WorldCat Identities

Duflo, Esther 1972-

Overview
Works: 116 works in 476 publications in 2 languages and 4,150 library holdings
Roles: Interviewee, Creator, Honoree
Classifications: HC59.7, 339.46091724
Publication Timeline
Key
Publications about  Esther Duflo Publications about Esther Duflo
Publications by  Esther Duflo Publications by Esther Duflo
Most widely held works about Esther Duflo
 
Most widely held works by Esther Duflo
Poor economics : a radical rethinking of the way to fight global poverty by Abhijit V Banerjee ( Book )
31 editions published between 2011 and 2012 in English and held by 1,754 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This book offers a view of the lives of the world's poorest people, helping to explain why the poor tend to borrow in order to save, why they miss out on free life-saving immunizations but pay for drugs that they do not need, and the cointerintuitive challenges faced by those living on less than 99 cents a day. Billions of government dollars, and thousands of charitable organizations and NGOs, are dedicated to helping the world's poor. But much of the work they do is based on assumptions that are untested generalizations at best, flat out harmful misperceptions at worst. The authors have pioneered the use of randomized control trials in development economics. Work based on these principles, supervised by the Poverty Action Lab at MIT, is being carried out in dozens of countries. Their work transforms certain presumptions: that microfinance is a cure-all, that schooling equals learning, that poverty at the level of 99 cents a day is just a more extreme version of the experience any of us have when our income falls uncomfortably low. Throughout, the authors emphasize that life for the poor is simply not like life for everyone else: it is a much more perilous adventure, denied many of the cushions and advantages that are routinely provided to the more affluent
Le développement humain by Esther Duflo ( Book )
3 editions published in 2010 in French and held by 112 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
La politique de l'autonomie by Esther Duflo ( Book )
1 edition published in 2010 in French and held by 102 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Participation and investment decisions in a retirement plan : the influence of colleagues' choices by Esther Duflo ( Book )
13 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 91 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper investigates whether peer effects play an important role in retirement savings decisions. We use individual data from the staff of a university to study whether individual decisions to enroll in a Tax Deferred Account plan sponsored by the university (and the choice of the mutual fund vendor for people who choose to enroll) are affected by the decisions of other employees in the same department. To overcome the identification problems, we separate the departments into sub-groups (along gender, status, age, and tenure lines) and we instrument the average participation of each peer group by the salary or tenure structure in this group. Our results suggest that peer effects are important. We find significant own-group peer effect on participation and on vendor's choice, but no cross-group peer effects
Repenser la pauvreté by Abhijit V Banerjee ( Book )
2 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 90 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The impact of education on fertility and child mortality : do fathers really matter less than mothers? by Lucia Breierova ( Book )
8 editions published between 2003 and 2004 in English and held by 88 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"This paper takes advantage of a massive school construction program that took place in Indonesia between 1973 and 1978 to estimate the effect of education on fertility and child mortality. Time and region varying exposure to the school construction program generates instrumental variables for the average education in the household, and the difference in education between husband and wife. We show that female education is a stronger determinant of age at marriage and early fertility than male education. However, female and male education seem equally important factors in reducing child mortality. We suggest that the OLS estimate of the differential effect of women's and men's education may be biased by failure to take in to account assortative matching"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
The role of information and social interactions in retirement plan decisions : evidence from a randomized experiment by Esther Duflo ( Book )
12 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 84 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper analyzes a randomized experiment to shed light on the role of information and social interactions in employees' decisions to enroll in a Tax Deferred Account (TDA) retirement plan within a large university. The experiment encouraged a random sample of employees in a subset of departments to attend a benefits information fair organized by the university, by promising a monetary reward for attendance. The experiment more than tripled the attendance rate of these treated individuals (relative to controls), and doubled that of untreated individuals within departments where some individuals were treated. TDA enrollment 5 and 11 months after the fair was significantly higher in departments where some individuals were treated than in departments where nobody was treated. However, the effect on TDA enrollment is almost as large for individuals in treated departments who did not receive the encouragement as for those who did. We provide three interpretations, differential treatment effects, social network effects, and motivational reward effects, to account for these results
Monitoring works getting teachers to come to school by Esther Duflo ( )
14 editions published between 2005 and 2008 in English and held by 83 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In the rural areas of developing countries, teacher absence is a widespread problem. This paper tests whether a simple incentive program based on teacher presence can reduce teacher absence, and whether it has the potential to lead to more teaching activities and better learning. In 60 informal one-teacher schools in rural India, randomly chosen out of 120 (the treatment schools), a financial incentive program was initiated to reduce absenteeism. Teachers were given a camera with a tamper-proof date and time function, along with instructions to have one of the children photograph the teacher and other students at the beginning and end of the school day. The time and date stamps on the photographs were used to track teacher attendance. A teacher's salary was a direct function of his attendance. The remaining 60 schools served as comparison schools. The introduction of the program resulted in an immediate decline in teacher absence. The absence rate (measured using unannounced visits both in treatment and comparison schools) changed from an average of 42 percent in the comparison schools to 22 percent in the treatment schools. When the schools were open, teachers were as likely to be teaching in both types of schools, and the number of students present was roughly the same. The program positively affected child achievement levels: a year after the start of the program, test scores in program schools were 0.17 standard deviations higher than in the comparison schools and children were 40 percent more likely to be admitted into regular schools
Schooling and labor market consequences of school construction in Indonesia : evidence from an unusual policy experiment by Esther Duflo ( Book )
11 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 79 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Between 1973 and 1978, the Indonesian Government constructed over 61,000 primary schools throughout the country. This is one of the largest school construction programs on record. I evaluate the effect of this program on education and wages by combining differences across regions in the number of schools constructed with differences across cohorts induced by the timing of the program. The estimates suggest that the construction of primary schools led to an increase in education and earnings. Children ages 2 to 6 in 1974 received 0.12 to 0.19 more years of education for each school constructed per 1,000 children in their region of birth. Using the variations in schooling generated by this policy as instrumental variables for the impact of education on wages generates estimates of economic returns to education ranging from 6.8 percent to 10.6 percent
Women as policy makers : evidence from a India-wide randomized policy experiment by Raghabendra Chattopadhyay ( Book )
9 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 78 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper uses political reservations for women in India to study the impact of women's leadership on policy decisions. In 1998, one third of all leadership positions of Village Councils in West Bengal were randomly selected to be reserved for a woman: in these councils only women could be elected to the position of head. Village Councils are responsible for the provision on many local public good in rural areas. Using a data set we collected on 165 Village Councils, we compare the type of public goods provided in reserved and unreserved Villages Councils. We show that women invest more in infrastructure that is directly relevant to the needs of rural women (water, fuel, and roads), while men invest more in education. Women are more likely to participate in the policy-making process if the leader of their village council is a woman
Poor economics a radical rethinking of the way to fight global poverty by Abhijit V Banerjee ( Recording )
3 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 78 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The authors have pioneered the use of randomized control trials in development economics. Work based on these principles is being carried out in dozens of countries. Drawing on this and their fifteen years of research from Chile to India, they have identified wholly new aspects of the behavior of poor people, their needs, and the way that aid or financial investment can affect their lives. This book illuminates how the poor live, and offers an opportunity to think of a world beyond poverty
Dams by Esther Duflo ( Book )
12 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 77 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"The construction of large dams is one of the most costly and controversial forms of public infrastructure investment in developing countries, but little is known about their impact. This paper studies the productivity and distributional effects of large dams in India. To account for endogenous placement of dams we use GIS data and the fact that river gradient affects a district's suitability for dams to provide instrumental variable estimates of their impact. We find that, in a district where a dam is built, agricultural production does not increase but poverty does. In contrast, districts located downstream from the dam benefit from increased irrigation and see agricultural production increase and poverty fall. Overall, our estimates suggest that large dam construction in India is a marginally cost-effective investment with significant distributional implications, and has, in aggregate, increased poverty"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Inequality and growth : what can the data say? by Abhijit V Banerjee ( Book )
12 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 76 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper describes the correlations between inequality and the growth rates in cross-country data. Using non-parametric methods, we show that the growth rate is an inverted U-shaped function of net changes in inequality: Changes in inequality (in any direction) are associated with reduced growth in the next period. The estimated relationship is robust to variations in control variables and estimation methods. This inverted U-curve is consistent with a simple political economy model, although, as we point out, efforts to interpret this model causally run into difficult identification problems. We show that this non-linearity is sufficient to explain why previous estimates of the relationship between the level of inequality and growth are so different from one another
Grandmothers and granddaughters : old age pension and intra-household allocation in South Africa by Esther Duflo ( Book )
13 editions published between 2000 and 2001 in English and held by 74 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"This paper studies whether the impact of a cash transfer on child nutritional status is affected by the gender of its recipient. In the early 1990's, the benefits and coverage of the South African social pension program were expanded for the black population. In 1993, the benefits were about twice the median income per capita in rural areas. Over a quarter of black South African children under age five live with a pension recipient. My estimates suggest that pensions received by women had a large impact on the anthropometric status of girls (it improved their weight given height by 1.19 standard deviations, and their height given age by 1.16 standard deviations), but little effect on that of boys. In contrast, I found no similar effect for pensions received by men. This suggests that the household does not function as a unitary entity, and that they efficiency of public transfer programs may depend on the gender of the recipient"--NBER website
Intrahousehold resource allocation in Côte d'Ivoire : social norms, separate accounts and consumption choices by Esther Duflo ( Book )
10 editions published between 2003 and 2004 in English and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"We study resource allocation within households in C"te d'Ivoire. In C"te d'Ivoire, as in much of Africa, husbands and wives farm separate plots, and there is some specialization by gender in the crops that are grown. These different crops are differentially sensitive to particular kinds of rainfall shocks. We find that conditional on overall levels of expenditure, the composition of household expenditure is sensitive to the gender of the recipient of a rainfall shock. For example, rainfall shocks associated with high yields of women's crops shift expenditure towards food. Strong social norms constrain the use of profits from yam cultivation, which is carried out almost exclusively by men. In line with these norms, we find that rainfall-induced fluctuations in income from yams are transmitted to expenditures on education and food, not to expenditures on private goods (like alcohol and tobacco). We reject the hypothesis of complete insurance within households, even with respect to publicly observable weather shocks. Different sources of income are allocated to different uses depending upon both the identity of the income earner and upon the origin of the income"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
The medium run effects of educational expansion : evidence from a large school construction program in Indonesia by Esther Duflo ( Book )
11 editions published between 2001 and 2002 in English and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"This paper studies the medium run consequences of an increase in the rate of accumulation of human capital in a developing country. From 1974 to 1978, the Indonesian government built over 61,000 primary schools. The school construction program led to an increase in education among individuals who were young enough to attend primary school after 1974, but not among the older cohorts. 2SLS estimates suggest that an increase of 10 percentage points in the proportion of primary school graduates in the labor force reduced the wages of the older cohorts by 3.8% to 10% and increased their formal labor force participation by 4% to 7%. I propose a two-sector model as a framework to interpret these findings. The results suggest that physical capital did not adjust to the faster increase in human capital"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Expérience, science et lutte contre la pauvreté by Esther Duflo ( Book )
4 editions published between 2009 and 2010 in French and held by 67 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Saving incentives for low- and middle-income families : evidence from a field experiment with H & R Block by Esther Duflo ( Book )
4 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 59 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"This paper analyzes the effects of a large randomized field experiment carried out with H & R Block, offering matching incentives for IRA contributions at the time of tax preparation. About 14,000 H & R Block clients, across 60 offices in predominantly low- and middle-income neighborhoods in St. Louis, were randomly offered a 20 percent match on IRA contributions, a 50 percent match, or no match (the control group). The evaluation generates two main findings. First, higher match rates significantly raise IRA participation and contributions. Take-up rates were 3 percent for the control group, 8 percent in the 20 percent match group, and 14 percent in the 50 percent match group. Average IRA contributions (including non-contributors, excluding the match) for the 20 percent and 50 percent match groups were 4 and 7 times higher than in the control group, respectively. Second, several additional findings are inconsistent with the full information, rational-saver model. In particular, we find much more modest effects on take-up and amounts contributed from the existing Saver's Credit, which provides an effective match for retirement saving contributions through the tax code; we suspect that the differences may reflect the complexity of the Saver's Credit as enacted, and the way in which its effective match is presented. Taken together, our results suggest that the combination of a clear and understandable match for saving, easily accessible savings vehicles, the opportunity to use part of an income tax refund to save, and professional assistance could generate a significant increase in contributions to retirement accounts, including among middle- and low-income households"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
How much should we trust difference-in-difference estimates? by Marianne Bertrand ( Book )
4 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 59 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Education and HIV/AIDS prevention : evidence from a randomized evaluation in Western Kenya by Esther Duflo ( Book )
6 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 55 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The authors report results from a randomized evaluation comparing three school-based HIV/AIDS interventions in Kenya: (1) training teachers in the Kenyan Government's HIV/AIDS-education curriculum; (2) encouraging students to debate the role of condoms and to write essays on how to protect themselves against HIV/AIDS; and (3) reducing the cost of education. Their primary measure of the effectiveness of these interventions is teenage childbearing, which is associated with unprotected sex. The authors also collected measures of knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding HIV/AIDS. After two years, girls in schools where teachers had been trained were more likely to be married in the event of a pregnancy. The program had little other impact on students' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, or on the incidence of teen childbearing. The condom debates and essays increased practical knowledge and self-reported use of condoms without increasing self-reported sexual activity. Reducing the cost of education by paying for school uniforms reduced dropout rates, teen marriage, and childbearing
 
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Alternative Names
Duflo, E. 1972-
Duflo, Esther Caroline 1972-
デュフロ, エスター
Languages
English (174)
French (10)
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