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Linköpings universitet Hälsouniversitetet

Overview
Works: 3,417 works in 3,574 publications in 2 languages and 3,684 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses  Periodicals 
Roles: Publisher, pub, Other
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Linköpings universitet
Student journal of health sciences( )

in English and Swedish and held by 11 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Evaluation of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion and orthodontic treatment : effects on dental, skeletal and nasal structures and rhinological findings by Anders Magnusson( Book )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Aspects of recovery following day care anaesthesia : a clinical and experimental study by Anil Gupta( Book )

2 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Nutrition, health and life-situation in elderly patients with leg ulcers by Ulla Wissing( Book )

2 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Designing for legitimacy : policy work and the art of juggling when setting limits in health care by Ann-Charlotte Nedlund( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Biological and histological factors as predictors in rectal cancer patients : a study in a clinical trial of preoperative radiotherapy by Annica Holmqvist( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

With improved surgical techniques and preoperative radiotherapy (RT) the local recurrence rate in rectal cancer patients has been reduced, however the mortality rate is still high and there is a huge variation in the response to preoperative RT in patients with the same tumour stage. To improve patient's survival, it is of great importance to identify good prognostic and predictive factors that help us to select the best suited patients for preoperative RT in the future. For many years, studies of neoplastic transformation have mainly focused on tumour cells. In recent years, researchers have realised that the stroma around tumour cells and their extracellular matrix components also play an important role in tumour carcinogensesis. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the biological factors, survivin and particularly interesting new cysteine-histidine rich protein (PINCH), histological factors, inflammatory infiltration, fibrosis, necrosis, mucinous content, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis as well as their relationships to preoperative RT and to clinical variables in rectal cancer patients who participated in a Swedish rectal cancer trial of preoperative RT. In paper I, the expression of survivin and its relationship to preoperative RT and clinical factors were investigated in 98 primary rectal tumours and adjacent normal mucosa. In all patients, positive survivin expression was independently related to worse survival compared to negative survivin expression in a multivariate analysis. In paper II, PINCH expression and its relationship to RT, clinical, histological and biological factors were investigated at the invasive margin and inner tumour area in 137 primary rectal tumours and in cell line of fibroblasts. In patients without RT, strong PINCH expression was independently related to worse survival in a multivariate analysis. No survival relationship was found in the patients with RT, and there was no difference in PINCH expression between the subgroups of non-RT and RT at the invasive margin/inner tumour area. In patients with RT, strong PINCH expression at the inner tumour area was related to a high level of lymphatic vessel density (LVD). In paper III, the frequency of LVD/blood vessel density (BVD) was analysed at the periphery, the inner tumour area and the invasive margin of 138/140 primary rectal tumours and correlated to RT, clinical, histological and biological factors. In all patients, LVD at the periphery of the tumour was independently related to better survival compared to LVD at the inner tumour area/invasive margin. In all patients, a higher LVD at the periphery was related to negative (wild type) p53 expression. In paper IV, the inflammatory infiltration, fibrosis, necrosis and mucinous content were studied in relation to RT, clinical and biological parameters in preoperative biopsies ( n = 153) and in primary tumours ( n = 148). In all patients and in the subgroups of non-RT and RT a higher grade of inflammatory infiltration was independently related to improved survival compared to weak inflammatory infiltration in a multivariate analysis. In this thesis, survivin, PINCH, LVD and inflammatory infiltration are independent prognostic factors in rectal cancer patients who participated in a clinical trial of preoperative RT. This information may help us to improve patient's survival by selecting the best suited patients for preoperative RT in the future
Evaluation of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion and orthodontic treatment : effects on dental, skeletal and nasal structures and rhinological findings by Anders Magnusson( Book )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract in English and Swedish
Diagnostic accuracy of the clinical examination compared to available reference standards in chronic low back pain patients by Mark Laslett( Book )

2 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Organ dysfunction among patients with major burns by Ingrid Steinvall( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The number of patients who are admitted for in-hospital care in Sweden because of burns is about 12/100,000, and only a small proportion of these have larger burns. Among them, and particularly among those who die in hospital, a condition referred to as "organ dysfunction" is common and an important factor in morbidity and mortality. The fact that the time of the initial event is known, and the magnitude of the insult is quantifiable, makes the burned patient ideal to be studied. In this doctoral thesis organ dysfunction and mortality were studied in a descriptive, prospective, exploratory study (no interventions or control groups) in patients admitted consecutively to a national burn centre in Sweden. The respiratory dysfunction that is seen after burns was found to be equally often the result of acute respiratory distress syndrome and inhalation injury. We found little support for the idea that this early dysfunction is caused by pneumonia, ventilator-induced lung injury, or sepsis. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was also common, and mortality was associated with severity. Importantly, renal dysfunction recovered among the patients who survived. Pulmonary dysfunction and systemic inflammatory response syndrome developed before the onset of AKI. Sepsis was a possible aggravating factor for AKI in 48% of 31 patients; but we could find no support for the idea that late AKI was mainly associated with sepsis. We found that older age (over 60 years), greater TBSA%, and respiratory dysfunction were associated with increased mortality, but there was no association between the overall mortality and sex. We also found that early transient liver dysfunction was common, and recorded early hepatic "hyper"- function among many young adults. Persistent low values indicating severe liver dysfunction were found among patients who eventually died. We conclude from this investigation that overall organ dysfunction is an early and common phenomenon among patients with severe burns. Our data suggest that the prognosis of organ dysfunction among these patients is good, and function recovers among most survivors. Multiple organ failure was, however, the main cause of death. The findings of the early onset in respiratory dysfunction and a delay in signs of sepsis are congruous with the gutlymphatic hypothesis for the development of organ dysfunction, and the idea of the lung as an inflammatory engine for its progression. We think that the early onset favours a syndrome in which organ dysfunction is induced by an inflammatory process mediated by the effect of the burn rather than being secondary to sepsis. Our data further suggest that clinical strategies to improve burn care further should be focused on early interventions, interesting examples of which include: selective decontamination of the gastrointestinal tract to prevent translocation of gut-derived toxic and inflammatory factors; optimisation of fluid replacement during the first 8 hours after injury by goal-directed resuscitation; and possible improvement in the fluid treatment given before admission
Survival strategies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis inside the human macrophage by Amanda Welin( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Bacterial vaginosis : diagnosis, prevalence and treatment by Katarina Eriksson( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is a disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by a foul smelling vaginal discharge, loss or reduction of the normal vaginal Lactobacilli, and overgrowth of other anaerobic bacteria. Thus, it presents a formidable problem for clinicians as well as microbiologists researching its etiology, clinical course, treatment, and epidemiology. The present work focuses on the unresolved issues of the epidemiology and treatment of BV in order to provide valid methods for treatment studies of this condition and to describe the prevalence of BV in defined populations. The first study validates the use of PAP-stained smears in the diagnosis of BV. The study assesses the methods of Amsel's clinical criteria and Nugent criteria on Gram-stain smears, against Pap-stained smears and also validates different observers. The result shows that the PAP-staining of vaginal smears is a good method in BV diagnosis; the kappa value is 0.86 (interobserver weighted kappa index) compared to 0.81 for Gram-stained smears, and 0.70 for rehydrated air-dried smears using the mean Nugent score as the criterion standard. This enables population based studies on archived PAP-stained smears from the screening of cervical cancer. In the second study, we use the knowledge gained from study one to investigate the prevalence of BV in a cohort from the population of Åland. The prevalences of BV on the Åland Islands were: 15.6 %, 11.9 %, 8.7 %, and 8.6% in 1993, 1998, 2003, and 2008, respectively. This means that the prevalence of BV decreased between1993-2008 from 15.6% to 8.6%. The confidence intervals are not overlapping, thus indicating a significant decrease in prevalence from 1993 to 2008. The third study is a prospective, double-blind placebo controlled treatment study of BV. After conventional treatment with clindamycin, the patients were treated with adjuvant treatment of Lactobacilli-loaded tampons or placebo. The study showed no differences between the treatment and the placebo group, indicating that the tampon does not work at all. There are a variety of possible explanations for the result, which are analyzed in this thesis. The fourth study aimed to evaluate whether clindamycin is retained for a long time in the vaginal mucosa, thus disturbing the Lactobacilli in an attempt to reimplant Lactobacilli in the probiotic treatment studies. In conventional treatment, it is also useful to know whether clindamycin is retained, especially when considering the pressure from antibiotics on the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. In the study, we found that the clindamycin disappears rapidly. Conclusion: BV research requires effort from many different scientific disciplines and the riddle of this condition and its treatment can only be resolved by concerted actions in research and treatment. The vision for the future includes, among other factors, better molecular biology based diagnostic tools, and knowledge of population based bacterial floras
Living with coeliac disease beyond the diagnosis by Susanne Roos( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Introduction: Studies show that women living in Sweden treated for coeliac disease have lower subjective health than other women. After showing signs of remission, adults who have coeliac disease and follow a gluten-free diet, are expected to handle the treatment without any further planned follow-up by health care. Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to study aspects of living with coeliac disease in adults in the years beyond the diagnosis. Methods: Quantitative methods were used in Studies I, II and III. A qualitative content analysis was performed in Study IV. Results: The results show that women with coeliac disease have a lower level of well-being than men with coeliac disease. The women who have coeliac disease reported a high rate of gastrointestinal symptoms, although they followed a gluten-free diet, and they visited health care services more frequently than women who did not have coeliac disease. A low rate of gastrointestinal symptoms, a positive self-image and few comorbidity emerged as factors that positively affected well-being. Worries also seemed to be a companion of women diagnosed with coeliac disease in adulthood, typically evident when socializing with others. Conclusion: This thesis may provide evidence questioning the validity of declaring all women with coeliac disease showing a normalized intestinal mucosa to be in remission, and thus leaving them to self-management. Clinical implications: Health care professionals need to be aware of that the transition to a gluten-free life may vary for individuals. It does not seem enough to follow a gluten-free diet to reach a state of good well-being for all women. A major task for health care providers is therefore to support women with CD in reaching better subjective treatment outcomes. The results may also contribute to that health care system develops routines in order to optimise the care and treatment of these patients
Studies on variability in olanzapine disposition by Elisabeth Skogh( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders are chronic conditions with a significant impact on many functions. Positive, negative, cognitive and motor symptoms appear in different degrees and constellations. Antipsychotics are of fundamental importance to reduce symptoms. However, insufficient clinical effect and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are important limitations of this drug therapy. Olanzapine (OLA) is a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) drug widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. The drug has well-documented effects against positive symptoms and has been claimed to be efficacious also against negative symptoms. This thesis comprises of two studies. The aim of study 1 was to investigate factors that may influence the inter- and intra-individual variability of steady-state trough concentrations of OLA and its N-desmethyl metabolite (DMO) in serum. This was done in a cohort of patients treated with oral OLA in a routine clinical setting. In study 2 steady-state trough serum OLA and DMO concentrations were studied in relation to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) OLA and DMO concentrations in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, medicated with oral OLA as the only antipsychotic drug. We also analysed the effects of age, gender smoking and concomitant medication in both studies and in study 2 we also analysed polymorphisms in genes with suggested importance for OLA disposition. The drug metabolizing enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 have earlier been found to be of importance for OLA metabolism and one animal study has suggested a role for P-gp for the transport of OLA into the brain. Therefore we analysed the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP1A2 gene ( -3860G>A, -2467T>delT, -739T>G, -729C>T, -163C>A, and in the CYP2D6 gene (*3, *4, *5,*6, and*41) and in the ABCB1 gene (1236C>T, 3435C>T, and 2677G>A/T). Study 1 started as a post-marketing surveillance project. In 1997 a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) routine for serum OLA and DMO was established. During 1997-1999, a total of 753 TDM requests for a total of 545 Swedish patients were analysed. Additional patient information on certain clinical variables was collected on a specifically designed TDM request form. Samples from 194 patients were found to be eligible for further scrutiny. We found that the concentration-to-dose ratio (C/D) for OLA varied 25-fold and that of DMO 22-fold between individuals. The intraindividual variability over time was lower. Women had significantly higher median C/D ratio for OLA than men. However, the higher C/D ratio for OLA in women was statistically significant only in the non-smoking group. Non-smokers had significantly higher C/D ratio for OLA than smokers. Smokers received significantly higher daily doses of OLA than non-smokers. In the group with reported ADRs, the serum OLA concentration was 22% higher than in the group without ADRs. Patients co-medicated with carbamazepine had a 71% lower C/D ratio for OLA than patients who did not co-medicate with carbamazepine. Study 2 included 37 Caucasian outpatients (10 smokers and 27 non-smokers). CSF was collected from 29 out of them. Because of very low OLA and DMO concentrations in CSF, a new liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determination of OLA and DMO in serum and CSF was developed. We found a strong correlation between serum and CSF concentrations of OLA and a somewhat weaker corresponding correlation regarding DMO. The median CSF concentrations of OLA and DMO were on an average 13% and 16% of the serum levels. Non-smokers had higher (P <0.01) C/D ratio for OLA in serum and in CSF than smokers. Extensive metabolizers (EM) of CYP2D6 had higher daily OLA dosages than poor metabolizers (PM) when the influence of smoking was taken into account. EM smokers also showed lower CSF C/D for DMO than PM smokers. The DMO/OLA ratio in CSF showed a similar pattern, with a statistically significant combined effect of smoking and CYP2D6 genotype, EM smokers having the lowest and PM smokers the highest ratio. The combination of smoking and CYP2D6 genotype also affected the CSF/serum DMO ratio, PM smokers having the highest and EM smokers the lowest ratio (mean 20%, vs 9.5%). Patients co-medicating with benzodiazepines also showed higher CSF DMO/OLA ratio than patients without benzodiazepines. Moreover, DMO concentrations in CSF in relation to serum were higher in benzodiazepine users than in patients not comedicating with benzodiazepines (mean 24% vs 14.4%). Smoking habits did not affect these results. Carriers of the ABCB1 1236T/2677T/3435T haplotype had higher serum and CSF OLA concentrations than patients without this haplotype. The C/D ratios for serum DMO decreased with increasing age (P <0.05). In summary, smoking habits and co-medication with carbamazepine should be taken into consideration when dosing OLA. In study 1 we noted that women had higher serum C/D OLA ratio than men among non-smokers. This could not be confirmed in study 2, probably due to the small study population. Polymorphisms in genes of importance for OLA metabolism (CYP1A2 and CYP2D6) and transport (ABCB1) over membranes have some, but probably a minor, effect on serum and CSF concentrations. Larger studies are needed to confirm these observations. Smoking in combination with CYP2D6 polymorphism and the use of benzodiazepines affected the DMO metabolism in the brain in this study. However, because of low precision in the method at low DMO concentrations and a low number of patients, these results must also be confirmed in larger studies. The strong correlation between serum and CSF OLA concentrations established in study 2 indicates that factors influencing serum concentrations (such as smoking) also influence these concentrations in CSF. When patients are non-responsive to treatment, not compliant, vulnerable to ADRs on standard doses, or when drug interactions are suspected, TDM serum-OLA concentrations can be used as a diagnostic tool. Therapeutic drug monitoring is also of value to optimize long-term treatment of patients as environmental factors such as smoking and drug interactions may differ over time and could markedly interact with a patientþs metabolic capacity and thereby the therapeutic outcome
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy : is it right? by Meriam Åström Aneq( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited heart disease, where sudden cardiac death in young seemingly healthy persons may be the first symptom. There is a need for more sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods to detect signs of disease, at an early stage and in relatives of affected individuals. The aim of this thesis is the evaluation of new non-invasive modalities in assessment of right ventricular (RV) volume and function with focus on patients with ARVC. Clinical and non-invasive follow-up of fifteen patients with ARVC during a mean period of 8 years permitted the evaluation of disease progression. RV volume analysis by magnetic resonance imaging relies on short axis (SA) views. A new axially rotated modality acquisition was tested and its feasibility in assessment of RV volume was evaluated. This acquisition seems to be able to improve the assessment of RV volume and function by reducing the uncertainty in defining the basal slice of the RV. A third study concentrated on analysis of RV regional and general function by echocardiography, using tissue Doppler imaging as well as two dimensional (2D) longitudinal strain based on speckle tracking in patients with ARVC, their first degree relatives and in healthy subjects. 2D strain showed a good feasibility in analysis of the RV function in relatives and controls but less in ARVC patients probably due to the progressive myocardial cell death with fibro-fatty replacement of the RV wall. In order to detect and follow up echocardiographic changes an index was developed combining dimensional and functional parameters for the left and for the right ventricle. Advances in the molecular genetics of ARVC have provided new insights into the understanding of the disease. Hitherto, 9 candidate genes have been identified. A new mutation in the plakophilin 2 gene was detected in a three generation family. The clinical phenotype related to this mutation was investigated. The studies have evaluated and developed methods for studying the right ventricle with special emphasis on ARVC. With the ultimate goal of preventing sudden death in ARVC, a combination of genetic testing and improved diagnostic methods may create an improved algorithm for risk stratification and selection to prophylactic treatment
Cognitive functions in drivers with brain injury : anticipation and adaptation by Anna Lundqvist( Book )

1 edition published in 2001 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Aspects of Parkinson's disease : epidemiology, risk factors and ECT in advanced disease by Per-Arne Fall( Book )

2 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Child physical abuse : characteristics, prevalence, health and risk-taking by Eva-Maria Annerbäck( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The home is supposed to provide support and safety for children but can also be the place where children suffer abuse and other adverse treatment by their parents. Violence against children in homes has been banned in Sweden for more than 30 years but it is still a considerable problem in the society and a threat to public health. The overall aim of this thesis was to create comprehensive knowledge of the phenomenon Child Physical Abuse (CPA) in Sweden after the ban on corporal punishment. The focus has been on examining the characteristics of cases reported to the police as well as self-reported CPA, prevalence of CPA and finally associations between CPA and health-problems/risk-taking behaviors among adolescents. Two samples are used in this thesis. The first comprises cases reported to the police during 11 years (n=142) in a Swedish police-district and the second is a population-based youth survey of the total number of pupils in three different school grades (13, 15 and 17 years old) in Södermanland County, Sweden. Cases of severe abuse constituted 14 % of the total number of cases reported to the police. The main difference between the group of severe cases and the remaining was the higher occurrence of convictions in court in the severe cases and the pattern of reporting to the police. The severe cases were reported by agencies to a greater degree than minor cases. Cases of severe abuse were characterized by an accumulation of risk factors in different areas as perpetrator factors, stress- and strain factors, factors of insufficient social network and finally child-related factors. In the cross-sectional study a prevalence of 15 % was found for self-reported CPA (n=8 494). There were associations between risk factors in different areas and abuse and there was a dos-response relationship between risks and reported abuse. It was shown that children who reported parental intimate-partner violence were at considerably higher risk for CPA than other children and that only 7 % of the children exposed to violence had disclosed this to authorities. The study of associations between health and risk-taking behaviors, were performed among the 15 and 17 years old pupils (n=5 933). Associations with health-problems and risk-taking behaviors were shown and the associations became stronger when the pupils reported repeated abuse. Finally there was a cumulative effect of multiple abuse in the form of being exposed to child physical abuse plus other types of abuse (parental intimate partner violence, bullying and being forced to engage in sexual acts) and the associations increased with the number of concurrent abuse
Management of patients treated with left ventricular assist devices : a clinical and experimental study by Bengt Peterzén( Book )

2 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The sleep of the child - the parent's stressor? : a study within the ABIS project by Peder Palmstierna( Book )

2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Poor sleep and chronic stress are important factors detrimental to physical and mental health. This is no less true for children than for adults. Therefore, investigating sleep and stress patterns in early life is important. Since children live in a close relationship to their parents, the sleep and stress patterns of the parents is likely to influence those of the children. In this thesis, the relationships between parent-reported child sleep quality, self-reported parent sleep quality, and parenting stress as measured by the Swedish Parenting Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ) have been investigated. Several background factors have been tested for associations to parent and child sleep quality and parenting stress, and their possible involvement in the associations between sleep and stress measures has been investigated. The hypotheses were that child sleep, parental sleep and parenting stress show concurrent intermeasure associations and longitudinal intrameasure stability, which should also generate longitudinal intermeasure associations. The participants were parents of about 10000 children in the ABIS study, born in south-east Sweden in the years 1997-99. Questionnaires were gathered at birth and at 1, 3 and 5 years and data analyzed statistically The hypotheses were supported: sleep and stress measures showed strong concurrent associations and longitudinal stability. However, parental sleep quality seems to explain most of the child sleep-parenting stress association. All background factors except child gender showed some level of association to sleep and stress measures at least at some age. No background factor had any effect on the associations between sleep and stress measures when included in logistic regression. Our data does not support the hypothesis that night feedings condition the child to night wakings. A possible predictor of persistent sleep problems is found in uncertainty about the cause of night wakings. To conclude, parent-perceived child sleep quality has a connection to parenting stress which in our data is mainly explained through parental sleep quality. This is important to consider when advising parents that complain about their child/ren's sleep quality
The norovirus puzzle : characterization of human and bovine norovirus susceptibility patterns by Malin Vildevall( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

 
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Alternative Names
Faculty of Health Sciences

Hälsouniversitetet

Hälsouniversitetet i Linköping

Hälsouniversitetet i Östergötland

Hälsouniversitetet (Linköping, Švédsko)

Hälsouniversitetet (Linköping, Sweden)

Linköping University. Faculty of Health Sciences

Linköping University. Health University

Linköpings högskola. Medicinska fakulteten

Linköpings universitet. Medicinska fakulteten

Universitetet i Linköping Faculty of Health Sciences

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