Redmer, Ronald
Overview
Works:  50 works in 86 publications in 2 languages and 583 library holdings 

Genres:  Conference papers and proceedings 
Roles:  Author, Editor, Other, Contributor 
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by
Ronald Redmer
Metaltononmetal transitions by
Ronald Redmer(
)
12 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 428 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This book is devoted to nonmetaltometal transitions. The original ideas of Mott for such a transition in solids have been adapted to describe a broad variety of phenomena in condensed matter physics (solids, liquids, and fluids), in plasma and cluster physics, as well as in nuclear physics (nuclear matter and quarkgluon systems). The book gives a comprehensive overview of theoretical methods and experimental results of the current research on the Mott effect for this wide spectrum of topics. The fundamental problem is the
12 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 428 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This book is devoted to nonmetaltometal transitions. The original ideas of Mott for such a transition in solids have been adapted to describe a broad variety of phenomena in condensed matter physics (solids, liquids, and fluids), in plasma and cluster physics, as well as in nuclear physics (nuclear matter and quarkgluon systems). The book gives a comprehensive overview of theoretical methods and experimental results of the current research on the Mott effect for this wide spectrum of topics. The fundamental problem is the
Frontiers and challenges in warm dense matter by
Frank Graziani(
)
9 editions published between 2014 and 2016 in English and held by 33 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Warm Dense Matter (WDM) occupies a loosely defined region of phase space intermediate between solid, liquid, gas, and plasma, and typically shares characteristics of two or more of these phases. WDM is generally associated with the combination of strongly coupled ions and moderately degenerate electrons, and careful attention to quantum physics and electronic structure is essential. The lack of a small perturbation parameter greatly limits approximate attempts at its accurate description. Since WDM resides at the intersection of solid state and high energy density physics, many high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments pass through this difficult region of phase space. Thus, understanding and modeling WDM is key to the success of experiments on diverse facilities. These include the National Ignition Campaign centered on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), pulsedpower driven experiments on the Z machine, ionbeamdriven WDM experiments on the NDCXII, and fundamental WDM research at the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Warm Dense Matter is also ubiquitous in planetary science and astrophysics, particularly with respect to unresolved questions concerning the structure and age of the gas giants, the nature of exosolar planets, and the cosmochronology of white dwarf stars. In this book we explore established and promising approaches to the modeling of WDM, foundational issues concerning the correct theoretical description of WDM, and the challenging practical issues of numerically modeling strongly coupled systems with many degrees of freedom
9 editions published between 2014 and 2016 in English and held by 33 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Warm Dense Matter (WDM) occupies a loosely defined region of phase space intermediate between solid, liquid, gas, and plasma, and typically shares characteristics of two or more of these phases. WDM is generally associated with the combination of strongly coupled ions and moderately degenerate electrons, and careful attention to quantum physics and electronic structure is essential. The lack of a small perturbation parameter greatly limits approximate attempts at its accurate description. Since WDM resides at the intersection of solid state and high energy density physics, many high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments pass through this difficult region of phase space. Thus, understanding and modeling WDM is key to the success of experiments on diverse facilities. These include the National Ignition Campaign centered on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), pulsedpower driven experiments on the Z machine, ionbeamdriven WDM experiments on the NDCXII, and fundamental WDM research at the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Warm Dense Matter is also ubiquitous in planetary science and astrophysics, particularly with respect to unresolved questions concerning the structure and age of the gas giants, the nature of exosolar planets, and the cosmochronology of white dwarf stars. In this book we explore established and promising approaches to the modeling of WDM, foundational issues concerning the correct theoretical description of WDM, and the challenging practical issues of numerically modeling strongly coupled systems with many degrees of freedom
Physical properties of dense, low temperature plasmas by
Ronald Redmer(
Book
)
3 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 11 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
3 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 11 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
[Diagnostik stark gekoppelter Plasmen nahe der Festkörperdichte] Schlussbericht ; Verbund: FSP 301  FLASH: Materie im Licht
ultrakurzer und extrem intensiver Röntgenpulse ; Förderzeitraum: 01.07.200730.06.2010(
)
2 editions published in 2011 in German and held by 9 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
2 editions published in 2011 in German and held by 9 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Verbund: FSP 302 Freie Elektronen Laser: Kondensierte Materie unter extremen Bedingungen Thema: TP 2: LichtMaterieWechselwirkung
und Diagnostik von Materie unter extremen Bedingungen : Schlussbericht(
)
1 edition published in 2017 in German and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
1 edition published in 2017 in German and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Thermodynamische und Transporteigenschaften dichter AlkaliPlasmen by
Ronald Redmer(
Book
)
4 editions published in 1991 in German and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
4 editions published in 1991 in German and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Temperature Measurements of Dense Plasmas by Detailed Balance(
)
1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Plasmas at high electron densities of n{sub e} = 10{sup 20}  10{sup 26} cm{sup 3} and moderate temperatures T{sub e} = 1  20 eV are important for laboratory astrophysics, high energy density science and inertial confinement fusion. These plasmas are usually referred to as Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and are characterized by a coupling parameter of {Lambda} {approx}> 1 where correlations become important. The characterization of such plasmas is still a challenging task due to the lack of direct measurement techniques for temperatures and densities. They propose to measure the Thomson scattering spectrum of vacuumUV radiation off density fluctuations in the plasma. Collective Thomson scattering provides accurate data for the electron temperature applying first principles. Further, this method takes advantage of the spectral asymmetry resulting from detailed balance and is independent of collisional effects in these dense systems
1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Plasmas at high electron densities of n{sub e} = 10{sup 20}  10{sup 26} cm{sup 3} and moderate temperatures T{sub e} = 1  20 eV are important for laboratory astrophysics, high energy density science and inertial confinement fusion. These plasmas are usually referred to as Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and are characterized by a coupling parameter of {Lambda} {approx}> 1 where correlations become important. The characterization of such plasmas is still a challenging task due to the lack of direct measurement techniques for temperatures and densities. They propose to measure the Thomson scattering spectrum of vacuumUV radiation off density fluctuations in the plasma. Collective Thomson scattering provides accurate data for the electron temperature applying first principles. Further, this method takes advantage of the spectral asymmetry resulting from detailed balance and is independent of collisional effects in these dense systems
TimeSpace Position of Warm Dense Matter in Laser Plasma Interaction Process(
)
1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Laser plasma interaction experiments have been perform performed using an fs Titanium Sapphire laser. Plasmas have been generated from planar PMMA targets using single laser pulses with 3.3 mJ pulse energy, 50 fs pulse duration at 800 nm wavelength. Electron density distributions of the plasmas in different delay times have been characterized by means of Nomarski Interferometry. Experimental data were cautiously compared with relevant 1D numerical simulation. Finally these results provide a first experience of searching for the timespace position of the socalled warm dense plasma in an ultra fast laser target interaction process. These experiments aim to prepare near soliddensity plasmas for Thomson scattering experiments using the short wavelength freeelectron laser FLASH, DESY Hamburg
1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Laser plasma interaction experiments have been perform performed using an fs Titanium Sapphire laser. Plasmas have been generated from planar PMMA targets using single laser pulses with 3.3 mJ pulse energy, 50 fs pulse duration at 800 nm wavelength. Electron density distributions of the plasmas in different delay times have been characterized by means of Nomarski Interferometry. Experimental data were cautiously compared with relevant 1D numerical simulation. Finally these results provide a first experience of searching for the timespace position of the socalled warm dense plasma in an ultra fast laser target interaction process. These experiments aim to prepare near soliddensity plasmas for Thomson scattering experiments using the short wavelength freeelectron laser FLASH, DESY Hamburg
Thomson Scattering Measurements of Plasma Dynamics(
)
1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The authors propose to investigate the dynamics of plasmas in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime on ultrashort time scales. Accessible plasma conditions are in the density range of n = 10{sup 20}  10{sup 23} cm{sup 3} and at moderate temperatures of T = 1  20 eV. These plasmas are of importance for laboratory astrophysics, high energy density science and inertial confinement fusion. They are characterized by a coupling parameter of {Lambda} {approx}> 1, where electromagnetic interactions are of the same order as the kinetic energy. The high density of the plasma makes it opaque to radiation in the visible range and, as a consequence, UV up to xray radiation can be used to probe such systems. Therefore a wide range in the temperaturedensity plane of WDM is presently unexplored and only the VUVFEL opens for the first time the opportunity for its detailed investigation. In equilibrium, the macroscopic state of the plasma is completely characterized by its density and temperature. In pumpprobe experiments however, the plasma is initially in a nonequilibrium state and relaxes towards equilibrium within the relaxation time {tau}{sub R}. For t> {tau}{sub R}, the plasma is in an equilibrium state and expands hydrodynamically on a time scale {tau}{sub H}. The proposed experiment measures the timeresolved Thomson scattering signal with the VUVFEL radiation characterizing the plasma in equilibrium and nonequilibrium states. Both regimes are extremely interesting and will provide new insight into the following phenomena: (1) details of nonequilibrium correlations, (2) relaxation phenomena, (3) hydrodynamic expansion, (4) recombination kinetics. The timeresolved Thomson scattering signal is obtained in a pumpprobe experiment by varying the delay between pump and probe. The final stage of the relaxation process (t {approx} {tau}{sub R}) is of special interest since the plasma components (electrons and ion species) can be assumed to be in quasiequilibrium. This allows for accurate measurements of the electron temperature using the detailed balance relation. For times t {approx}<{tau}{sub R} the scattering spectrum provides also the plasmon damping in nonequilibrium from which information on the formation and decay of collective excitations at short time scales can be obtained. At large time scales (t {approx}> {tau}{sub H}) the hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma sets in. Detailed information on the evolution of the plasma in this regime is available from sophisticated hydrodynamic computer simulations which can be tested with the proposed measurements. With the decreasing plasma density due to the expansion, recombination processes become important and need to be considered as well
1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The authors propose to investigate the dynamics of plasmas in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime on ultrashort time scales. Accessible plasma conditions are in the density range of n = 10{sup 20}  10{sup 23} cm{sup 3} and at moderate temperatures of T = 1  20 eV. These plasmas are of importance for laboratory astrophysics, high energy density science and inertial confinement fusion. They are characterized by a coupling parameter of {Lambda} {approx}> 1, where electromagnetic interactions are of the same order as the kinetic energy. The high density of the plasma makes it opaque to radiation in the visible range and, as a consequence, UV up to xray radiation can be used to probe such systems. Therefore a wide range in the temperaturedensity plane of WDM is presently unexplored and only the VUVFEL opens for the first time the opportunity for its detailed investigation. In equilibrium, the macroscopic state of the plasma is completely characterized by its density and temperature. In pumpprobe experiments however, the plasma is initially in a nonequilibrium state and relaxes towards equilibrium within the relaxation time {tau}{sub R}. For t> {tau}{sub R}, the plasma is in an equilibrium state and expands hydrodynamically on a time scale {tau}{sub H}. The proposed experiment measures the timeresolved Thomson scattering signal with the VUVFEL radiation characterizing the plasma in equilibrium and nonequilibrium states. Both regimes are extremely interesting and will provide new insight into the following phenomena: (1) details of nonequilibrium correlations, (2) relaxation phenomena, (3) hydrodynamic expansion, (4) recombination kinetics. The timeresolved Thomson scattering signal is obtained in a pumpprobe experiment by varying the delay between pump and probe. The final stage of the relaxation process (t {approx} {tau}{sub R}) is of special interest since the plasma components (electrons and ion species) can be assumed to be in quasiequilibrium. This allows for accurate measurements of the electron temperature using the detailed balance relation. For times t {approx}<{tau}{sub R} the scattering spectrum provides also the plasmon damping in nonequilibrium from which information on the formation and decay of collective excitations at short time scales can be obtained. At large time scales (t {approx}> {tau}{sub H}) the hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma sets in. Detailed information on the evolution of the plasma in this regime is available from sophisticated hydrodynamic computer simulations which can be tested with the proposed measurements. With the decreasing plasma density due to the expansion, recombination processes become important and need to be considered as well
Electronic Structure of Dense Plasmas by XRay Scattering(
)
1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We present an improved analytical expression for the xray dynamic structure factor from a dense plasma which includes the effects of weakly bound electrons. This result can be applied to describe scattering from low to moderate Z plasmas, and it covers the entire range of plasma conditions that can be found in inertial confinement fusion experiments, from ideal to degenerate up to moderately coupled systems. We use our theory to interpret xray scattering experiments from solid density carbon plasma and to extract accurate measurements of electron temperature, electron density and charge state. We use our experimental results to validate various equationofstate models for carbon plasmas
1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We present an improved analytical expression for the xray dynamic structure factor from a dense plasma which includes the effects of weakly bound electrons. This result can be applied to describe scattering from low to moderate Z plasmas, and it covers the entire range of plasma conditions that can be found in inertial confinement fusion experiments, from ideal to degenerate up to moderately coupled systems. We use our theory to interpret xray scattering experiments from solid density carbon plasma and to extract accurate measurements of electron temperature, electron density and charge state. We use our experimental results to validate various equationofstate models for carbon plasmas
Electronic Structure Measurement of Solid Density Plasmas using XRay Scattering(
)
1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We present an improved analytical expression for the xray dynamic structure factor from a dense plasma which includes the effects of weakly bound electrons. This result can be applied to describe scattering from low to moderate Z plasmas, and it covers the entire range of plasma conditions that can be found in inertial confinement fusion experiments, from ideal to degenerate up to moderately coupled systems. We use our theory to interpret xray scattering experiments from solid density carbon plasma and to extract accurate measurements of electron temperature, electron density and charge state. We use our experimental results to validate various equationofstate models for carbon plasmas
1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We present an improved analytical expression for the xray dynamic structure factor from a dense plasma which includes the effects of weakly bound electrons. This result can be applied to describe scattering from low to moderate Z plasmas, and it covers the entire range of plasma conditions that can be found in inertial confinement fusion experiments, from ideal to degenerate up to moderately coupled systems. We use our theory to interpret xray scattering experiments from solid density carbon plasma and to extract accurate measurements of electron temperature, electron density and charge state. We use our experimental results to validate various equationofstate models for carbon plasmas
Investigation of the Electronic Structure of Solid Density Plasmas by XRay Scattering(
)
1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We present an improved analytical expression for the xray dynamic structure factor from a dense plasma which includes the effects of weakly bound electrons. This result can be applied to describe scattering from low to moderate Z plasmas, and it covers the entire range of plasma conditions that can be found in inertial confinement fusion experiments, from ideal to degenerate up to moderately coupled systems. We use our theory to interpret xray scattering experiments from solid density carbon plasma and to extract accurate measurements of electron temperature, electron density and charge state. We use our experimental results to validate various equationofstate models for carbon plasmas
1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We present an improved analytical expression for the xray dynamic structure factor from a dense plasma which includes the effects of weakly bound electrons. This result can be applied to describe scattering from low to moderate Z plasmas, and it covers the entire range of plasma conditions that can be found in inertial confinement fusion experiments, from ideal to degenerate up to moderately coupled systems. We use our theory to interpret xray scattering experiments from solid density carbon plasma and to extract accurate measurements of electron temperature, electron density and charge state. We use our experimental results to validate various equationofstate models for carbon plasmas
14th international conference on the physics of nonideal plasmas : PNP14, September 914, 2012, Rostock, Germany by International Conference on the Physics of NonIdeal Plasmas(
)
2 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
2 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Zum Einfluß neutraler Bindungszustände auf die thermodynamischen und Transporteigenschaften im partiell ionisierten ZäsiumPlasma by
Ronald Redmer(
)
4 editions published between 1985 and 1986 in German and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
4 editions published between 1985 and 1986 in German and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Highpressure equations of state and phase diagrams of molecular HCNO compounds by
Mandy Bethkenhagen(
Book
)
2 editions published in 2016 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The thermodynamic description of molecular systems composed of water, ammonia, and methane at high pressure up to 1 TPa is the subject of this thesis. The focus lies on the calculation of equations of state, phase diagrams, and their characterization by employing the quantumstatistical method density functional theory molecular dynamics. In particular superionic phases are investigated using evolutionary structure searching and the linear mixing approximation is validated. The obtained simulation results serve as input for modeling the interior structure of giant planets such as Uranus.<eng>
2 editions published in 2016 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The thermodynamic description of molecular systems composed of water, ammonia, and methane at high pressure up to 1 TPa is the subject of this thesis. The focus lies on the calculation of equations of state, phase diagrams, and their characterization by employing the quantumstatistical method density functional theory molecular dynamics. In particular superionic phases are investigated using evolutionary structure searching and the linear mixing approximation is validated. The obtained simulation results serve as input for modeling the interior structure of giant planets such as Uranus.<eng>
Physical properties of dense, lowtemperature plasmas by
Ronald Redmer(
Book
)
3 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
3 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Berechnung der Struktureigenschaften dichter Plasmen mit der ClassicalMap Hypernetted Chain Approximation by
Richard Bredow(
Book
)
2 editions published in 2016 in German and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Warme dichte Materie ist durch hohe Temperaturen und Dichten charakterisiert und für die Modellierung von astrophysikalischen Objekten, aber auch der Trägheitsfusion von besonderem Interesse. Moderne Lasersysteme wie FreieElektronenLaser ermöglichen es, mit Hilfe der Röngtenthomsonstreuung (XRTS) akkurate Diagnostik der Struktur und Thermodynamik von WDM durchzuführen. Diese Arbeit hat zum Ziel, auf Basis der Lösung der OrnsteinZernikeRelation mittels der ClassicalMap Hypernetted Chain Approximation (CHNC) Strukturanalysen und Rechnungen zur Thermodynamik durchzuführen und auszuwerten.<ger>
2 editions published in 2016 in German and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Warme dichte Materie ist durch hohe Temperaturen und Dichten charakterisiert und für die Modellierung von astrophysikalischen Objekten, aber auch der Trägheitsfusion von besonderem Interesse. Moderne Lasersysteme wie FreieElektronenLaser ermöglichen es, mit Hilfe der Röngtenthomsonstreuung (XRTS) akkurate Diagnostik der Struktur und Thermodynamik von WDM durchzuführen. Diese Arbeit hat zum Ziel, auf Basis der Lösung der OrnsteinZernikeRelation mittels der ClassicalMap Hypernetted Chain Approximation (CHNC) Strukturanalysen und Rechnungen zur Thermodynamik durchzuführen und auszuwerten.<ger>
Evolution des Saturn auf der Basis von ab initioZustandsgleichungen by
Robert Püstow(
Book
)
2 editions published in 2015 in German and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Die homogene Evolution des Saturn liefert ein Alter von 23 Gyr. Verglichen mit dem Sonnensystem (4.56 Gyr) ist dies zu kurz. Ich untersuchte den Einfluss unterschiedlicher Zustandsgleichungen für Wasserstoff, Helium und schwerere Elemente und den Effekt der HHeEntmischung auf die innere Struktur und das Kühlungsverhalten des Saturn. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass sich durch den Entmischungseffekt eine Schicht aus nahezu reinem Helium auf dem Planetenkern bildet. Die freiwerdende Gravitationsenergie verlangsamt den Kühlungsprozess.<ger>
2 editions published in 2015 in German and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Die homogene Evolution des Saturn liefert ein Alter von 23 Gyr. Verglichen mit dem Sonnensystem (4.56 Gyr) ist dies zu kurz. Ich untersuchte den Einfluss unterschiedlicher Zustandsgleichungen für Wasserstoff, Helium und schwerere Elemente und den Effekt der HHeEntmischung auf die innere Struktur und das Kühlungsverhalten des Saturn. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass sich durch den Entmischungseffekt eine Schicht aus nahezu reinem Helium auf dem Planetenkern bildet. Die freiwerdende Gravitationsenergie verlangsamt den Kühlungsprozess.<ger>
Berechnung des dynamischen Strukturfaktors in warmer dichter Materie mit abinitioSimulationen by
KaiUwe Plagemann(
Book
)
2 editions published in 2016 in German and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Die Charakterisierung von warmer dichter Materie stellt ein wichtiges Forschungsgebiet und eine große Herausforderung für Experimente und Theorie dar. Eine Möglichkeit der Darstellung bilden RöntgenThomsonstreuexperimente, aus deren Resultaten der dynamische Strukturfaktor gewonnen werden kann. Diese Arbeit hat das Ziel, diese Größe aus FTDFTMDSimulationen zu erhalten, mit einer über die Störungstheorie hinausgehenden Behandlung der Quanten und Korrelationseffekte. Die erhaltenen Strukturfaktoren werden mit anderen theoretischen Modellen und Experimenten für Beryllium und Bor verglichen.<ger>
2 editions published in 2016 in German and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Die Charakterisierung von warmer dichter Materie stellt ein wichtiges Forschungsgebiet und eine große Herausforderung für Experimente und Theorie dar. Eine Möglichkeit der Darstellung bilden RöntgenThomsonstreuexperimente, aus deren Resultaten der dynamische Strukturfaktor gewonnen werden kann. Diese Arbeit hat das Ziel, diese Größe aus FTDFTMDSimulationen zu erhalten, mit einer über die Störungstheorie hinausgehenden Behandlung der Quanten und Korrelationseffekte. Die erhaltenen Strukturfaktoren werden mit anderen theoretischen Modellen und Experimenten für Beryllium und Bor verglichen.<ger>
Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on the Physics of Nonideal Plasmas September 611, 1998, Rostock, Germany. ;
reviewed papers by
International Workshop on the Physics of Nonideal Plasmas(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
2 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
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Related Identities
 Holst, Bastian Editor
 Hensel, Friedrich 1933 Editor
 Trickey, Samuel B. Editor
 Graziani, Frank Author Editor
 Desjarlais, Michael P. Editor
 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Researcher
 Glenzer, S. H.
 United States Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Distributor
 Alastuey, A.
 United States Department of Energy Sponsor
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Computer engineering Computer science Computer scienceMathematics Condensed matter Dynamics Electrical engineering ElectronicsMaterials Materials science Mathematics MatterProperties Microscopy Nanotechnology Optical materials Phase rule and equilibriumMathematical models Physics Plasma (Ionized gases) Plasma density Quantum theory Solid state physics Spectrum analysis Statistical physics Superconductivity Superconductors Surfaces (Physics) Transition metals