Cayssol, Jérôme
Overview
Works:  25 works in 34 publications in 2 languages and 243 library holdings 

Roles:  Editor, Opponent, Other, htt, Thesis advisor, Author 
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by
Jérôme Cayssol
Topological matter : lectures from the Topological Matter School 2017 by Topological Matter School(
)
10 editions published in 2018 in English and held by 215 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This book covers basic and advanced aspects in the field of topological matter. The chapters are based on the lectures presented during the Topological Matter School 2017. It provides graduate level content introducing the basic concepts of the field, including an introductory session on group theory and topological classification of matter. Different topological phases such as Weyls semimetals, Majoranas fermions and topological superconductivity are also covered. A review chapter on the major experimental achievements in the field is also provided. The book is suitable not only for master, graduate and young postdoctoral researchers, but also to senior scientists who want to acquaint themselves with the subject
10 editions published in 2018 in English and held by 215 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This book covers basic and advanced aspects in the field of topological matter. The chapters are based on the lectures presented during the Topological Matter School 2017. It provides graduate level content introducing the basic concepts of the field, including an introductory session on group theory and topological classification of matter. Different topological phases such as Weyls semimetals, Majoranas fermions and topological superconductivity are also covered. A review chapter on the major experimental achievements in the field is also provided. The book is suitable not only for master, graduate and young postdoctoral researchers, but also to senior scientists who want to acquaint themselves with the subject
Nonlinéarités quantiques d'un qubit en couplage ultrafort avec un guide d'ondes by
Nicolas Gheeraert(
)
1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In the recent years, the field of lightmatter interaction has made a further stride forward with the advent of superconducting qubits ultrastrongly coupled to open waveguides. In this setting, the qubit becomes simultaneously coupled to many different modes of the waveguide, thus turning into a highly intricate lightmatter object. Investigating the wealth of new dynamical phenomena that emerge from the high complexity of these engineered quantum manybody systems is the main objective of this thesis.As a first crucial step, we tackle the timeevolution of such a nontrivial system using a novel numerical technique based on an expansion of the full state vector in terms of multimode coherent states. Inspired by earlier semiclassical approaches, this numerically exact method provides an important advance compared to the stateoftheart techniques that have been used so far to study the manymode ultrastrong coupling regime. Crucially, it also keeps track of every detail of the dynamics of the complete qubitwaveguide system, allowing both to perform the tomography and to extract multiparticle scattering of the waveguide degrees of freedom.An exploration of the manymode ultrastrong coupling regime using this new technique led to the two core theoretical predictions of this thesis. The first demonstrates that the radiation spontaneously emitted by an excited qubit takes the form of a Schrödinger cat state of light, a result strikingly different from the usual singlephoton emission known from standard quantum optics. The second prediction concerns the scattering of lowpower coherent signals on a qubit, a very common experimental protocol performed routinely in laboratories. Most remarkably, it is shown that the qubit nonlinearity, transferred to the waveguide through the ultrastrong lightmatter interaction, is able to split photons from the incoming beam into several lowerenergy photons, leading to the emergence of a lowfrequency continuum in the scattered power spectrum that dominates the inelastic signal. By studying the secondorder correlation function of the radiated field, it is also shown that emission at ultrastrong coupling displays characteristic signatures of particle production.In the final part of the thesis, the secondorder correlation function is investigated again, but this time experimentally, and in the regime of moderate coupling. Although the results are still preliminary, this part of the thesis will provide an instructive account of signal measurement theory and will allow to understanding indepth the experimental procedure involved in measuring quantum microwave signals. Moreover, the experimental developments and microwave simulations tools described in this section could be applied in the future to signals emitted by ultrastrongly coupled qubits, in order to observe the signatures of particle production revealed by the secondorder correlation function
1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In the recent years, the field of lightmatter interaction has made a further stride forward with the advent of superconducting qubits ultrastrongly coupled to open waveguides. In this setting, the qubit becomes simultaneously coupled to many different modes of the waveguide, thus turning into a highly intricate lightmatter object. Investigating the wealth of new dynamical phenomena that emerge from the high complexity of these engineered quantum manybody systems is the main objective of this thesis.As a first crucial step, we tackle the timeevolution of such a nontrivial system using a novel numerical technique based on an expansion of the full state vector in terms of multimode coherent states. Inspired by earlier semiclassical approaches, this numerically exact method provides an important advance compared to the stateoftheart techniques that have been used so far to study the manymode ultrastrong coupling regime. Crucially, it also keeps track of every detail of the dynamics of the complete qubitwaveguide system, allowing both to perform the tomography and to extract multiparticle scattering of the waveguide degrees of freedom.An exploration of the manymode ultrastrong coupling regime using this new technique led to the two core theoretical predictions of this thesis. The first demonstrates that the radiation spontaneously emitted by an excited qubit takes the form of a Schrödinger cat state of light, a result strikingly different from the usual singlephoton emission known from standard quantum optics. The second prediction concerns the scattering of lowpower coherent signals on a qubit, a very common experimental protocol performed routinely in laboratories. Most remarkably, it is shown that the qubit nonlinearity, transferred to the waveguide through the ultrastrong lightmatter interaction, is able to split photons from the incoming beam into several lowerenergy photons, leading to the emergence of a lowfrequency continuum in the scattered power spectrum that dominates the inelastic signal. By studying the secondorder correlation function of the radiated field, it is also shown that emission at ultrastrong coupling displays characteristic signatures of particle production.In the final part of the thesis, the secondorder correlation function is investigated again, but this time experimentally, and in the regime of moderate coupling. Although the results are still preliminary, this part of the thesis will provide an instructive account of signal measurement theory and will allow to understanding indepth the experimental procedure involved in measuring quantum microwave signals. Moreover, the experimental developments and microwave simulations tools described in this section could be applied in the future to signals emitted by ultrastrongly coupled qubits, in order to observe the signatures of particle production revealed by the secondorder correlation function
Strained HgTe/CdTe topological insulators, toward spintronic applications by
Candice Thomas(
)
1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
With graphenelike transport properties governed by massless Dirac fermions and a topological protection preventing from backscattering phenomena, topological insulators, characterized by an insulating bulk and conducting surfaces, are of main interest to build low power consumption electronic buildingblocks of primary importance for future electronics.Indeed, the absence of disorder, the generation of dissipationless spinpolarized current or even the possibility to generate pure spin current without magnetic materials are some of the promises of these new materials.The objective of this PhD thesis has been to experimentally demonstrate the eligibility of HgTe three dimensional topological insulator system for applications and especially for spintronics.To do so, strong efforts have been dedicated to the improvement of the growth process by molecular beam epitaxy.Chemical composition, strain, defect density and sharpness of the HgTe interfaces have been identified as the major parameters of study and improvement to ensure HgTe inverted band structure, bulk gap opening and to emphasize the resulting topological surface state electronic properties. Verification of the topological nature of this system has then been performed using low temperature magnetotransport measurements of Hall bars designed with various HgTe thicknesses. It is worth noting that the high desorption rate of Hg has made the nanofabrication process more complex and required the development of a low temperature process adapted to this constraint. While the thicker samples have evidenced very complex transport signatures that need to be further investigated and understood, the thickness reduction has led to the suppression of any additional contributions, such as bulk or even side surfaces, and the demonstration of quantum Hall effect with vanishing resistance. Consequently, we have managed to demonstrate direct evidences of Dirac fermions by temperature dependent analysis of the quantum Hall effect. The next step has been to use the topological properties and especially the locking predicted between momentum and spin to test the HgTe potential for spintronics. Spin pumping experiments have demonstrated the power of these topological structures for spin injection and detection. Moreover, the implementation of HgTe into simple pn junction has also been investigated to realize a first spinbased logic element
1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
With graphenelike transport properties governed by massless Dirac fermions and a topological protection preventing from backscattering phenomena, topological insulators, characterized by an insulating bulk and conducting surfaces, are of main interest to build low power consumption electronic buildingblocks of primary importance for future electronics.Indeed, the absence of disorder, the generation of dissipationless spinpolarized current or even the possibility to generate pure spin current without magnetic materials are some of the promises of these new materials.The objective of this PhD thesis has been to experimentally demonstrate the eligibility of HgTe three dimensional topological insulator system for applications and especially for spintronics.To do so, strong efforts have been dedicated to the improvement of the growth process by molecular beam epitaxy.Chemical composition, strain, defect density and sharpness of the HgTe interfaces have been identified as the major parameters of study and improvement to ensure HgTe inverted band structure, bulk gap opening and to emphasize the resulting topological surface state electronic properties. Verification of the topological nature of this system has then been performed using low temperature magnetotransport measurements of Hall bars designed with various HgTe thicknesses. It is worth noting that the high desorption rate of Hg has made the nanofabrication process more complex and required the development of a low temperature process adapted to this constraint. While the thicker samples have evidenced very complex transport signatures that need to be further investigated and understood, the thickness reduction has led to the suppression of any additional contributions, such as bulk or even side surfaces, and the demonstration of quantum Hall effect with vanishing resistance. Consequently, we have managed to demonstrate direct evidences of Dirac fermions by temperature dependent analysis of the quantum Hall effect. The next step has been to use the topological properties and especially the locking predicted between momentum and spin to test the HgTe potential for spintronics. Spin pumping experiments have demonstrated the power of these topological structures for spin injection and detection. Moreover, the implementation of HgTe into simple pn junction has also been investigated to realize a first spinbased logic element
Propriétés hors équilibre des jonctions Josephson multiterminales et topologiques by
Mouhamadou Driss Badiane(
)
1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Magnetic resonance in superconducting junctions by
Lars Elster(
)
1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this thesis we investigate the possibility to change the charge current in superconducting junctions by manipulating the spin properties using magnetic resonance. We consider two different junctions: First, an unconventional Josephson junction between a conventional swave superconductor and an unconventional pxwave superconductor and second a halfmetal/conventional superconductor junction. The spx junctions hosts two spinpolarized Andreev bound states, which are 2piperiodic, giving rise to a spontaneous magnetization in equilibrium. This opens the possibility to manipulate the occupations of the Andreev levels using a timedependent magnetic field. We show that the field induces coherent Rabi oscillations between different spin states of the junction that appear as resonances in the currentphase relation. For a cicularly polarized magnetic field, we find a spin selection rule, giving Rabi oscillations only in a certain range of superconducting phase differences, which provides a spin detection scheme. In contrary, for a linear polarization, there is no spin constraint on the Rabi oscillations. The field also induces noncoherent transitions including continuum states that act as refill and ionization processes for the Andreev levels. For a circularly polarized field, these fieldinduced processes do not provide a decay mechanism for Rabi oscillations, due to spin and energy constraints. For a linear polarization, the width of the Rabi resonances in the currentphase relation is determined by the fieldinduced ionization processes. In the halfmetal/conventional superconductor junction no Andreev current may flow for a static magnetization direction, since the perfect spin polarization of the halfmetal forbids Andreev reflection processes at the interface. We show that an Andreev current flows, if the halfmetal is subject to ferromagnetic resonance. The precessing magnetization direction in the halfmetal provides the necessary spinflip mechanism. The current is driven by the precession of the magnetization direction that creates a nonequilibrium situation for the charge carriers. We also show for a point contact geometry that in a ferromagnet with nonzero minority carrier concentration the current is reduced and vanishes at equal minority and majority carrier concentrations. Additionally, we consider a more realistic, extended interface geometry. For a ballistic junction, the current is enhanced compared to a point contact geometry due to the larger number of transport channels. Furthermore, we show that disorder is most important in the ferromagnet. The Andreev current through the disordered junction is much larger than the current through a ballistic junction in the same geometry
1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this thesis we investigate the possibility to change the charge current in superconducting junctions by manipulating the spin properties using magnetic resonance. We consider two different junctions: First, an unconventional Josephson junction between a conventional swave superconductor and an unconventional pxwave superconductor and second a halfmetal/conventional superconductor junction. The spx junctions hosts two spinpolarized Andreev bound states, which are 2piperiodic, giving rise to a spontaneous magnetization in equilibrium. This opens the possibility to manipulate the occupations of the Andreev levels using a timedependent magnetic field. We show that the field induces coherent Rabi oscillations between different spin states of the junction that appear as resonances in the currentphase relation. For a cicularly polarized magnetic field, we find a spin selection rule, giving Rabi oscillations only in a certain range of superconducting phase differences, which provides a spin detection scheme. In contrary, for a linear polarization, there is no spin constraint on the Rabi oscillations. The field also induces noncoherent transitions including continuum states that act as refill and ionization processes for the Andreev levels. For a circularly polarized field, these fieldinduced processes do not provide a decay mechanism for Rabi oscillations, due to spin and energy constraints. For a linear polarization, the width of the Rabi resonances in the currentphase relation is determined by the fieldinduced ionization processes. In the halfmetal/conventional superconductor junction no Andreev current may flow for a static magnetization direction, since the perfect spin polarization of the halfmetal forbids Andreev reflection processes at the interface. We show that an Andreev current flows, if the halfmetal is subject to ferromagnetic resonance. The precessing magnetization direction in the halfmetal provides the necessary spinflip mechanism. The current is driven by the precession of the magnetization direction that creates a nonequilibrium situation for the charge carriers. We also show for a point contact geometry that in a ferromagnet with nonzero minority carrier concentration the current is reduced and vanishes at equal minority and majority carrier concentrations. Additionally, we consider a more realistic, extended interface geometry. For a ballistic junction, the current is enhanced compared to a point contact geometry due to the larger number of transport channels. Furthermore, we show that disorder is most important in the ferromagnet. The Andreev current through the disordered junction is much larger than the current through a ballistic junction in the same geometry
Honeycomb lattices of superconducting microwave resonators : Observation of topological Semenoff edge states by
Alexis Morvan(
)
1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
This thesis describes the realization and study of honeycomb lattices of superconducting resonators. This work is a first step towards the simulation of condensed matter systems with superconducting circuits. Our lattices are microfabricated and typically contains a few hundred sites. In order to observe the eigenmodes that appear between 4 and 8 GHz, we have developed a mode imaging technique based on the local dissipation introduced by a laser spot that we can move across the lattice. We have been able to measure the band structure and to characterize the edge states of our lattices. In particular, we observe localized states that appear at the interface between two Semenoff insulators with opposite masses. These states, called Semenoff states, have a topological origin. Our observations are in good agreement with ab initio electromagnetic simulations
1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
This thesis describes the realization and study of honeycomb lattices of superconducting resonators. This work is a first step towards the simulation of condensed matter systems with superconducting circuits. Our lattices are microfabricated and typically contains a few hundred sites. In order to observe the eigenmodes that appear between 4 and 8 GHz, we have developed a mode imaging technique based on the local dissipation introduced by a laser spot that we can move across the lattice. We have been able to measure the band structure and to characterize the edge states of our lattices. In particular, we observe localized states that appear at the interface between two Semenoff insulators with opposite masses. These states, called Semenoff states, have a topological origin. Our observations are in good agreement with ab initio electromagnetic simulations
Transport and spectral properties of lowdimensional superconductors in the presence of spindependent fields by
Julie Baumard(
)
1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The interplay between superconductivity and spindependent fields is known to lead to striking phenomena, like critical field enhancement, magnetoelectric effects and the appearance of YuShibaRusinov bound states at magnetic impurities. In this thesis, we investigate these effects in low dimensional systems.We first demonstrate that the combination of both spinorbit and Zeeman fields in superconducting onedimensional systems leads to the appearance of an inhomogeneous phase at low magnetic field and high critical temperature. We show that the ground state corresponds to a zerocurrent state where the current stemming from spinorbit coupling, called anomalous charge current, is exactly compensated by the current coming from the wavevector of the superconducting order parameter. We also discuss how it is possible to predict the appearance of the anomalous current from symmetry arguments based on the SU(2)covariant formalism.In a second part, we consider a typeII superconducting thin film in contact with a Néel skyrmion. The skyrmion induces spontaneous currents in the superconducting layer, which under the right condition generate a superconducting vortex in the absence of external magnetic fields. We compute the magnetic field and current distributions in the superconducting layer in the presence of the Néel skyrmion.In the last part of this thesis, we focus on the appearance of YuShibaRusinov states in the superconducting crystal betaBi2Pd. We propose effective models in order to explain recent experimental results showing a double spatial oscillation of the local density of states at Shiba energy. We demonstrate that the minimal condition to reproduce this double oscillation is the presence of two superconducting channels connected via a hopping term or via a magnetic impurity. These effective models can be easily generalized to describe the spectrum of multiband superconductors with magnetic impurities
1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The interplay between superconductivity and spindependent fields is known to lead to striking phenomena, like critical field enhancement, magnetoelectric effects and the appearance of YuShibaRusinov bound states at magnetic impurities. In this thesis, we investigate these effects in low dimensional systems.We first demonstrate that the combination of both spinorbit and Zeeman fields in superconducting onedimensional systems leads to the appearance of an inhomogeneous phase at low magnetic field and high critical temperature. We show that the ground state corresponds to a zerocurrent state where the current stemming from spinorbit coupling, called anomalous charge current, is exactly compensated by the current coming from the wavevector of the superconducting order parameter. We also discuss how it is possible to predict the appearance of the anomalous current from symmetry arguments based on the SU(2)covariant formalism.In a second part, we consider a typeII superconducting thin film in contact with a Néel skyrmion. The skyrmion induces spontaneous currents in the superconducting layer, which under the right condition generate a superconducting vortex in the absence of external magnetic fields. We compute the magnetic field and current distributions in the superconducting layer in the presence of the Néel skyrmion.In the last part of this thesis, we focus on the appearance of YuShibaRusinov states in the superconducting crystal betaBi2Pd. We propose effective models in order to explain recent experimental results showing a double spatial oscillation of the local density of states at Shiba energy. We demonstrate that the minimal condition to reproduce this double oscillation is the presence of two superconducting channels connected via a hopping term or via a magnetic impurity. These effective models can be easily generalized to describe the spectrum of multiband superconductors with magnetic impurities
Topologie et transport électronique dans des systèmes de Dirac sous irradiation by
Jonathan Atteia(
)
1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
This thesis presents a theoretical work done in the field of condensed matter physics, and in particular solid state physics. This field of physics aims at describing the behaviour of electrons in crystalline materials at very low temperature to observe effects characteristic of quantum physics at the mesoscopic scale.This thesis lies at the interface between two types of materials : graphene and topological insulators. Graphene is a monoatomic layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice that presents a wide range of striking properties in optics, mechanics and electronics. Topological insulators are materials that are insulators in the bulk and conduct electricity at the edges. This characteristic originates from a topological property of the electrons in the bulk. Topology is a branch of mathematics that aims to describe objects globally retaining only characteristics invariant under smooth deformations. The edge states of topological insulators are robust to certain king of perturbations such as disorder created by impurities in the bulk. The link between these two topics is twofold. On one hand, the first models of band topological insulators were formulated for graphene, by Haldane in 1988 and Kane and Mele in 2005, opening the way to the discovery of 2D and 3D topological insulators in materials with strong spinorbit coupling. On the other hand, it was predicted that graphene, even without spinorbit coupling, turns to a topological insulator under irradiation by an electromagnetic wave. In this thesis, we follow two directions in parallel : describe the topological properties on one hand, and the electronic transport properties on the other hand.First, we review the tightbinding model of graphene, and the effective model that describes lowenergy electrons as massless Dirac fermions. We then introduce the Haldane model, a simple model defined on the honeycomb lattice that presents nontrivial bands characterised by a topological invariant, the Chern number. Due to this topological property, this model possesses a chiral edge state that propagates around the sample and a quantized Hall conductance. When graphene is irradiated by a laser with a frequency larger than the graphene bandwidth, it acquires a dynamical gap similar to the topological gap of the Haldane model. When the frequency is lowered, we show that topological transitions happens and that different edge states appear.The main work of this thesis is the study of electronic transport in irradiated graphene in a regime of experimentally achievable parameters. A graphene sheet is connected to two electrodes with a potential difference that generates a current. We compute the differential conductance of the sample according to LandauerBüttiker formalism extended to periodically driven systems. Using this simple formalism, we are able to obtain the conductance as a function of the geometry of the sample and of several parameters such as the chemical potential, the frequency and the intensity of the electromagnetic wave.Another kind of topological insulator is the quantum spin Hall insulator. This type of phase possesses two edge states in which opposite spins propagate in opposite directions. The second work of this thesis concerns electronic transport through this irradiated edge state. We observe the apparition of a pumped current in the absence of a potential difference. We observe two regimes : a quantized adiabatic at low frequency, and a nonquantized linear response regime at high frequency. Compared to previous studies, we show an important effect originating from the presence of electrodes
1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
This thesis presents a theoretical work done in the field of condensed matter physics, and in particular solid state physics. This field of physics aims at describing the behaviour of electrons in crystalline materials at very low temperature to observe effects characteristic of quantum physics at the mesoscopic scale.This thesis lies at the interface between two types of materials : graphene and topological insulators. Graphene is a monoatomic layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice that presents a wide range of striking properties in optics, mechanics and electronics. Topological insulators are materials that are insulators in the bulk and conduct electricity at the edges. This characteristic originates from a topological property of the electrons in the bulk. Topology is a branch of mathematics that aims to describe objects globally retaining only characteristics invariant under smooth deformations. The edge states of topological insulators are robust to certain king of perturbations such as disorder created by impurities in the bulk. The link between these two topics is twofold. On one hand, the first models of band topological insulators were formulated for graphene, by Haldane in 1988 and Kane and Mele in 2005, opening the way to the discovery of 2D and 3D topological insulators in materials with strong spinorbit coupling. On the other hand, it was predicted that graphene, even without spinorbit coupling, turns to a topological insulator under irradiation by an electromagnetic wave. In this thesis, we follow two directions in parallel : describe the topological properties on one hand, and the electronic transport properties on the other hand.First, we review the tightbinding model of graphene, and the effective model that describes lowenergy electrons as massless Dirac fermions. We then introduce the Haldane model, a simple model defined on the honeycomb lattice that presents nontrivial bands characterised by a topological invariant, the Chern number. Due to this topological property, this model possesses a chiral edge state that propagates around the sample and a quantized Hall conductance. When graphene is irradiated by a laser with a frequency larger than the graphene bandwidth, it acquires a dynamical gap similar to the topological gap of the Haldane model. When the frequency is lowered, we show that topological transitions happens and that different edge states appear.The main work of this thesis is the study of electronic transport in irradiated graphene in a regime of experimentally achievable parameters. A graphene sheet is connected to two electrodes with a potential difference that generates a current. We compute the differential conductance of the sample according to LandauerBüttiker formalism extended to periodically driven systems. Using this simple formalism, we are able to obtain the conductance as a function of the geometry of the sample and of several parameters such as the chemical potential, the frequency and the intensity of the electromagnetic wave.Another kind of topological insulator is the quantum spin Hall insulator. This type of phase possesses two edge states in which opposite spins propagate in opposite directions. The second work of this thesis concerns electronic transport through this irradiated edge state. We observe the apparition of a pumped current in the absence of a potential difference. We observe two regimes : a quantized adiabatic at low frequency, and a nonquantized linear response regime at high frequency. Compared to previous studies, we show an important effect originating from the presence of electrodes
Quantum transport in a correlated nanostructure coupled to a microwave cavity by
Olesia Dmytruk(
)
1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
In this thesis, we study theoretically various physical properties of nanostructures that are coupledto microwave cavities. Cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) with a quantum dot has been proven to be a powerful experimental technique that allows to study the latter by photonic measurements in addition to electronic transport measurements. In this thesis, we propose to use the cavity microwave field to extract additional information on the properties of quantum conductors: optical transmission coefficient gives direct access to electronic susceptibilities of these quantum conductors. We apply this general framework to different mesoscopic systems coupled to a superconducting microwave cavity, such as a tunnel junction, a quantum dot coupled to the leads, a topological wire and a superconducting ring. Cavity QED can be used to probe the finite frequency admittance of the quantum dot coupled to the microwave cavity via photonic measurements. Concerning the topological wire, we found that the cavity allows for determining the topological phase transition, the emergence of Majorana fermions, and also the parity of the ground state. For the superconducting ring, we propose to study the Josephson effect and the transition from the latter to the fractional Josephson effect, which is associated with the emergence of the Majorana fermions in the system, via the optical response of the cavity. The proposed framework allows to probe a broad range of nanostructures, including quantum dots and topological superconductors, in a noninvasive manner. Furthermore, it gives new information on the properties of these quantum conductors, which was not available in transport experiments
1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
In this thesis, we study theoretically various physical properties of nanostructures that are coupledto microwave cavities. Cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) with a quantum dot has been proven to be a powerful experimental technique that allows to study the latter by photonic measurements in addition to electronic transport measurements. In this thesis, we propose to use the cavity microwave field to extract additional information on the properties of quantum conductors: optical transmission coefficient gives direct access to electronic susceptibilities of these quantum conductors. We apply this general framework to different mesoscopic systems coupled to a superconducting microwave cavity, such as a tunnel junction, a quantum dot coupled to the leads, a topological wire and a superconducting ring. Cavity QED can be used to probe the finite frequency admittance of the quantum dot coupled to the microwave cavity via photonic measurements. Concerning the topological wire, we found that the cavity allows for determining the topological phase transition, the emergence of Majorana fermions, and also the parity of the ground state. For the superconducting ring, we propose to study the Josephson effect and the transition from the latter to the fractional Josephson effect, which is associated with the emergence of the Majorana fermions in the system, via the optical response of the cavity. The proposed framework allows to probe a broad range of nanostructures, including quantum dots and topological superconductors, in a noninvasive manner. Furthermore, it gives new information on the properties of these quantum conductors, which was not available in transport experiments
Confinement and driving effects on continuous and discrete model interfaces by
Paul Gersberg(
)
1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
This thesis examines the properties of the interface between two phases in phase separated systems. We are interested in how finite size effects modify the statistical properties of these interfaces, in particular how the dependence of the free energy on the system size gives rise to long range critical Casimir forces close to thecritical point. Often the interfaces in phase separated systems are described by simplified or coarsegrained models whose only degrees of freedom are the interface height. We review how the statics and dynamics of these interface models can be derived from microscopic spin models and statistical field theories. We then examine finite size effects for continuous interface models such as the Edwards Wilkinson model and discrete models such as the SolidOnSolid model and discuss their relevance to the critical Casimir effect. In the second part of the thesis we examine models of driven interfaces which have nonequilibrium steady states. We develop a model C type model of an interface which shows a nonequlibrium steady state even with constant driving. The resulting nonequlibrium steady state shows properties seen in experiments on sheared colloidal systems, notably the suppression of height fluctuations but an increase in the fluctuations'correlation length. Finally we propose a new model for one dimensional interfaces which is a modification of the solid onsolid model and containing an extra entropic term ,whose correspondance with physical systems is yet to be found
1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
This thesis examines the properties of the interface between two phases in phase separated systems. We are interested in how finite size effects modify the statistical properties of these interfaces, in particular how the dependence of the free energy on the system size gives rise to long range critical Casimir forces close to thecritical point. Often the interfaces in phase separated systems are described by simplified or coarsegrained models whose only degrees of freedom are the interface height. We review how the statics and dynamics of these interface models can be derived from microscopic spin models and statistical field theories. We then examine finite size effects for continuous interface models such as the Edwards Wilkinson model and discrete models such as the SolidOnSolid model and discuss their relevance to the critical Casimir effect. In the second part of the thesis we examine models of driven interfaces which have nonequilibrium steady states. We develop a model C type model of an interface which shows a nonequlibrium steady state even with constant driving. The resulting nonequlibrium steady state shows properties seen in experiments on sheared colloidal systems, notably the suppression of height fluctuations but an increase in the fluctuations'correlation length. Finally we propose a new model for one dimensional interfaces which is a modification of the solid onsolid model and containing an extra entropic term ,whose correspondance with physical systems is yet to be found
Etats topologiques aux surfaces de perovskites d'oxydes de métaux de transition by
Manali Vivek(
)
1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The subject of topology in oxides, in particular at the surfaces of perovskite oxides like SrTiO₃, or at the interface of LaA1O₃/SrTiO₃ will be investigated in this thesis. Both compounds, at their (001) oriented surfaces, contain a metallic state confined to a few nanometers at the surface. In addition, we will show that there exist certain three band crossings around which perturbations will cause an inverted and gapped band spectrum to appear. These will lead to topological edge states which can be detected via induced superconductivity as in the case of topological quantum wells or superconductorsemiconductor nanowires. Next, the (111) oriented surface of LaA1O₃/SrTiO₃ will be studied where Hall transport measurements reveal a one to two carrier transition via electrostatic doping. An explanation based on a tight binding modelling including Hubbard U correlations, will be proposed which will give rise to band crossings between subbands promoting topological states. Finally, an abinitio study of CaTiO₃ will be performed to explain the metallic state which exists at its (001) oriented surface and to predict magnetism in the system. CaTiO₃ is different from the other compounds studied previously, due to the large rotation and tilting of the oxygen octahedra surrounding the Ti, which complicates the picture. The structure with and without oxygen vacancies will be studied indepth to provide details about the conduction band and their orbital characters
1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The subject of topology in oxides, in particular at the surfaces of perovskite oxides like SrTiO₃, or at the interface of LaA1O₃/SrTiO₃ will be investigated in this thesis. Both compounds, at their (001) oriented surfaces, contain a metallic state confined to a few nanometers at the surface. In addition, we will show that there exist certain three band crossings around which perturbations will cause an inverted and gapped band spectrum to appear. These will lead to topological edge states which can be detected via induced superconductivity as in the case of topological quantum wells or superconductorsemiconductor nanowires. Next, the (111) oriented surface of LaA1O₃/SrTiO₃ will be studied where Hall transport measurements reveal a one to two carrier transition via electrostatic doping. An explanation based on a tight binding modelling including Hubbard U correlations, will be proposed which will give rise to band crossings between subbands promoting topological states. Finally, an abinitio study of CaTiO₃ will be performed to explain the metallic state which exists at its (001) oriented surface and to predict magnetism in the system. CaTiO₃ is different from the other compounds studied previously, due to the large rotation and tilting of the oxygen octahedra surrounding the Ti, which complicates the picture. The structure with and without oxygen vacancies will be studied indepth to provide details about the conduction band and their orbital characters
Transport électronique dans le graphène et les isolants topologiques 2D en présence de désordre magnétique by
Arnaud Demion(
)
1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Dans cette thèse, nous étudions l'effet du désordre magnétique sur les propriétés de transport électronique du graphène et des isolants topologiques 2D de type HgTe. Le graphène et les isolants topologiques sont des matériaux dont les excitations électroniques sont assimilées à des fermions de Dirac sans masse. L'influence des impuretés magnétiques sur les propriétés de transport du graphène est étudiée dans le régime de forts champs électriques. En conséquence de la production de paires électrontrou, la réponse devient non linéaire et dépend de la polarisation magnétique. Nous étudions une transition entre un isolant topologique bidimensionnel conducteur, caractérisé par une conductance G = 2 (en quantum de conductance) et un isolant de Chern avec G = 1, induite par des impuretés magnétiques polarisées
1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Dans cette thèse, nous étudions l'effet du désordre magnétique sur les propriétés de transport électronique du graphène et des isolants topologiques 2D de type HgTe. Le graphène et les isolants topologiques sont des matériaux dont les excitations électroniques sont assimilées à des fermions de Dirac sans masse. L'influence des impuretés magnétiques sur les propriétés de transport du graphène est étudiée dans le régime de forts champs électriques. En conséquence de la production de paires électrontrou, la réponse devient non linéaire et dépend de la polarisation magnétique. Nous étudions une transition entre un isolant topologique bidimensionnel conducteur, caractérisé par une conductance G = 2 (en quantum de conductance) et un isolant de Chern avec G = 1, induite par des impuretés magnétiques polarisées
Periodically driven photonic topological gapless systems by
Lavi Kumar Upreti(
)
1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Propriétés topologiques de systèmes photoniques non gappés modulés périodiquement. La photonique est une plateforme où les ondes électromagnétiques (ou photons) se propagent à l'intérieur d'un cristal (comme les ondes de Bloch) formé par les degrés de liberté discrets sousjacents, par exemple des réseaux de guides d'ondes. Ces ondes ne peuvent pas se propager si la fréquence incidente se situe dans la bande interdite photonique, alors ces ondes sont connues sous le nom d'ondes évanescentes. Ainsi, le cristal se comporte comme un réflecteur de ces ondes. Cependant, s'il existe des modes pour lesquels il existe des ondes limites qui relient la bande interdite, alors ces ondes peuvent exister à la limite sans s'infiltrer dans la masse. Ceci est analogue au mouvement chiral des électrons aux bords du Hall quantique, avec un ingrédient supplémentaire de symétrie d'inversion du temps qui se brise dans les cristaux photoniques via certaines propriétés gyromagnétiques de l'échantillon, ou la dépendance inhérente au temps du système. Dans ce dernier cas, lorsque le système, en particulier, est commandé périodiquement, on peut également observer les phases de non équilibre plus exotiques dans ces réseaux.Dans ce travail, nous explorons les propriétés topologiques de ces réseaux photoniques à commande périodique. Par exemple, comment les symétries fondamentales, par exemple la symétrie particuletrou, peuvent être mises en oeuvre pour concevoir la topologie en 1D. Nous trouvons un lien entre les symétries cristallines et les symétries fondamentales, qui facilitent une telle mise en oeuvre. De plus, une dimension synthétique peut être introduite dans ces treillis qui simulent la physique des dimensions supérieures. La différence entre la dimension synthétique et la dimension spatiale devient apparente lorsqu'une symétrie cristalline spécifique, comme l'inversion, est rompue dans ces systèmes. Cette rupture transforme une bande interdite directe en une bande interdite indirecte qui se manifeste par l'enroulement de bandes dans le spectre de la bande quasiénergétique. Si elle est rompue dans la dimension synthétique, il en résulte une interaction de deux propriétés topologiques : l'une est l'enroulement des bandes de quasiénergie, et l'autre est la présence d'états de bord chiraux dans la géométrie finie. Cette ancienne propriété de l'enroulement se manifeste par des oscillations de Bloch des paquets d'ondes, où nous montrons que les points stationnaires de ces oscillations sont liés au nombre d'enroulements des bandes. Cette propriété topologique peut donc être sondée directement dans une expérience par la technologie de pointe. Cependant, si cette symétrie est rompue dans la dimension spatiale, l'enroulement des bandes se manifeste comme une dérive quantifiée de la position moyenne, qui est toujours caractérisée par un nombre d'enroulement des bandes.En outre, nous montrons qu'un régime sans lacune différent peut également être conçu tout en préservant la symétrie d'inversion. Dans ce régime, la topologie peut être saisie en enfermant les dégénérescences dans l'espace des paramètres et en calculant le flux de Berry qui traverse la surface enfermée. Dans ce cas, certaines des dégénérescences peuvent héberger des états chiraux de bord avec d'autres protégés à la même quasiénergie
1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Propriétés topologiques de systèmes photoniques non gappés modulés périodiquement. La photonique est une plateforme où les ondes électromagnétiques (ou photons) se propagent à l'intérieur d'un cristal (comme les ondes de Bloch) formé par les degrés de liberté discrets sousjacents, par exemple des réseaux de guides d'ondes. Ces ondes ne peuvent pas se propager si la fréquence incidente se situe dans la bande interdite photonique, alors ces ondes sont connues sous le nom d'ondes évanescentes. Ainsi, le cristal se comporte comme un réflecteur de ces ondes. Cependant, s'il existe des modes pour lesquels il existe des ondes limites qui relient la bande interdite, alors ces ondes peuvent exister à la limite sans s'infiltrer dans la masse. Ceci est analogue au mouvement chiral des électrons aux bords du Hall quantique, avec un ingrédient supplémentaire de symétrie d'inversion du temps qui se brise dans les cristaux photoniques via certaines propriétés gyromagnétiques de l'échantillon, ou la dépendance inhérente au temps du système. Dans ce dernier cas, lorsque le système, en particulier, est commandé périodiquement, on peut également observer les phases de non équilibre plus exotiques dans ces réseaux.Dans ce travail, nous explorons les propriétés topologiques de ces réseaux photoniques à commande périodique. Par exemple, comment les symétries fondamentales, par exemple la symétrie particuletrou, peuvent être mises en oeuvre pour concevoir la topologie en 1D. Nous trouvons un lien entre les symétries cristallines et les symétries fondamentales, qui facilitent une telle mise en oeuvre. De plus, une dimension synthétique peut être introduite dans ces treillis qui simulent la physique des dimensions supérieures. La différence entre la dimension synthétique et la dimension spatiale devient apparente lorsqu'une symétrie cristalline spécifique, comme l'inversion, est rompue dans ces systèmes. Cette rupture transforme une bande interdite directe en une bande interdite indirecte qui se manifeste par l'enroulement de bandes dans le spectre de la bande quasiénergétique. Si elle est rompue dans la dimension synthétique, il en résulte une interaction de deux propriétés topologiques : l'une est l'enroulement des bandes de quasiénergie, et l'autre est la présence d'états de bord chiraux dans la géométrie finie. Cette ancienne propriété de l'enroulement se manifeste par des oscillations de Bloch des paquets d'ondes, où nous montrons que les points stationnaires de ces oscillations sont liés au nombre d'enroulements des bandes. Cette propriété topologique peut donc être sondée directement dans une expérience par la technologie de pointe. Cependant, si cette symétrie est rompue dans la dimension spatiale, l'enroulement des bandes se manifeste comme une dérive quantifiée de la position moyenne, qui est toujours caractérisée par un nombre d'enroulement des bandes.En outre, nous montrons qu'un régime sans lacune différent peut également être conçu tout en préservant la symétrie d'inversion. Dans ce régime, la topologie peut être saisie en enfermant les dégénérescences dans l'espace des paramètres et en calculant le flux de Berry qui traverse la surface enfermée. Dans ce cas, certaines des dégénérescences peuvent héberger des états chiraux de bord avec d'autres protégés à la même quasiénergie
Impurity and boundary modes in the honeycomb lattice by
Clément Dutreix(
)
1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Two fields of research define the framework in which the present thesis can be apprehended. The first one deals with impurity and boundary modes in the hexagonal lattice. The second one concerns a spin accumulation in an outOfEquilibrium superconductor.Two fields of research define the framework in which the present thesis can be apprehended. The first one deals with impurity and boundary modes in the hexagonal lattice. The second one concerns a spin accumulation in an outOfEquilibrium superconductor.Graphene is the main motivation of the first part. From a crystallographic perspective, the carbon atoms in graphene, a graphite layer, design a triangular Bravais lattice with a diatomic pattern. This gives rise to an extra degree of freedom in the electronic band structure that crucially reveals chiral massless Dirac electrons at lowEnergy. First of all, it is possible to make these chiral fermions annihilate when a uniaxial strain stretches the graphene layer. For a critical value of the strain, all the fermions become massive and nonrelativistic, which defines a Lifshitz transition. We study the impurity scattering as a function of the strain magnitude. A localised impurity yields quantum interferences in the local density of states that are known as Friedel oscillations. Because they are affected by the chiral nature of the electrons, we show that the decaying laws of these oscillations are specific to the phase the system belongs to. Thus, the impurity scattering offers the possibility to fully characterise the transition.Second, the diatomic pattern of the graphene lattice can also be considered as an invitation to the world of topological insulators and superconductors. The existence of edge states in such systems relies on the topological characterization of the band structure. Here we especially introduce a model of topological superconductor based on the honeycomb lattice with induces spinSinglet superconductivity. When a Zeeman field breaks the timeReversal invariance, and in the presence of Rashba spinOrbit interactions, we give a prescription to describe the topological phases of the system and predict the emergence of Majorana modes (edge states) in strained and doped nanoribbons.The second part discusses the study of a spin accumulation in an outOfEquilibrium sWave superconductor. At the equilibrium, the superconductor is made of particles coupled by a sWave pairing, as well as unpaired quasiparticles. Injecting spinPolarised electrons into the superconductor induces charge and spin imbalances. When the injection stops, it may happen that charge and spin do not relax over the same timeScale. The first experiment that points out such a spinCharge decoupling has recently been realised. In order to confirm this chargeless spinRelaxation time, a new experiment has been developed [96], based on measurements in the frequency domain. Here, we address a model that fits the experimental data and thus enables the extraction of this characteristic time that is of the order of a few nanoseconds
1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Two fields of research define the framework in which the present thesis can be apprehended. The first one deals with impurity and boundary modes in the hexagonal lattice. The second one concerns a spin accumulation in an outOfEquilibrium superconductor.Two fields of research define the framework in which the present thesis can be apprehended. The first one deals with impurity and boundary modes in the hexagonal lattice. The second one concerns a spin accumulation in an outOfEquilibrium superconductor.Graphene is the main motivation of the first part. From a crystallographic perspective, the carbon atoms in graphene, a graphite layer, design a triangular Bravais lattice with a diatomic pattern. This gives rise to an extra degree of freedom in the electronic band structure that crucially reveals chiral massless Dirac electrons at lowEnergy. First of all, it is possible to make these chiral fermions annihilate when a uniaxial strain stretches the graphene layer. For a critical value of the strain, all the fermions become massive and nonrelativistic, which defines a Lifshitz transition. We study the impurity scattering as a function of the strain magnitude. A localised impurity yields quantum interferences in the local density of states that are known as Friedel oscillations. Because they are affected by the chiral nature of the electrons, we show that the decaying laws of these oscillations are specific to the phase the system belongs to. Thus, the impurity scattering offers the possibility to fully characterise the transition.Second, the diatomic pattern of the graphene lattice can also be considered as an invitation to the world of topological insulators and superconductors. The existence of edge states in such systems relies on the topological characterization of the band structure. Here we especially introduce a model of topological superconductor based on the honeycomb lattice with induces spinSinglet superconductivity. When a Zeeman field breaks the timeReversal invariance, and in the presence of Rashba spinOrbit interactions, we give a prescription to describe the topological phases of the system and predict the emergence of Majorana modes (edge states) in strained and doped nanoribbons.The second part discusses the study of a spin accumulation in an outOfEquilibrium sWave superconductor. At the equilibrium, the superconductor is made of particles coupled by a sWave pairing, as well as unpaired quasiparticles. Injecting spinPolarised electrons into the superconductor induces charge and spin imbalances. When the injection stops, it may happen that charge and spin do not relax over the same timeScale. The first experiment that points out such a spinCharge decoupling has recently been realised. In order to confirm this chargeless spinRelaxation time, a new experiment has been developed [96], based on measurements in the frequency domain. Here, we address a model that fits the experimental data and thus enables the extraction of this characteristic time that is of the order of a few nanoseconds
Construction d'une nouvelle expérience pour l'étude de gaz quantiques dégénérés des réseaux optiques, et étude d'un
système d'imagerie superrésolution by
Hugo Salvador Vasquez Bullon(
)
1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
For some time now, theoretical physicists in condensed matter face a majorproblem: the computing power needed to numerically simulate and study some interactingmanybody systems is insufficient. As the control and use of ultracold atomic systems hasexperimented a significant development in recent years, an alternative to this problem is to usecold atoms trapped in optical lattices as a quantum simulator. Indeed, the physics of electronsmoving on a crystalline structure of a solid, and the one of trapped atoms in optical lattices areboth described by the same model, the FermiHubbard model, which is a simplifiedrepresentation of fermions moving on a periodic lattice. The quantum simulators can thusreproduce the electrical properties of materials such as conductivity or insulating behavior, andpotentially also the magnetic ones such as antiferromagnetism.The AUFRONS experiment, in which I worked during my PhD, aims at building a quantumsimulator based on cooled atoms of 87Rb and 40K trapped in near field nanostructured opticalpotentials. In order to detect the atom distribution at such small distances, we have developedan innovative imaging technique for getting around the diffraction limit. This imaging systemcould potentially allow us to detect singlesite trapped atoms in a subwavelength lattice.In this thesis, I introduce the work I have done for building the AUFRONS experiment, as wellas the feasability study that I did for the superresolution imaging technique
1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
For some time now, theoretical physicists in condensed matter face a majorproblem: the computing power needed to numerically simulate and study some interactingmanybody systems is insufficient. As the control and use of ultracold atomic systems hasexperimented a significant development in recent years, an alternative to this problem is to usecold atoms trapped in optical lattices as a quantum simulator. Indeed, the physics of electronsmoving on a crystalline structure of a solid, and the one of trapped atoms in optical lattices areboth described by the same model, the FermiHubbard model, which is a simplifiedrepresentation of fermions moving on a periodic lattice. The quantum simulators can thusreproduce the electrical properties of materials such as conductivity or insulating behavior, andpotentially also the magnetic ones such as antiferromagnetism.The AUFRONS experiment, in which I worked during my PhD, aims at building a quantumsimulator based on cooled atoms of 87Rb and 40K trapped in near field nanostructured opticalpotentials. In order to detect the atom distribution at such small distances, we have developedan innovative imaging technique for getting around the diffraction limit. This imaging systemcould potentially allow us to detect singlesite trapped atoms in a subwavelength lattice.In this thesis, I introduce the work I have done for building the AUFRONS experiment, as wellas the feasability study that I did for the superresolution imaging technique
Signatures relativistes en spectroscopie de matériaux topologiques : en volume et en surface by
Sergueï Tchoumakov(
)
1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
During my PhD studies I focused on the relativistic properties of threedimensional topological materials, namely Weyl semimetals and topological insulators. After introducing surface states and topological materials I discuss their covariance in trigonometric and hyperbolic rotations. These transformations help to solve the equations of motion of an electron in a magnetic field or at the surface with an applied electric field or with a tilt in the band dispersion. In a first place, I illustrate these transformations for the magnetooptical response of tilted Weyl semimetals. This work is related to my collaboration with experimentalists at LNCMI, Grenoble for characterizing the band structure of Cd₃As₂ where we show that this material is a Kane semimetal instead of a Dirac semimetal in the experimentally accessible range of chemical doping. The other part of this thesis is concerned with the surface states of topological insulators. I show that massive surface states can also exist in addition to the chiral surface state due to band inversion. Such states may have already been observed in ARPES measurement of oxidized Bi₂Se₃ and Bi₂Te₃ and in transport measurement of strained bulk HgTe. I show the work we performed with experimentalists at LPA, Paris on the behavior of HgTe surface states for strong field effects. Finally, I discuss the states at the interface of a Weyl semimetal and a small gap insulator. In this situation, an applied magnetic field or the tilt of the band dispersion can strongly affect the observed surface states
1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
During my PhD studies I focused on the relativistic properties of threedimensional topological materials, namely Weyl semimetals and topological insulators. After introducing surface states and topological materials I discuss their covariance in trigonometric and hyperbolic rotations. These transformations help to solve the equations of motion of an electron in a magnetic field or at the surface with an applied electric field or with a tilt in the band dispersion. In a first place, I illustrate these transformations for the magnetooptical response of tilted Weyl semimetals. This work is related to my collaboration with experimentalists at LNCMI, Grenoble for characterizing the band structure of Cd₃As₂ where we show that this material is a Kane semimetal instead of a Dirac semimetal in the experimentally accessible range of chemical doping. The other part of this thesis is concerned with the surface states of topological insulators. I show that massive surface states can also exist in addition to the chiral surface state due to band inversion. Such states may have already been observed in ARPES measurement of oxidized Bi₂Se₃ and Bi₂Te₃ and in transport measurement of strained bulk HgTe. I show the work we performed with experimentalists at LPA, Paris on the behavior of HgTe surface states for strong field effects. Finally, I discuss the states at the interface of a Weyl semimetal and a small gap insulator. In this situation, an applied magnetic field or the tilt of the band dispersion can strongly affect the observed surface states
Supraconductivité en présence de forts effets paramagnétique et spinorbite by
François Konschelle(
)
1 edition published in 2009 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The superconducting state being a Cooper pair condensate built on opposite spin and momentum electrons, it can be strongly influenced by any spin effect. In this thesis, we investigate the roles of strong paramagnetic and spinorbit effects on superconducting properties. In a first part, the interplay between paramagnetic effect and bulk superconductivity is studied, leading to the modulated Fulde, Ferrell, Larkin and Ovchinnikov phase (FFLO phase). We focus on superconducting fluctuations near to the FFLO state. We show that these fluctuations can serve as a smoking gun for this phase. Noticeably, the fluctuation heat capacity and paraconductivity diverge in a characteristic way when approaching the phase transition towards a modulated state. Moreover, the fluctuation induced magnetization is predicted to be drastically quenched or to oscillate between dia and paramagnetic responses. The second part is devoted to superconductorferromagnetic (S/F) junctions. In S/F/S Josephson junctions, the exchange field is responsible for the critical current oscillation, characterized by alternative 0 and states, with respect to the junction length. We predict a temperature induced (0) state transition, even in the ballistic case. Moreover, the ballistic case exhibits some power law decays of the Josephson current, in contrast to the exponentially decaying current in dirty limit. The moderately dirty limit is then investigated, and the second harmonic of the currentphase relation is established. The last part deals with proximity effects when both paramagnetic and spinorbit interactions are present in a Josephson junction. We show that the association of both Rashba interaction and exchange field induces a direct coupling between magnetic and superconducting orders. Particularly, this coupling generates the complete magnetization dynamics by applying an appropriate d.c. voltage
1 edition published in 2009 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
The superconducting state being a Cooper pair condensate built on opposite spin and momentum electrons, it can be strongly influenced by any spin effect. In this thesis, we investigate the roles of strong paramagnetic and spinorbit effects on superconducting properties. In a first part, the interplay between paramagnetic effect and bulk superconductivity is studied, leading to the modulated Fulde, Ferrell, Larkin and Ovchinnikov phase (FFLO phase). We focus on superconducting fluctuations near to the FFLO state. We show that these fluctuations can serve as a smoking gun for this phase. Noticeably, the fluctuation heat capacity and paraconductivity diverge in a characteristic way when approaching the phase transition towards a modulated state. Moreover, the fluctuation induced magnetization is predicted to be drastically quenched or to oscillate between dia and paramagnetic responses. The second part is devoted to superconductorferromagnetic (S/F) junctions. In S/F/S Josephson junctions, the exchange field is responsible for the critical current oscillation, characterized by alternative 0 and states, with respect to the junction length. We predict a temperature induced (0) state transition, even in the ballistic case. Moreover, the ballistic case exhibits some power law decays of the Josephson current, in contrast to the exponentially decaying current in dirty limit. The moderately dirty limit is then investigated, and the second harmonic of the currentphase relation is established. The last part deals with proximity effects when both paramagnetic and spinorbit interactions are present in a Josephson junction. We show that the association of both Rashba interaction and exchange field induces a direct coupling between magnetic and superconducting orders. Particularly, this coupling generates the complete magnetization dynamics by applying an appropriate d.c. voltage
Topological superconductivity in the onedimensional interacting Creutz model(
)
1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Abstract: We consider onedimensional topological insulators characterized by zero energy end states. In presence of proximity induced pairing, those end states can become Majorana states. We study here the fate of those various end states when Hubbard electronelectron repulsive interactions are added, using a combination of meanfield theory and density matrix renormalization group techniques
1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Abstract: We consider onedimensional topological insulators characterized by zero energy end states. In presence of proximity induced pairing, those end states can become Majorana states. We study here the fate of those various end states when Hubbard electronelectron repulsive interactions are added, using a combination of meanfield theory and density matrix renormalization group techniques
Aspects topologiques des dérivés du graphène by
Raphaël De gail(
)
1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
During the last few decades, condensed matter physics has witnessed a deep refoundation of its paradigms, through the discovery of many systems that the usual symmety classification à la Landau cannot handle properly. Although the first major breaktroughs were realized at the time of discovery of integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, only recently physicists have agreed that these peculiar phases of matter require neither a magnetic field nor low temperature. Those new states of matter cannot be caracterized by the geometric aspects of the model but rather by topological ones. The precise shape of the electronic spectrum is no longer relevant, but only particular features are, such as the presence or the absence of a gap. Similarly to the Landau classification scheme, one can achieve a construction through extensive use of topological groups. This is the realm of algebraic topology. Related generated topological invariants can hold a classification of nontrivial topological states, as well as of the accompanying transitions. This thesis focusses on peculiar topological features of twodimesnsional electronic band structures. After a technical introduction to the underlying formalism, the first chapter is devoted to local topology, that is for a restricted piece of the first Brillouin zone, of band crossing points, also known as Dirac points. Special care is taken to classify these points and related transitions. The next chapter sheds some light on a particularly efficent way of measuring topology for twodimensional electrons. This is achieved through measurements of Landau levels that are generated by a magnetic field applied perpendicular to a plane. Dirac points then generate zero Landau levels that are topologically stable, i.e. almost not influenced by perturbations at all. Distinctions between low and high magnetic fields will prove to be relevant, although very systemdependant. Through the several models studied, we particularly stress out the importance of the topological tool for condensed matter physics, past present... and future
1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
During the last few decades, condensed matter physics has witnessed a deep refoundation of its paradigms, through the discovery of many systems that the usual symmety classification à la Landau cannot handle properly. Although the first major breaktroughs were realized at the time of discovery of integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, only recently physicists have agreed that these peculiar phases of matter require neither a magnetic field nor low temperature. Those new states of matter cannot be caracterized by the geometric aspects of the model but rather by topological ones. The precise shape of the electronic spectrum is no longer relevant, but only particular features are, such as the presence or the absence of a gap. Similarly to the Landau classification scheme, one can achieve a construction through extensive use of topological groups. This is the realm of algebraic topology. Related generated topological invariants can hold a classification of nontrivial topological states, as well as of the accompanying transitions. This thesis focusses on peculiar topological features of twodimesnsional electronic band structures. After a technical introduction to the underlying formalism, the first chapter is devoted to local topology, that is for a restricted piece of the first Brillouin zone, of band crossing points, also known as Dirac points. Special care is taken to classify these points and related transitions. The next chapter sheds some light on a particularly efficent way of measuring topology for twodimensional electrons. This is achieved through measurements of Landau levels that are generated by a magnetic field applied perpendicular to a plane. Dirac points then generate zero Landau levels that are topologically stable, i.e. almost not influenced by perturbations at all. Distinctions between low and high magnetic fields will prove to be relevant, although very systemdependant. Through the several models studied, we particularly stress out the importance of the topological tool for condensed matter physics, past present... and future
Etudes de propriétés thermodynamiques de structures hybrides métal normal/métal ferromagnétiquesupraconducteur by
Jérôme Cayssol(
Book
)
1 edition published in 2003 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
We have investigated the orbital magnetism of a ballistic hybrid normalsuperconductorring. We have obtained the .ux dependent excitation spectrum for arbitrary normal and superconductor lengths. We have introduced a new method to evaluate the current harmonics.We have described the crossover from the h/eperiodic persistent current to the h/2eperiodic Josephson current. In a second study, we have calculated the e.ect of intrinsic ordinary re.exion on the Josephson current in a ballistic superconductorferromagnetic superconductor. The spectrum is strongly modi.ed by gap openings but the current and the 0  ð transition are only slightly modi.ed up to very high spin polarisation.In a third study, we analyse the contain of some solutions of Usadel equation, inparticular the normal metalsuperconductor interface without tunnel barrier. The standard perturbation theory dressed by cooperons enables us to interpret those solutions in terms of di.usive paths connecting Andreev re.exion event
1 edition published in 2003 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
We have investigated the orbital magnetism of a ballistic hybrid normalsuperconductorring. We have obtained the .ux dependent excitation spectrum for arbitrary normal and superconductor lengths. We have introduced a new method to evaluate the current harmonics.We have described the crossover from the h/eperiodic persistent current to the h/2eperiodic Josephson current. In a second study, we have calculated the e.ect of intrinsic ordinary re.exion on the Josephson current in a ballistic superconductorferromagnetic superconductor. The spectrum is strongly modi.ed by gap openings but the current and the 0  ð transition are only slightly modi.ed up to very high spin polarisation.In a third study, we analyse the contain of some solutions of Usadel equation, inparticular the normal metalsuperconductor interface without tunnel barrier. The standard perturbation theory dressed by cooperons enables us to interpret those solutions in terms of di.usive paths connecting Andreev re.exion event
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Related Identities
 Bercioux, Dario Opponent Thesis advisor Editor
 Reyes Calvo, M. Editor
 Vergniory, Maia G. Editor
 École doctorale des sciences physiques et de l'ingénieur (Talence, Gironde) Other
 Houzet, Manuel (1973....). Other Opponent Thesis advisor
 Université de Bordeaux (2014....). Degree grantor
 École doctorale physique (Grenoble) Other
 Laboratoire Ondes et Matière d'Aquitaine Other
 Laboratoire de physique des solides (Orsay, Essonne) Other
 Université ParisSud (19702019) Other Degree grantor