WorldCat Identities

Nakagawara, Van B.

Overview
Works: 45 works in 162 publications in 1 language and 6,171 library holdings
Roles: Author
Classifications: RC1054.U5, 617.715402462913
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by Van B Nakagawara
Infrared radiation transmittance and pilot vision through civilian aircraft windscreens by Van B Nakagawara( )

6 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 247 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute measured the optical transmittance properties of aircraft windscreens. This paper focuses on windscreen transmittance in the infrared (IR) spectral region (780--4000 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Transmission measurements were performed on eight aircraft windscreens. Three windscreens were from large commercial jets (MD 88, Airbus A320, and Boeing 727/737); two from commercial, propeller-driven passenger planes (Fokker 27 and the ATR 42); one from a small private jet (Raytheon Aircraft Corporation Hawker Horizon); and two from small general aviation (GA), single-engine, propeller-driven planes (Beech Bonanza and Cessna 182).--P. i
Optical radiation transmittance of aircraft windscreens and pilot vision by Van B Nakagawara( )

4 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 244 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Demographics and vision restrictions in civilian pilots : clinical implications by Van B Nakagawara( )

4 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 243 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) permits airmen with certain medical conditions or diseases to be medically certified, provided that such action does not compromise aviation safety. The FAA Office of Aerospace Medicine helps guide policy decisions through the study of common medical pathologies, including visual disorders and the use of new ophthalmic devices and refractive procedures by airmen. To perform this function properly, an in-depth knowledge of the airman population is required. This study examined demographic statistics for the civil airman population, including vision pathologies, for the period 1976 to 2001 and their relevance to the clinical care of aviators by eye care practitioners
Laser illumination of aircraft by geographic location for a 3-year period (2004-2006) by Van B Nakagawara( )

6 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 243 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Incident reports of civilian aircraft illuminated by high-intensity lights have been collected from various sources and entered into a database maintained by the Vision Research Team at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute. Reported incidents of laser exposure of civilian aircraft in the United States for a 3-year period (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2006) were collated and analyzed. A total of 832 incidents during the study period took place within the United States in the nine Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-designated regions. For the period, total laser incident rates per 100,000 flight operations ranged from zero in the Alaskan region to 0.86 in the Western Pacific Region. Of the 202 airports where laser incidents occurred, there were 20 (9.9%) that reported 10 or more laser incidents during the study period. The majority of airports (52.6%) with 10 or more laser incidents reported a higher number of incidents in 2005 than in 2006. Laser illumination incidents that could compromise aviation safety and threaten flight crew vision performance occur with some regularity within the contiguous United States.--P. i
The illumination of aircraft at altitude by laser beams : a 5-year study period (2004-2008) by Van B Nakagawara( )

3 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 243 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"INTRODUCTION: Laser illuminations of aircraft in navigable airspace have concerned the aviation community for over a decade. The principal apprehension is the effect laser illumination may have on flight crew personnel performing landing and departure maneuvers, where procedural requirements are critical. This study examines the frequency of aviation-related laser incidents by altitude of occurrence. METHODS: Event reports of aircraft illuminated by high-intensity light sources have been collected from various sources and entered into a database maintained by the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute. Reported events of laser exposure of civilian aircraft for a 5-year period (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2008) were collated and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 2,492 laser events occurred in the U.S. during the study period. The cockpit environment was illuminated by laser beam in 1,676 (67.3%) events, and altitude information was provided in 1,361 (81.2%) of these reports. At altitude levels associated with the FAA's Laser- Free Zone (0-2,000 feet), cockpit illuminations increased from 12.5% to 26.7% for the period, while the percentage for Critical Flight Zone equivalent altitudes (>2,000-10,000 feet) decreased from 87.5% to 58.4%. For the period, green laser light was reported in 92% of the events where color was identified. CONCLUSION: The increasing percentage of aircraft laser illuminations reported at or below 2,000 feet that involve green laser light may represent an escalating threat to aviation safety. Low-flying aircraft, which may not be within currently established flight hazard zones around airports, need protection due to their increased vulnerability to laser illumination and their close proximity to obstacles and terrain."--Report documentation page
The effects of laser illumination on operational and visual performance of pilots conducting terminal operations by Van B Nakagawara( )

4 editions published between 2001 and 2003 in English and held by 242 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Several hundred incidents involving the illumination of aircrew members by laser light have been reported in recent years. Consequently, FAA Order 7400.2 was revised to establish new guidelines for Flight Safe Exposure Limits (FSEL) in specific zones of navigable airspace. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of test subjects exposed to laser radiation while performing approach and departure maneuvers in the Critical Flight Zone (CFZ). Pilot performance was assessed in a Boeing 727-200, Level C, flight simulator using four levels of laser illumination (0, 0.5, 5, and 50 muW/cm2) and three operational maneuvers (takeoff and departure, visual approach, and instrument landing system ILS approach). Subjective responses were solicited after each trial and during an exit interview. The pilots were asked to rate on a scale from 1 to 5 (1 = none, 2 = slight, 3 = moderate, 4 = great, and 5 = very great) the affect each laser exposure had on their ability to operate the aircraft and on their visual performance. Average subjective ratings were calculated for each exposure level and flight maneuver, and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. Thirty-four pilots served as test subjects for this study. Average subjective ratings for operational and visual performance were 1.57 and 1.74, 1.89 and 2.15, 2.43 and 2.76, for the 0.5, 5 (i.e., CFZ), and 50 muW/cm2 laser exposure levels, respectively. ANOVA found a significant difference (p <0.05) between the subjective ratings for each exposure level. No significant differences were found between the types of flight maneuvers or between the ratings for operational and visual performance themselves for a given maneuver or exposure level. The FSEL of 5 muW/cm2 was validated for pilots illuminated by laser light while conducting terminal operations in the CFZ
Contact lens use in the civil airman population by Van B Nakagawara( )

6 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 240 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since 1976, the use of contact lenses by civilian pilots has been permitted to correct distant vision for obtaining a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aeromedical certificate. Although contact lens technology has advanced dramatically in recent years, the aviation environment may still have adverse effects on contact lens performance in some flight situations. This study examined the civil airman population's experience with contact lens use for a 30-year period (1967-97). The information will help guide future medical certification decisions, policy revisions, and education safety programs for aeromedical and flight crew personnel. The FAA's Aerospace Medical Certification Division provided population totals for 1 January 1967 through 31 December 1997 of airmen who carried a pathology code for contact lens use (code 161) or orthokeratology (code 158). These data were stratified by class of medical certificate and age. Prevalence rates were calculated using the population frequencies from the annual Aeromedical Certification Statistical Handbook (AC 8500-1). A search of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and FAA databases was performed to determine if contact lens use had contributed to any aviation mishaps (accidents or incidents). RESULTS: The prevalence of contact lens use grew faster for first-class medical certificate holders (1.6/1,000 to 32.3/1,000 airmen) and airmen> 40 years of age (3.711,000 to 34.2/1,000 airmen) during the study period. The frequency of airmen with orthokeratology increased by 23 times in a 10 years period. Reports from five aviation accidents and one incident suggested that contact lens use was a contributing factor in the mishap. Professional pilots and older airmen are more inclined to use contact lenses to satisfy the aeromedical vision standards. Contact lenses can be a liability in some flight situations but have performed well for the majority of aviators
A review of recent laser illumination events in the aviation environment by Van B Nakagawara( )

6 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 235 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Flight crewmember exposure to laser light, while operating an aircraft at night, has resulted in glare, flashblindness, and afterimage. Temporary visual impairment and the distraction, disorientation, and discomfort that can accompany it often result in hazardous situations. A database of aviation reports involving laser illumination of flight crewmembers has been established and maintained at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute. A review of recent laser illumination reports was initiated to investigate the significance of these events. Reports of high-intensity light illumination of aircraft were collected from Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regional offices, Transportation Security Administration, Department of Homeland Security/Federal Bureau of Investigation Information Bulletins, the FAA's Office of Accident Investigation, newspaper articles, and interviews with pilots submitted by the airline industry. Reports that involved laser exposures of civilian aircraft in the United States were analyzed for the 13-month period (January 1, 2004 - January 31, 2005). There were 90 reported instances of laser illumination during the study period. A total of 53 reports involved laser exposure of commercial aircraft. Lasers illuminated the cockpit in 41 (46%) of the incidents. Of those, 13 (32%) incidents resulted in visual impairment or distraction to a pilot, including 1 incident that reportedly resulted in ocular injury. Nearly 96% of these reports occurred in the last 3 months of the study period. There were no aviation accidents in which laser light illumination was found to be a contributing factor. The study of laser illumination incidents in the national airspace system can identify the operational problems that result from such events. Improved reporting and analysis of laser events enhances aviation safety
The aviation accident experience of civilian airmen with refractive surgery by Van B Nakagawara( )

5 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 235 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Civil airmen with refractive surgery may obtain any class of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) medical certificate provided they meet the applicable vision standards, and an eye specialist verifies that healing is complete, visual acuity is stable, and no significant glare intolerance is present. However, concerns remain regarding the quality of the resulting refractive correction, long-term stability, side effects, and the potential surgical complications associated with refractive surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an association existed between refractive surgery and aviation accidents. Methods: Records for active airman during the study period, 1994-96, were extracted from the FAA 's Consolidated Airman Information System medical database. Airmen who carried pathology codes for refractive surgery (130) and general eye surgery (5179) were identified. These records were cross-referenced with the Accident/Incident Data System database to determine those airmen involved in aircraft accidents. Frequency totals and mean accident rates (accidents/100,000 flight hours) were calculated for each class of FAA medical certification. Analysis of Variance was performed to compare the mean accident rates of non-refractive and refractive surgery airmen. Results: The total accident rate was higher for airmen with refractive surgery (3.86/100,000 flight hours) when compared with those without refractive procedures (2.62/100,000 flight hours). Accident rates for airmen with refractive surgery were also higher in all three classes of medical certification; however, analysis found that these differences were not statistically significant (p> 0.05) for any class of medical certification or the total airman population. In addition, our review found no aviation accident in which refractive surgery was identified as a causal factor
Medical surveillance programs for aircraft maintenance personnel performing nondestructive inspection and testing by Van B Nakagawara( )

5 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 234 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Visual inspection and nondestructive inspection and testing (NDI/NDT) are performed routinely to ensure that aircraft are maintained in safe operating condition. Inspectors must make critical judgments about the condition of aircraft and aircraft components using their eyes, basic visual aids (magnifiers, mirrors, and flashlights), and complicated NDI/NDT techniques to detect anomalies. Failure to detect observable defects has been implicated in several aviation accidents. This study examines the medical surveillance programs employed by aircraft maintenance facilities in the United States, including specific vision standards and tests used for inspection personnel
Aircraft accidents and incidents associated with visual disturbances from bright lights during nighttime flight operations : final report by Van B Nakagawara( )

6 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 233 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Preservation of optimal night vision is important for pilots operating an aircraft at night. When the eyes are adapted to low-light levels, exposure to bright light can result in temporary visual impairment due to glare, flashblindness, and afterimages. The purpose of this study was to investigate operational problems experienced by civilian airmen exposed to bright light sources while performing nighttime aviation activities. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Aviation Accident and Incident Data System (January 1982 to February 2005) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Accident/Incident Data System (January 1978 to January 2005) were queried using terms associated with night vision problems. Accident and incident reports annotated with one or more of these terms were reviewed to determine whether vision difficulties resulting from exposure to bright lights contributed to the mishap. Results showed that vision problems resulting from exposure to bright lights at night were found to have contributed to 58 mishaps. Reports included 30 (NTSB) accidents and 28 (FAA/NTSB) incidents. The majority of accidents (57%) occurred during the approach and landing phase of flight. Incidents occurred most frequently while taxiing (54%) and during approach and landing (36%). The authors conclude that exposure to glare sources at night can affect an aviator's dark adaptation and has contributed to aviation accidents and incidents. The study of these events assists airport authorities in defining appropriate modification of existing airport lighting systems and eliminating hazardous lighting near flight paths and surface movement areas (e.g., ramps, taxiways, runways). Preventive measures for avoiding similar glare conditions that impair vision and compromise the safety of aviation operations at night will be discussed
Evaluation of next-generation vision testers for aeromedical certification of aviation personnel by Van B Nakagawara( )

2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 229 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) allows the use of a variety of vision screening devices to evaluate a pilot applicant's vision performance for medical certification purposes. This study compares human subject test scores obtained using two new vision testing instruments (Optec 5000 and Titmus i400) with those from previously approved counterparts (Optec 2000 and Titmus 2A), which have been discontinued by their manufacturers. Testing included near, intermediate, and distant visual acuity, when appropriate, as well as heterophoria and color perception. Aside from color vision deficiencies, visual performance for all subjects was within the minimum Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) vision requirements for Class II airmen. The test subject population included 36 individuals who ranged in age from 18 to 66 (34.4 ± 14.2). Six subjects were 50 years of age or over, requiring intermediate vision testing and 12 were color deficient. Analysis was designed to detect statistically significant differences between the test scores obtained with the new instruments vs. the older models. The results of this study indicate that both new instruments provided visual acuity and heterophoria scores that are statistically equivalent to the older models. Color vision test scores for the Titmus i400 were found to be statistically equivalent to those of the Titmus 2A, with little or no change in failure rate. Although the color vision scores of the Optec 5000 were statistically equivalent to those of the Optec 2000, it failed 50% of the color normal subjects in the study. FAA approval is recommended for the Titmus i400 for use in all applicable aviation vision tests. Conditional approval is recommended for the Optec 5000, provided the Aviation Medical Examiner has an appropriate alternate color vision test should individuals be identified as color deficient."--Report documentation page
New refractive surgery procedures and their implications for aviation safety by Van B Nakagawara( )

6 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 229 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In order to provide the aviation community with information to formulate administrative decisions and policies associated with existing and emerging refractive surgical procedures, this paper reviews current procedures and discusses their applicability in the civil aviation environment
The prevalence of artificial lens implants in the civil airman population by Van B Nakagawara( Book )

6 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 224 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The use of artificial lens implants to correct for aphakia has become increasingly prevalent in the United States. This study analyzes the distribution of intraocular lens (IOL) implants in the civil airman population by type (unilateral, bilateral), class of medical certificate, and gender for a 4-year period (198285). Medical records were evaluated for all certified airmen who were carrying pathology codes for aphakia and artificial lens implant during the study period. The percentage increase in the prevalence of airmen with artificial lenses was higher for bilateral, second-class medical certificate holders, and female aphakics. However, the incidence of total and unilateral artificial lens implants declined in 1985. The implications of the study's findings for aeromedical certification are discussed. A change in the methods used to evaluate trends in the use of IOL in the airman population is recommended. Vision, Epidemiology, Aphakia, Lens, Intraocular, Medical certification
Aviation accidents and incidents associated with the use of ophthalmic devices by civilian pilots by Van B Nakagawara( )

6 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 223 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Approximately 54% of civilian pilots rely on ophthalmic lenses to correct defective vision in order to maintain a valid airman medical certificate. This report reviews aviation accidents and incidents where the use or misuse of ophthalmic devices was considered to have been a contributing factor in the mishap. The review and reporting of these events provides important information that can be used to educate flight crewmembers, Aviation Medical Examiners, and eyecare practitioners about the potential hazards of using inappropriate ophthalmic devices. Recommendations in this report may assist pilots in avoiding similar hazardous situations and enhance aviation safety
The effects of laser illumination on operational and visual performance of pilots during final approach : final report( )

2 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 201 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Several hundred incidents involving the illumination of aircrew members by laser light have been reported in recent years, including several that could have had serious consequences. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the performance of pilots exposed to visible laser radiation during final approach maneuvers at 100 feet above the runway in the Laser-Free Zone (LFZ)
The use of task-specific lenses by presbyopic air traffic controllers at the en route radar console by Van B Nakagawara( Book )

7 editions published between 1996 and 1997 in English and held by 165 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The configuration of the radar console to control aircraft traffic has similar features to a visual display terminal (VDT) work station. Task-specific lenses have been found in clinical studies to reduce visual symptoms while working at the VDT. The American Optical Corporation TruVision Technica, a task-specific lens design, was evaluated to see if visual benefits from such a lens could be transferred from the VDT environment to the radar console work environment. Presbyopic Air Traffic Control Specialists (ATCSs) at the Houston Air Route Traffic Control Center were fitted with two prescription spectacles, using their current and Technica lens designs, in similar ophthalmic frames. Each ATCS used both lens designs at the radar console and provided subjective evaluations of their appropriateness in that environment. Thirteen (13) subjects (45.6 plus or minus 5.9 years of age, range 36-55 years) completed the study. Subjects who used larger near viewing area (single vision and executive) lens designs generally preferred their current lens design. The Technica was preferred by mature presbyopes (add power of greater than or equal to 1.25 diopters) and those using smaller near viewing area (FT-25, FT-28 and general progressive addition) lens designs. The primary complaints reported by ATCSs with the Technica were peripheral distortion and limited field of view. Task-specific lens designs are an alternative for presbyopic ATCS who work at a radar console. However, distortion and limited field of view from the lens may require prolonged adaptation times before such designs are acceptable to ATCS on the job, especially for those accustomed to lens designs with larger viewing areas
Natural sunlight and its association to aviation accidents : frequency and prevention by Van B Nakagawara( )

4 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 164 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Glare is a temporary visual sensation produced by luminance (brightness) within the visual field that is significantly greater than that to which the eyes are adapted. Aviators may be subjected to intense glare from natural and artificial light sources that can result in temporary visual impairment, greatly increasing the risk of accidents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between visual impairment from natural sunlight and aviation accidents
A unique contact lens-related airline aircraft accident by Van B Nakagawara( Book )

4 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 164 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The use of contact lenses to satisfy the distant visual acuity requirements for obtaining a civil airman medical certificate has been permitted since 1976. According to the Federal Aviation Administration's "Guide for Aviation Medical Examiners," the use of monovision contact lenses is not considered acceptable for aviation duties. An aviation accident involving the use of monovision contact lenses will be reviewed. A case report is presented utilizing information from a National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) aircraft accident report (NTSB/AAR-97/03) of a nonfatal scheduled airline accident. Past studies that examined the use of contact lenses in the aviation environment are reviewed. On October 19, 1996, a McDonnell Douglas MD-88 aircraft, Delta Airlines Flight 554, was substantially damaged in an undershoot approach while landing at LaGuardia Airport, Flushing, NY. Weather observations indicated a broken cloud layer at 800 feet, visibility between 1/2 and 1 mile in heavy rain and fog or mist, and easterly winds at 12 to 14 knots. The approach was over water to Runway 13 and the flight crew transitioned to visual references just above the decision height. As the airplane continued to descend, it struck an approach light structure and the end of the runway deck, shearing off the main landing gear and slid 2,700 feet down the runway. During an emergency evacuation, 3 passengers received minor injuries. The NTSB determined that the probable cause of this accident was the inability of the pilot to overcome his misperception of the airplane's position relative to the runway, due to the use of monovision contact lenses. The adverse effects of wearing contact lenses in the aviation environment are discussed. Research is recommended to better understand the effects of environmental conditions on monovision to validate the current policy on such corrections
Gender differences in a refractive surgery population of civilian aviators : final report by Van B Nakagawara( Book )

2 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 158 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

 
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Audience Level
0
Audience Level
1
  Kids General Special  
Audience level: 0.51 (from 0.48 for Evaluation ... to 0.58 for The use of ...)

Languages
English (94)