses the estimates of this empirical analysis to evaluate the welfare effect of trade reform. The analysis proceeds in three steps. First, longitudinal data on workers are used to estimate time-varying individual income risk parameters in various manufacturing sectors. Second, the estimated income risk parameters and data on trade barriers are used to analyze the relationship between trade policy and income risk. Finally, a simple dynamic incomplete-market model is used to assess the corresponding welfare costs. In the implementation of this methodology using Mexican data, we find that trade policy changes have a significant short run effect on income risk. Further, while the tariff level has an insignificant mean effect, it nevertheless changes the degree to which macroeconomic shocks affect income risk"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Human capital, trade liberalization, and income risk by Tom Krebs( )

9 editions published between 2007 and 2012 in English and Undetermined and held by 130 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using data from Mexico, the authors study empirically the link between trade policy and individual income risk and the extent to which this varies across workers of different human capital (education) levels. They use longitudinal income data on workers to estimate time-varying individual income risk parameters in different manufacturing sectors in Mexico between 1987 and 1998, a period in which the Mexican economy experienced substantial changes in trade policy. In a second step, they use the variations in trade policy across different sectors and over time to estimate the link between trade policy and income risk for workers of varying education levels. The authors' findings are as follows. The level of openness of an economy is not found to be related to income risk for workers of any type. Furthermore, changes in trade policy (that is, trade policy reforms) are not found to have any effect on the risk to income faced by workers with either low or high levels of human capital. But workers with intermediate levels of human capital are found to experience a statistically and economically significant increase in income risk immediately following liberalization of trade. The findings thus point to an interesting non-monotonicity in the interaction between human capital, income risk and trade policy changes
Lobbying competition over US trade policy by Kishore S Gawande( )

17 editions published between 2005 and 2009 in English and held by 102 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Competition between opposing lobbies is an important factor in the endogenous determination of trade policy. This paper investigates empirically the consequences of lobbying competition between upstream and downstream producers for US trade policy. The theoretical framework used is the well-known Grossman-Helpman model of trade policy determination suitably modified to account for the cross-sectoral use of inputs in production (the input-output matrix). Our empirical results, using US trade data, validate the predictions of the theoretical model with lobbying competition. Trade protection is found to be higher in industries with organized lobbies but lower when there are organized downstream users of the industry's output. Lobbying competition is additionally interesting as a candidate explanation for an empirical puzzle in the literature concerning the apparently nearly "welfare-maximizing" behavior of the US government in setting trade policy. Our estimates diminish the magnitude of the puzzle somewhat, but do not provide a full quantitative resolution of this question
Reciprocated unilateralism in trade policy : an interest-group approach by Pravin Krishna( )

11 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 99 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using the menu-auction approach to endogenous determination of tariffs and allowing additionally for lobby formation itself to be endogenous, this paper analyzes the impact of unilateral trade liberalization by one country on its partner's trade policies. We find that such unilateral liberalization may induce reciprocal tariff reductions by the partner country. Intuitively, unilateral liberalization by one country has the effect of increasing the incentives for the export lobby in the partner country to form and to lobby effectively against the import-competing lobby there for lower protection
Foreign lobbies and US trade policy by Kishore S Gawande( )

14 editions published between 2003 and 2004 in English and held by 92 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In popular discussion much has been made recently of the susceptibility of government policies to lobbying by foreigners. The general presumption has also been that such interactions have a deleterious effect on the home economy. However, it can be argued that, in a trade policy context, bending policy in a direction that would suit foreigners may not in fact be harmful: If the policy outcome absent any lobbying by foreigners is characterized by welfare-reducing trade barriers, lobbying by foreigners may result in reductions in such barriers and raise consumer surplus (and possibly improve welfare). Using a new data set on foreign political activity in the US, this paper investigates the relationship between trade protection and lobbying activity empirically. The approach taken in this paper is primarily a structural one. To model the role of foreign and domestic lobbies in determining trade policy, we develop first a theoretical framework building on the well-known work of Grossman and Helpman (1994); the econometric work that follows is very closely linked to the theory. Our analysis of the data suggests that foreign lobbying activity has significant impact on trade policy - and in the predicted direction: Tariffs and non-tariff barriers (NTBs) are both found to be negatively related with foreign lobbying activity. We consider also extended specifications in which we include a large number of additional explanatory variables that have been suggested in the literature as determinants of trade policy (but that emerge from outside of the theoretical structure described above) and confirm the robustness of our findings in this setting
Reciprocated unilateralism in trade reforms with majority voting by Pravin Krishna( )

10 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 92 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper shows how unilateral liberalization in one country can increase the voting support for reciprocal reduction in trade barriers in a partner country. When trade policies are determined simultaneously in the two countries, we show the possibility of multiple political equilibria - countries may both be protectionist or trade freely with each other. Starting with trade protection in both countries, a unilateral reform in one country is thus shown to bring about a free trade equilibrium (a self-enforcing state) that is consistent with majority voting in both countries
Export Quality Dynamics by Pravin Krishna( )

6 editions published between 2011 and 2012 in English and Undetermined and held by 71 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Country export quality (measured by unit values) is correlated with income level suggesting that studying quality dynamics potentially offers insights into the development process. This paper uses highly disaggregated trade data to explore the export quality (unit value) dynamics of goods exported to the United States over the 1990-2000 period. In addition to finding considerable heterogeneity in the relative quality of exports across countries and across goods within countries, the authors find that the rate of quality growth varies substantially across countries, as well. Specifically, the fastest growth is seen in exports from the richer (OECD) countries, implying an evolving divergence in product quality across regions. This divergence obtains despite evidence of conditional convergence in quality over time- goods with lower initial relative quality levels experience faster growth in quality. The data suggest that part of this divergence is driven by the product mix itself -- OECD exported products experience intrinsically higher growth rates. This is consistent with the argument of Hausmann, Hwang and Rodrik (2007) that what countries export does matter for growth. However, it is partly driven by a higher growth rate of quality in the richer countries independent of convergence effects, suggesting that other country-specific factors impeding overall convergence are at work. Finally, there is very limited technological "leap-frogging" by countries across product lines as the relative quality of new exports, on average, is roughly the same as incumbent exports, both in richer countries and elsewhere
International trade and labor income risk in the United States by Pravin Krishna( )

8 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper studies empirically the links between international trade and labor income risk faced by workers in the United States. We use longitudinal data on workers to estimate time-varying individual income risk at the industry level. We then combine our estimates of persistent labor income risk with measures of exposure to international trade to analyze the relationship between trade and labor income risk. Importantly, by contrasting estimates from various sub-samples of workers, such as those who switched to a different industry (or sector) with those who remained in the same industry throughout the sample, we study the relative importance of the different channels through which international trade affects individual income risk. Finally, we use these estimates to conduct a welfare analysis evaluating the benefits or costs of trade through the income risk channel. We find import penetration to have a statistically significant association with labor income risk in the United States, with economically significant welfare effects
Comparative advantage, complexity and volatility by Pravin Krishna( )

9 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Less developed countries tend to experience higher output volatility, a fact that is, in part, explained by their specialization in more volatile sectors. This paper proposes theoretical explanations for this pattern of specialization -- with the complexity of the goods playing a central role. Specifically, less developed countries with low levels of human capital, or alternately, with lower institutional ability to enforce contracts, will specialize in less complex goods which are also characterized by higher levels of output volatility. We provide novel empirical evidence that less complex industries are indeed more volatile
Trade, poverty and the lagging regions of South Asia by Pravin Krishna( )

7 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This chapter studies the differential effects that trade openness may have on leading and lagging regions within a country. Examining data from India, we find that while trade liberalization is associated with reduced poverty, this effect is smaller in lagging states. The expected transmission of international prices to domestic prices with openness to trade is seen to be less perfect in lagging states than in leading ones, especially in the rural sector. This suggests that poverty reduction in lagging regions is impeded by the lack of exposure to international markets as opposed to another commonly argued factor - the competition to domestic production from international trade. Cross-country analysis with a sample of countries in South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka) also suggests that countries with a smaller proportion of their populations in lagging regions experience greater reduction in poverty rates following trade liberalization. Our study confirms that though trade liberalization can bring gains, there is scope for policy to ensure that these gains are distributed more equally across sub-national regions. Our results highlight the importance of developing infrastructure including equipped ports, better and more extensive roads and communication links in exploiting gains from international trade
Trade Liberalization, Firm Heterogneity, and Wages New Evidence from Matched Employer-Employee Data by Pravin Krishna( )

5 editions published between 2011 and 2012 in English and held by 67 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this paper, the authors use a linked employer-employee database from Brazil to examine the impact of trade reform on the wages of workers employed at heterogeneous firms. The analysis of the data at the firm-level confirms earlier findings of a differential positive effect of trade liberalization on the average wages at exporting firms relative to non-exporting firms. However, this analysis of average firm-level wages is incomplete along several dimensions. First, it cannot fully account for the impact of a change in trade barriers on workforce composition especially in terms of unobservable (time-invariant) characteristics of workers (innate ability) and any additional productivity that obtains in the context of employment in the specific firm (match specific ability). Furthermore, the firm-level analysis is undertaken under the assumption that the assignment of workers to firms is random. This ignores the sorting of worker into firms and leads to a bias in estimates of the differential impact of trade on workers at exporting firms relative to non-exporting firms. Using detailed information on worker and firm characteristics to control for compositional effects and using firm-worker match specific effects to account for the endogenous mobility of workers, the authors find the differential effect of trade openness on wages in exporting firms relative to domestic firms to be insignificant. Consistent with the models of Helpman, Itskhoki, and Redding (2010) and Davidson, Matusz and Schevchenko (2008), they also find that the workforce composition improves systematically in exporting firms in terms of innate (time invariant) worker ability and in terms the quality of the worker-firm matches
Trade and inequality in India by Pravin Krishna( )

6 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 66 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To study the effects of the dramatic economic reforms undertaken in India in the early 1990s on inequality, this paper examines Theil inequality as well as other inequality measures constructed using Indian household expenditure survey data from 1988-2005. Overall inequality shows some variation over the period, falling between 1988 and 1994, rising between 1994 and 2000, but falling again by 2005. The evolution of inequality in the post reform period is thus non-monotonic. A similar inequality trend is seen within most Indian states over this time period. Finally, the change in inequality across households within states is found to be uncorrelated with the change in state-level measures of tariff and non-tariff protection
What governments maximize and why : the view from trade by Kishore S Gawande( )

7 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 66 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Policy making power enables governments to redistribute income to powerful interests in society. However, some governments exhibit greater concern for aggregate welfare than others. This government behavior may itself be endogenously determined by a number of economic, political and institutional factors. Trade policy, being fundamentally redistributive, provides a valuable context in which the welfare mindedness of governments may be empirically evaluated. This paper investigates quantitatively the welfare mindedness of governments and attempts to understand these political and institutional determinants of the differences in government behavior across countries
Wage effects of trade reform with endogenous worker mobility by Pravin Krishna( )

6 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 65 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this paper, we use a linked employer--employee database from Brazil to examine the impact of trade reform on the wages of workers employed at heterogeneous firms. Our analysis of data at the firm level confirms earlier findings of a differential positive effect of trade liberalization on average wages at exporting firms relative to non-exporting firms. However, the analysis of average firm-level wages is incomplete along several dimensions. First, it cannot fully account for the impact of a change in trade barriers on workforce composition, especially in terms of unobservable (time-invariant) worker characteristics (innate ability) and any additional productivity that results from employment in a specific firm (match-specific ability). Furthermore, the firm-level analysis is undertaken under the assumption that the assignment of workers to firms is random. This ignores the sorting of workers into firms and leads to a bias in estimates of the differential impact of trade on average wages at exporting firms relative to non-exporting firms. Using detailed information on worker and firm characteristics to control for compositional effects and firm-worker match-specific effects to account for the endogenous mobility of workers, we find an insignificant differential effect of trade openness on wages at exporting firms relative to domestic firms. Consistent with the models of Helpman, Itskhoki, and Redding (2010) and Davidson, Matusz, and Schevchenko (2008), we also find that the workforce composition post-liberalization improves systematically in exporting firms in terms of innate worker ability and in terms of the quality of the worker-firm matches. These findings underscore the importance of search frictions and labor market matching mechanisms in determining the effects of trade policy changes on wages
Preferential trade agreements and the world trade system : a multilateralist view by Pravin Krishna( )

7 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 65 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper reviews recent developments in international trade to evaluate several arguments concerning the merits of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and their place in the world trade system. Taking a multilateralist perspective, it makes several points: First, despite the proliferation of PTAs in recent years, the actual amount of liberalization that has been achieved through PTAs is actually quite limited. Second, at least a few studies point to significant trade diversion in the context of particular PTAs and thus serve as a cautionary note against casual dismissals of trade diversion as a merely theoretical concern. Equally, adverse effects on the terms-of-trade of non-member countries have also been found in the literature. Third, while the literature has found mixed results on the question of whether tariff preferences help or hurt multilateral liberalization, the picture is different with the more elastic tools of trade policy, such as antidumping duties (ADs); the use of ADs against non-members appears to have dramatically increased while the use of ADs against partner countries within PTAs has fallen. Fourth, despite the rapid expansion of preferences in trade, intra-PTA trade shares are relatively small for most PTAs; multilateral remain relevant to most member countries of the WTO
Trade, globalization and poverty by Elias Dinopoulos( )

4 editions published between 2007 and 2008 in English and held by 38 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An outstanding work, written to celebrate the seventieth birthday of Jagdish Bhagwati; the foremost defender of free trade and its role in developing economies in the world today, this rigorously academic and critical volume represents an important contribution to the understanding of many aspects of globalization. The editors, affiliated with four of the leading economics departments in the USA, bring together a stellar line of contributors from across the world to discuss the themes and arguments raised by Bhagwati's latest work. A renowned professor of economics and regarded as one of the foremost international trade economist of modern times, Jagdish Bhagwati has written or edited over forty books including "In Defence of Globalization and Free Trade Today" as well as being the founding editor of "Economics and Politics" and "The Journal of International Economics". A tribute to the great intellectual accomplishments and the inspiration that Jagdish Bhagwati provided to the field during his prolific and influential career, this book is a must read for all students and academics studying or working with international trade and development economics
 
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Trading blocs : alternative approaches to analyzing preferential trade agreements
Covers
Trade blocs : economics and politicsTrade, globalization and poverty
Alternative Names
Krishna, P. 1969-

Pravin Krishna economista indio

Pravin Krishna Indian academic

Pravin Krishna Indian economist

Languages
English (204)

Spanish (1)