WorldCat Identities

Bolkcom, Christopher C.

Works: 61 works in 281 publications in 1 language and 2,663 library holdings
Roles: Author
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Christopher C Bolkcom
Tactical aircraft modernization : issues for Congress by Christopher C Bolkcom( Book )

35 editions published between 2001 and 2008 in English and held by 275 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report examines the Department of Defense's (DOD's) three largest tactical aircraft modernization programs. The "Background" section provides a brief description of each program and a discussion of how tactical aircraft fit into military air operations: the missions they typically perform and how they contrast to longer-range combat aircraft. The "Analysis: Key Issues to Consider" section examines a number of policy issues, including affordability, capability required, force structure, and defense industrial base. The paper concludes with a synopsis of congressional action on these programs. The Defense Department is procuring the F-22 fighter for the Air Force, the F/A-18E/F fighter/attack plane for the Navy, and the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) aircraft in three variants, some of which might be operational around 2012. Decisions in Congress and the Defense Department regarding these aircraft programs may have important long-term implications. The F/A-18E/F is in full-rate production. The F-22 is nearing the end of its planned production. The JSF might be in production through the 2020s. Decisions about the funding of these programs will influence the future of individual U.S. aircraft manufacturers, and may well affect the division of combat roles and missions among the services for decades. Some in Congress have expressed concern about the need for some of these aircraft programs on grounds of cost and affordability, and military requirements. Some in Congress have also expressed concern over the potential impact of these aircraft programs-ms on the defense industrial base. This report will be updated as events warrant. This report replaces Issue Brief IB92115 of the same title
V-22 osprey tilt-rotor aircraft by Christopher C Bolkcom( Book )

34 editions published between 2000 and 2009 in English and held by 212 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The V-22 Osprey is a tilt-rotor aircraft, capable of vertical or short take off and landing, with forward flight like a conventional fixed-wing aircraft. The MV-22 is the Marine Corps top aviation priority. Marine Corps leaders believe that the Osprey will provide them an unprecedented capability to quickly and decisively project power from well over the horizon. The Air Force's CV-22 version will be used for special operations. Army officials have testified that the service has no requirement for the V-22, but the Navy has expressed interest in purchasing MV-22s for a variety of missions. The V-22 program has been under development for over 25 years. Safety and maintenance concerns have arisen during this period (due in large part to three fatal accidents). The commander of the V-22 maintenance squadron admitted to falsifying maintenance records to make the aircraft appear more maintainable than it was, and three Marines were found guilty of misconduct. The program has maintained support from many in Congress despite these deficiencies. The program has undergone restructuring to accommodate congressional direction, budget constraints, and recommendations from outside experts, and DOD managers. After a 17 month hiatus, the Osprey embarked on its second set of flight tests in May of 2002. Tests were completed in June 2005 to the satisfaction of Navy testers, who believe that the V-22 has resolved all technical and engineering problems identified in internal and external reviews. On September 28, 2005 the V- 22 program passed a major milestone when the Defense Acquisition Board approved it for military use and full rate production. Supporters tout the V-22 s potential operational capabilities relative to the helicopters it will replace. It will fly faster, farther and with more payload than the CH-46 Sea Knight the Marine Corps currently operate
F-22 raptor aircraft program by Christopher C Bolkcom( Book )

14 editions published between 2001 and 2002 in English and held by 138 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The F-22 Raptor is a next-generation fighter/attack aircraft using the latest stealth technology to reduce detection by radar. Equipped with more advanced engines and avionics than the current F-15 Eagle, the F-22 is expected to maintain U.S. Air Force capabilities against more sophisticated aircraft and missiles in the 21st century. In 1986 two contractors were selected to build competing prototypes: Lockheed's YF-22 and Northrop's YF-23, which were flight tested in late 1990. In April 1991, the Air Force selected Lockheed's YF-22 design for full-scale development, now termed "Engineering and Manufacturing Development" (EMD). The aircraft is powered by Pratt & Whitney's F119 engine, selected in competition with General Electric's Fl2O engine. If produced as now projected, F-22s could begin replacing F-l5s after 2005. The Administrations' FY2002 budget requested almost $4.8 billion for the F-22 program in procurement and development finds. Through FY2OOO, Congress provided some $22.8 billion for the F-22. A 341-aircraft program was estimated in June 2000 to cost about $61.9 billion in actual prior-year and projected out-year expenditures
Joint strike fighter (JSF) program : background, status, and issues by Christopher C Bolkcom( Book )

15 editions published between 2000 and 2003 in English and held by 97 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The Defense Department's Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is one of three aircraft programs at the center of current debate over tactical aviation, the others being the Air Force F-22 fighter and the Navy F/A-18E/F fighter/attack plane. In November 1996, the Defense Department selected two major aerospace companies, Boeing and Lockheed Martin, to demonstrate competing designs for the JSF, a joint-service and multi-role fighter/attack plane. On October 26, 2001, the Lockheed Martin team was selected to develop further and to produce a family of conventional take-off and landing (CTOL), carrier-capable (CV), and short take-off vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft for the U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps and the U.K. Royal Navy as well as other allied services. Originally designated the Joint Advanced Strike Technology (JAST) program, the JSF program is a major issue in Congress because of concerns about its cost and budgetary impact, effects on the defense industrial base, and implications for U.S. national security in the early 21st century."--Page [iii]
Border security (or insecurity)( Book )

2 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 88 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Homeland security : protecting airliners from terrorist missiles by Christopher C Bolkcom( Book )

13 editions published between 2003 and 2006 in English and held by 65 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Recent events have focused attention on the threat that terrorists with shoulder fired surface-to-air missiles (SAMs), referred to as Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS), pose to commercial airliners. Most believe that no single solution exists to effectively mitigate this threat. Instead, a menu of options may be considered, including installing infrared (IR) countermeasures on aircraft; modifying flight operations and air traffic control procedures; improving airport and regional security; and strengthening missile non-proliferation efforts. Equipping aircraft with missile countermeasure systems can protect the aircraft even when operating in areas where ground-based security measures are unavailable or infeasible to implement. However, this option has a relatively high cost, between $1 million and $3 million per aircraft, and the time needed for implementation does not allow for immediate response to the existing terrorist threat. Procedural improvements such as specific flight crew training, altering air traffic procedures to minimize exposure to the threat, and improved security near airports may be less costly than countermeasures and could more immediately help deter domestic terrorist attacks. However, these techniques by themselves cannot completely mitigate the risk of domestic attacks and would not protect U.S. airliners flying to and from foreign airports
Airborne intelligence, surveillance & reconnaissance (ISR) : the U-2 aircraft and global hawk UAV programs by Richard A Best( Book )

5 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Army aviation : the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter issue by Christopher C Bolkcom( Book )

6 editions published between 2000 and 2003 in English and held by 47 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

China's foreign conventional arms acquisitions : background and analysis by Shirley Kan( Book )

5 editions published between 2000 and 2005 in English and held by 34 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This CRS Report examines the major, foreign conventional weapon systems that China has acquired or has committed to acquire since 1990, with particular attention to implications for U.S. security concerns. It is not the assumption of this report that China's military, the People's Liberation Army (PLA), will engage in conflict with other forces in Asia. Nonetheless, since the mid-1990s, there has been increasing concern about China's assertiveness in Asia and military buildup against Taiwan. Since 1990, China has acquired or sought to acquire select types and modest quantities of modern foreign weapons, primarily from Russia. These include: Mi-17 helicopters, Il-76 transports, Su-27 fighters, S-300 surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems, Kilo submarines, Tor-M1 SAM systems, Sovremenny destroyers (with Sunburn anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs)), A-50 airborne warning and control systems (AWACS) (Israeli Phalcon system canceled in 2000), and Su-30 long-range fighters. The Su-27 and Su-30 represent significant upgrades in fighter aircraft capability over China's indigenous aircraft. The combination of the PLA's imported AA-11 air-to-air missile and highly maneuverable aircraft could prove a vexing air-to-air challenge to modern fighter aircraft of other forces in Asia. The Russian SAMs represent marked improvements in China's ability to target aircraft and missiles that threaten its airspace. Nonetheless, the PLA's ability to employ its modern acquisitions is hampered by factors such as limited inventory, deficient maintenance, inadequate pilot training, outdated air doctrine, rigid command, disparate communications, and lack of supporting capabilities in the near term. China's navy has been primarily a coastal defense force built around ships based largely on older or obsolete Soviet technology. China's two Sovremenny-class ships are considerably more technologically modern, complex, and capable than most other PLA surface combatants
Combat aircraft sales to South Asia : potential implications by Christopher C Bolkcom( Book )

5 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 33 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In March 2005, the Bush Administration announced a willingness to resume sales of F-16 combat aircraft to Pakistan. Potential sales to India are also being considered. These potential sales have political, military, and defense industrial base implications for the United States and the South Asia region
Air Force transformation by Christopher C Bolkcom( Book )

5 editions published between 2001 and 2006 in English and held by 23 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Many believe that the Department of Defense (DOD) - including the Air Force - must transform itself to ensure future U.S. military dominance. The Air Force has a transformation plan that includes advanced technologies, concept development, and organizational innovation. Issues for Congress include the efficacy of this plan, its feasibility, and the attendant costs. This report will be updated
Potential military use of airships and aerostats by Christopher C Bolkcom( Book )

6 editions published between 2004 and 2005 in English and held by 22 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Department of Defense (DOD) has a history of using lighter-than-air (LTA) platforms such as airships (blimps) and aerostats (tethered balloons). Aerostats have recently been fielded to protect U.S. troops in the field. Contemporary interest is growing in using airships for numerous missions. This report examines the various concepts being considered and describes the issues for Congress. This report will be updated as events warrant
Homeland security : defending U.S. airspace by Christopher C Bolkcom( Book )

8 editions published between 2003 and 2006 in English and held by 22 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The September 11th attacks have drawn attention to U.S. air defense, and the 9/11 Commission Report has specifically recommended that Congress regularly assess the ability of Northern Command to defend the United States against military threats. Protecting U.S. airspace may require improvements in detecting aircraft and cruise missiles, making quick operational decisions on how to address these threats, and intercepting them. A number of options exist in each of these areas, and they must be evaluated. The Department of Defense will likely consider a variety of issues in their evaluation, including expediency, cost, and minimizing conflicts with civilian aviation. This report will be updated
Military helicopter modernization : background and issues for Congress by Christian F. M Liles( Book )

4 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 22 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Recent military operations, particularly those in Afghanistan and Iraq, have brought to the fore a number of outstanding questions concerning helicopters in the U.S. armed forces, including deployability, safety, survivability, affordability, and operational effectiveness. These concerns are especially relevant, and made more complicated, in an age of military transformation, the global war on terrorism, and increasing pressure to rein in funding for the military, all of which provide contradictory pressures with regard to DOD's large, and often complicated, military helicopter modernization efforts. Despite these questions, the military use of helicopters is likely to hold even, if not grow. This report includes a discussion of the evolving role of helicopters in military transformation. The Department of Defense (DOD) fields 10 different types of helicopters, which are largely of 1960s and 1970s design. This inventory numbers approximately 5,500 rotary-wing aircraft, not including an additional 144 belonging to the Coast Guard, and ranges from simple utility platforms such as the ubiquitous UH-1 Huey to highly-advanced, multi-mission platforms such as the Air Force's MH-53J Pave Low special operations helicopter and the still-developmental MV-22B Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft. Three general approaches can be taken to modernize DOD's helicopter forces: upgrading current platforms, rebuilding current helicopter models (often called recapitalization), or procuring new models. These approaches can be pursued alone, or concurrently, and the attractiveness or feasibility of any approach or combination of approaches depends largely on budgetary constraints and operational needs. In some cases, observers argue that upgrades to helicopter sub-systems, especially radar, communications, and targeting systems, are the most cost effective way to satisfy current helicopter requirements
Cruise missile defense by Ravi R Hichkad( Book )

6 editions published between 2004 and 2005 in English and held by 22 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload. They may possess highly complex navigation and targeting systems and thus have the capability to sustain low, terrain-hugging flight paths as well as strike with great accuracy. CMs can be launched from numerous platforms -- air-, land-, or sea-based -- and they can be outfitted with either conventional weapons or weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The Department of Defense is pursuing several initiatives that seek to improve capabilities against an unpredictable cruise missile threat. These initiatives compete for funding and congressional attention. This report will be updated as events warrant
Air Force FB-22 bomber concept by Christopher C Bolkcom( Book )

3 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 22 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Air Force has expressed interest in developing a bomber variant of the F/A-22 Raptor to "bridge the gap" between today's bombers and a follow-on bomber in 2037. Questions exist regarding the FB-22's feasibility, cost, and combat potential. In 2002 it was reported that Lockheed Martin Corp. had begun studying a radically modified version of the Raptor called the FB-22 . This variant would seek to significantly increase the F/A-22's air-to-ground capabilities, primarily through a redesign that would double the aircraft's range and significantly increase the aircraft's internal payload. Some estimate that the delta-winged FB-22 could carry up to 30 of the developmental 250-lb. Small Diameter Bombs. These potential improvements would likely result in some performance tradeoffs, such as reduced acceleration, speed, and maneuverability. Although not officially part of the F/A-22 program, and still in the conceptual phase, the FB-22 idea has elicited enthusiasm from some Air Force leaders. Air Force Secretary James Roche reportedly favors the FB-22 as the potential platform of choice for providing better close air support for tomorrow's ground forces. Air Force leaders have also depicted the FB-22 as a medium-range bomber that could serve as a "bridge" between the current bomber force and a follow-on capability to be fielded in the 2037 time-frame. On April 29, 2004, the Air Force issued to industry a "request for information" on resources and technologies that might contribute to a regional, or interim bomber. Other officials have reportedly shown less interest in the FB-22. Air Force acquisition chief Marvin Sambur said that the F/A-22's developmental difficulties would have to be solved before the FB-22 could be considered. Potential costs and schedule of the FB-22 concept are still quite notional. How this multi-role aircraft would compete with -- or conversely complement -- the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter has not yet been determined
Military aviation : issues and options for combating terrorism and counterinsurgency by Christopher C Bolkcom( Book )

6 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 15 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

By all accounts, the U.S. military dominates state-on-state conflict. In the past, non-state actors (terrorists, guerrillas, drug traffickers) appeared to be less threatening to U.S. national security than the well funded, well organized, and potent armed forces of an enemy nation-state. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 illustrate, however, that small groups of non-state actors can exploit relatively inexpensive and commercially available technology to conduct very destructive attacks over great distances. Today's U.S. armed forces were developed principally with state-on-state conflict in mind. Combating non-state actors, however, presents a number of distinct challenges in terms of operations, cost, and mindset. Non-state actors generally strive to hide within civilian populations. While U.S. policy makers typically seek quick and decisive victories, non-state actors seek protracted war. Non-state actors often employ cheap, commercially available weapons, that often result in expensive responses by the United States. Many of the weapons and methods employed today by U.S. armed forces can be used against non-state actors. Some, however, are more directly applicable than others. U.S. experience in conducting close air support (CAS), employing special operations forces (SOF) and advising friendly governments in using aviation to defend themselves from insurgents and terrorists may form a basis for building capabilities against non-state actors. Pursuing objectives against non-state actors while "winning the hearts and minds" of local populations, or at least not alienating them, appears to be a key consideration. Recent military action has killed or captured prominent terrorists, but it is unclear whether this action actually degraded the terrorist organization's capabilities. In some cases, these actions may have even strengthened them. There is a consensus view that airpower is one of the United States' great military advantages. Some are increasingly concerned, however, that military aviation is focused too much on the demands of fighting conventional foes to the detriment of irregular warfare (also called MOOTWA -- military operations other than war), and that the Department of Defense (DOD) must re-shape its aviation forces to increase their relevance in small wars, while maintaining the capability to win major conflicts. Determination of DOD needs for combating non-state actors and fielding more relevant forces raises a number of acquisition issues. Some argue that DOD's overall acquisition priorities are still too oriented toward large, "high tech" state-on-state conflict. Equally important, however, are the mindset changes that may be required to transition to a force equally adept at fighting conventional and non conventional foes. These mindset changes could include changes to training, doctrine, planning and organization
Potential F-22 Raptor export to Japan by Christopher C Bolkcom( Book )

5 editions published between 2007 and 2009 in English and held by 15 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The F-22A Raptor is the U.S. Air Force's most advanced manned combat aircraft. Developed principally to defeat Soviet aircraft in air-to-air combat, the F-22 exploits the latest developments in stealth technology to reduce detection by enemy radar, as well as thrust-vectoring engines for more maneuverability, and avionics that fuse and display information from sensors in a single battlefield display. Current plans call for the U.S. purchase of 183 F-22s, with the last aircraft being procured with FY2009 funds. Air Force leaders say that they require 381 F-22s, but lack the funds to purchase 198 additional aircraft. The debate over the export of F-22s has become more pointed as the end of procurement funding (FY2009), and the closure of the assembly line, nears. Whether to continue production of the F-22 is an issue that will confront the 111th Congress early in its first session. The Department of Defense (DoD) is officially neutral on whether the F-22 should be exported, but senior leaders have suggested that they favor foreign sales of the F-22. However, since 1998, Congress has prohibited the use of appropriated funds to approve or license the sale of the F-22 to any foreign government. This provision, known as the "Obey Amendment," was debated in the 109th Congress. The House Defense Appropriations Bill for FY2007 proposed to repeal the law, but export opponents in the House prevailed with the Senate in conference. Japan has expressed interest in purchasing the F-22A Raptor aircraft from the United States. Although the export of the plane is now prohibited by U.S. law, Congress has recently and may again consider repealing this ban. Arguments for the sale include potential benefits to U.S. industry, contribution to the defense of Japan and the region, and promotion of U.S. interoperability with the Japanese military. Arguments against the transfer include concerns about technology proliferation and the potential for undermining regional stability
Homeland security : unmanned aerial vehicles and border surveillance by Christopher C Bolkcom( Book )

5 editions published between 2004 and 2008 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Congress has expressed a great deal of interest in using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to surveil the United States' international land border. This report examines the strengths and limitations of deploying UAVs along the borders and related issues for Congress
Military Airlift: C-17 Aircraft Program by Christopher C Bolkcom( Book )

8 editions published between 2000 and 2007 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The C-17 Globemaster III is a long-range cargo/transport aircraft operated by the U.S. Air Force since 1993. Congress approved development of the aircraft in the late 1970s, when it was recognized that the Air Force did not have enough airlift capability. In 1981, the McDonnell Douglas C-17 emerged as winner of a competition with Boeing and Lockheed to develop a next-generation aircraft to replace C-130s and C-141s. Full-scale development of the C-17 got underway in 1986, but technical problems and funding shortfalls delayed the program, leading to slipped schedules and increased costs. Despite those difficulties, the C-17 has retained broad congressional support and enjoys strong Air Force and Army backing. Defense officials view the C-17 as essential because of its ability to fly long distances with large payloads yet still use smaller bases in remote areas. The C-17 first flew in 1991, about a year later than originally scheduled. Deliveries began in 1993, and initial operational capability (IOC) was declared in June of that year. C-17s have been successfully employed in military operations in Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq, and also in support of several humanitarian/disaster relief operations. Production problems in the late 1980s raised questions about the possibility of more cost-effective alternatives. In April 1990, Defense Secretary Cheney reduced the projected buy from 210 to 120 planes. In late 1993, the Department of Defense (DOD) gave the contractor two years to solve the production problems or face termination of the contract, with airlift shortfalls to be filled by modified commercial transport planes or existing military airlifters. By the mid-1990s, the program's difficulties had been largely resolved, although some questioned the number of C-17s to be procured. In 1996 DOD approved plans to order 80 more C-17s for a total of 120 aircraft -- increased in late 1998 to 134. In June 2001, DOD announced its decision to acquire 137 C-17s, which would bring the Air Force's million-ton-miles-per-day capability to 45.3. Through FY2006, $54.5 billion has been provided for the C-17 program, and it is expected to cost an additional $5 billion in un-requested funding to purchase 10 additional C-17 aircraft and directed DOD to fund the program in FY2008. The C-17 program is at the center of a number of airlift debates that confront policymakers. These issues include, but may not be limited to airlift needs and requirements, cost and budget, and industrial base issues
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Border security (or insecurity)
English (190)