Lewis, Russell J.
Most widely held works by Russell J Lewis
An accurate method for the determination of carbon monoxide in postmortem blood using GC/TCD by Russell J Lewis ( Book )
3 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 145 libraries worldwide
During the investigation of aviation accidents, postmortem samples from accident victims are submitted to the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute for toxicological analysis. To determine if the accident victim was exposed to an in-flight/post crash fire or faulty heating/exhaust system, the analysis of carbon monoxide (CO) is conducted. This laboratory encountered difficulties with many of our postmortem samples while employing a commonly used GC method so a new GC method was applied to putrefied and non-putrefied postmortem samples. Postmortem samples were analyzed with our spectrophotometric method, a GC method commonly used without reducing agent, and a new GC method with the addition of sodium dithionite. As expected, we saw errors up to and exceeding 50% when comparing the unreduced GC results with our spectrophotometric method. With our new GC procedure, which incorporates a reducing agent, the error was virtually eliminated.
Distribution of butalbital in biological fluids and tissues by Russell J Lewis ( Book )
2 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 142 libraries worldwide
The distribution of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in postmortem fluids and tissues by Russell J Lewis ( Book )
3 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 139 libraries worldwide
During aviation accident investigations, postmortem specimens from the flight crews are submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute for toxicological analysis. The laboratory has determined the distribution of fluoxetine and its desmethyl metabolite, norfluoxetine, in various postmortem tissues and fluids from 10 fatal aviation accident cases.
Determination of etomidate in human postmortem fluids and tissues by Robert D Johnson ( Book )
2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 137 libraries worldwide
"Following an aviation accident, biological specimens from the operator of the aircraft are submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute for toxicological analysis. During the course of medical treatment following an aviation accident, pilots who later died as a result of their injuries may have been administered etomidate as an intravenous anesthetic. Our laboratory has developed a sensitive method for the identification and quantitation of etomidate in the biological specimens received from these pilots. Furthermore, we have evaluated the distribution of this compound in various postmortem tissues and fluids from 3 fatal aviation accident cases."--Report documentation page.
False carbamazepine positives due to 10, 11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine breakdown in the GC/MS injector port by Robert D Johnson ( Book )
2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 132 libraries worldwide
"During the investigation of aviation accidents, postmortem specimens from accident victims are submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for toxicological analysis. A case recently received by CAMI screened positive for the anticonvulsant medication carbamazepine (Tegretol) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The carbamazepine found during the routine screening procedure was subsequently confirmed using a carbamazepine-specific GC/MS procedure. Concurrently, it was discovered that the accident victim had been prescribed oxcarbazepine (Trileptal). Oxcarbazepine is nearly structurally identical to carbamazepine and is metabolized by cytosolic enzymes in the liver to the active compound 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine. The carbamazepine initially found in this case was present due to the breakdown of the active oxcarbazepine metabolite in the GC/MS injector port. In the current study this conversion is investigated, the percentage of carbamazepine formed at various injector port temperatures is determined, and these three compounds are quantified in nine fluid and tissue specimens from the case in question. Lastly, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was used to demonstrate the absence of carbamazepine, and its formation, in the same specimens."--Report documentation page.
Formation of an interfering substance, 3,4-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1,3-oxazolidine, during a pseudoephedrine urinalysis ( Book )
5 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 132 libraries worldwide
During fatal aviation accident investigations, biosamples from the victims are submitted to the FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAMI) for drug analysis. In the process of one such analysis by CAMI, an unknown substance was found in a urine sample. Simultaneous screening by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography/FID (GC/FID) suggested the presence of pseudoephedrine. A subsequent routine confirmation analysis of a separate urine aliquot by GC Fourier transform infrared (GC/FTIR) and GC mass spectrometry (GC/MS) indicated that the retention times of the unknown substance matched with those of pseudoephedrine. However, its infrared and mass spectra were different--the -OH and -NH groups were missing, a C-O-C group was present, and the molar mass was 12 atomic mass units (amu) more than that of pseudoephedrine. A subsequent literature search suggested that ephedrine-like amines react with aldehydes to form oxazolidines. Therefore, the 12-amu increase could be accounted for by condensation of pseudoephedrine with formaldehyde. Since this aldehyde is present in various grades of methanol and ethyl acetate, and these solvents were used during the solid-phase extraction, 3,4-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1,3-oxazolidine was synthesized by using (+)-pseudoephedrine HCl and formaldehyde. The analytical findings of the synthesized compound were consistent with those of the unknown interfering substance, confirming that it was the oxazolidine. Aldehyde contaminants in solvents or specimens can transform drugs of interest and may result in misidentification of a compound originally present in specimens. Therefore, chemicals used in analyses should be of the highest available purity, and a multi-analytical approach should be adopted to maintain a high degree of quality assurance.
A novel method for the determination of sildenafil (Viagra) and its metabolite (UK-103, 320) in postmortem specimens using LC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS/MS final report by Russell J Lewis ( Book )
1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 123 libraries worldwide
Poppy seed consumption or opiate use the determination of thebaine and opiates of abuse in postmortem fluids and tissues : final report by Robert D Johnson ( Book )
1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 122 libraries worldwide
Thebaine is a naturally occurring opiate that is introduced into the body, along with morphine and codeine, following the consumption of poppy seeds. Scientific literature has clearly demonstrated the distinct possibility of a morphine and/or codeine positive due to poppy seed consumption. The potential legal consequences of an opiate positive necessitates that laboratories, both drug testing and forensic, differentiate between an opiate positive due to morphine or codeine use and an opiate positive due to poppy seed consumption. Identification and quantitation of opiates in postmortem fluids and tissues are important aspects of forensic toxicology and may provide crucial information in determining the cause of impairment and/or death. This report describes a rapid, automated procedure for the single-step extraction and simultaneous determination of hydrocodone, dihydrocodeine, codeine, oxycodone, hydromorphone, 6-MAM, morphine, and thebaine in postmortem fluids and tissues using a Zymark RapidTrace automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) system and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.
The LC/MS quantitation of vardenafil (Levitra®) in postmortem biological specimens final report by Robert D Johnson ( Book )
1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 121 libraries worldwide
During the investigation of aviation accidents, postmortem specimens from accident victims are submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for toxicological analysis. As new medications are introduced to the market and are subsequently used by aviation accident victims, CAMI's forensic toxicology laboratory is tasked with developing analytical methods for the determination of these compounds. This report presents a rapid and reliable method for the identification and quantitation of vardenafil (Levitra®) in biological specimens. This procedure utilizes sildenafil-d8, which structurally is closely related to vardenafil, as an internal standard for more accurate and reliable quantitation. The method incorporates solid phase extraction and LC/MS/MS and MS/MS/MS utilizing an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometer in the positive chemical ionization mode. Solid-phase extraction proved to be exceptionally efficient providing recoveries that ranged from 94-97%. The limit of detection for vardenafil was determined to be 0.19 ng/mL. The linear dynamic range for this compound was 0.39-200 ng/mL. This method was successfully applied to postmortem fluid and tissue specimens obtained from an aviation accident victim. This novel analytical procedure proved to be simple, accurate, and robust for the identification and quantitation of vardenafil in postmortem specimens.
Postmortem concentrations of Tramadol and O-Desmethyltramadol in 11 aviation accident fatalities ( Book )
3 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 120 libraries worldwide
"Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic used to treat moderate-to-severe pain. Side effects of this medication include dizziness, confusion, drowsiness, seizures, and respiratory depression. Any of these side effects could negatively affect a pilot's performance and become a factor in an aviation accident. Due to the severity of aviation accidents, blood samples are often not available, and frequently, only tissue specimens are available for analysis. Therefore, understanding the distribution of a drug throughout all fluids and tissues of the body is important when trying to interpret drug impairment and/or intoxication. Our laboratory has determined the distribution of tramadol and its main active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol, in various postmortem tissues and fluids obtained from 11 fatal aviation accident cases. Whole blood tramadol concentrations obtained from these 11 cases ranged from 81-2720 ng/mL. When available, 10 specimen types were analyzed for each case, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, muscle, heart, and brain. Distribution, expressed as specimen/blood ratio, for tramadol was 69 ± 74 in urine, 2.58 ± 3.26 in vitreous humor, 4.90 ± 3.32 in liver, 3.43 ± 2.31 in lung, 3.05 ± 1.49 in kidney, 5.15 ± 2.66 in spleen, 1.18 ± 0.85 in muscle, 2.33 ± 1.21 in brain, and 1.89 ± 1.01 in heart. Distribution coefficients obtained had coefficient of variations (CV) ranging from 49-126%. With such large CV's, the distribution coefficients have little use in predicting blood concentrations from the analysis of a tissue specimen. This study indicates that tramadol concentrations undergo significant postmortem changes."--Report documentation page.
Simultaneous quantitation of atenolol, metoprolol, and propranolol in biological matrices via LC/MS final report by Robert D Johnson ( Book )
1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 120 libraries worldwide
Hypertension is a growing medical concern in the United States. With an increasing number of Americans suffering from hypertension every year, the use of antihypertensive medications such as beta-blockers has increased as well. Three beta-blocker medications--atenolol, metoprolol, and propranolol--were among the 200 most prescribed drugs in the United States in 2003, ranked 4, 14, and 165, respectively. Pilots that successfully manage their hypertension either with diet, exercise, and/or medication may remain medically certified to operate an aircraft. However, these pilots are closely monitored to ensure that their hypertension is properly controlled. The FAA classifies approximately 8% of all active civil aviation pilots as "hypertensive with medication." Toxicological evaluation of postmortem samples obtained from pilots is an important part of the investigation of fatal civil aviation accidents. During this evaluation it is not uncommon to detect beta-blocker compounds such as atenolol, metoprolol, or propranolol in the submitted biological samples. In forensic toxicology laboratories, these compounds are most commonly confirmed and/or quantitated by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection (LC/MS), however, is becoming increasingly more prevalent in the field of forensic toxicology and is considered a superior alternative to GC/MS for the analysis of many compounds. There are very few analytical LC/MS methods published for the determination of beta-blockers from biological specimens. Furthermore, we were unable to find any citation for the toxicological determination of beta-blockers in postmortem fluid and tissue specimens using LC/MS; in particular, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in conjunction with ion trap MS. This manuscript describes the validation and application of such a method.
Identification of Sildenafil (Viagra) and its metabolite (UK-103, 320) in six aviation fatalities final report by Robert D Johnson ( Book )
1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 120 libraries worldwide
This report presents a rapid and reliable method for the identification and quantitation of sildenafil and its active metabolite UK-103,320 in postmortem fluid and tissue specimens collected from 6 fatal aviation accident victims. The FAA is responsible for investigating "general aviation and air carrier accidents and search for biomedical and clinical causes of the accidents, including evidence of ... chemical [use]."
Analysis of cocaine, its metabolites, pyrolysis products, and ethanol adducts in postmortem fluids and tissues using Zymark automated solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( Book )
1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 111 libraries worldwide
Cocaine (COC) is one of the most widely abused illicit drugs in America. COC abuse transcends all social, racial, and economic boundaries. Following the introduction in the mid-1980s of a new form of cocaine called crack, cocaine use has been on the rise. Because of its intense high, crack smoking has become very popular. Despite its popularity, crack smoking is a particularly dangerous form of COC use. Additionally, COC and ethanol are frequently used together, resulting in the formation of a biologically active molecule that is nearly as psycoactive as COC but produces a longer lasting and toxic effect. Demonstrating the presence or absence of COC and COC-related molecules in postmortem fluids and/or tissues can have serious legal consequences and may help determine the cause of impairment and/or death. We have developed a simple method for the simultaneous determination of COC and the COC metabolites benzoylecgonine, norbenzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, ecgonine, and norcocaine, as well as anhydroecgonine methyl ester (a unique byproduct of COC smoking), cocaethylene (a molecule formed by the concurrent use of COC and ethanol) and their related metabolites, anhydroecgonine, norcocaethylene, and ecgonine ethyl ester. This method incorporates a Zymark RapidTrace automated solid-phase extraction system, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and PFP/PFPA derivatives. The lower limits of detection ranged from 0.78 - 12.5 ng/mL, and the linear dynamic range for most analytes was 0.78 3200 ng/mL. The extraction efficiencies were from 26 - 84%, with the exception of anhydroecgonine and ecgonine, which were from 1 - 4%. We applied this method to 5 aviation fatalities. This method has proven to be simple, robust, and accurate for the simultaneous determination of COC and 11 COC metabolites in postmortem fluids and tissues.
Analysis of cocaine, its metabolites, prolysis products, and ethanol adducts in postmortem fluids and tissues using Zymark [superscript registered trademark symbol] automated solid-phase extractions and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( Book )
1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 34 libraries worldwide
Distribution of oxycodone in postmortem fluids and tissues by Sabra R Botch ( Book )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 33 libraries worldwide
Poppy seed consumption or opiate use : the determination of thebaine and opiates of abuse in postmortem fluids and tissues by Robert D Johnson ( Book )
2 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 32 libraries worldwide
Identification of Sildenafil (Viagra®) and its metabolite (UK-103, 320) in six aviation fatalities by Robert D Johnson ( Book )
2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 31 libraries worldwide
Simultaneous quantitation of atenolol, metoprolol, and propranolol in biological matrices via LC/MS by Robert D Johnson ( Book )
1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 29 libraries worldwide
Comparison of pilot medical history and medications found in postmortem specimens by Dennis V Canfield ( Book )
1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 22 libraries worldwide
Following a fatal aviation accident, specimens from deceased pilots are collected by local pathologists and sent to the Bioaeronautical Sciences Research Laboratory for toxicological analysis, to identify all pilots found positive for medications used to treat cardiovascular, psychological, or neurological conditions.
A novel method for the determination of Sildenafil (Viagra) and its metabolite (UK-103, 320) in postmortem specimens using LC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS/MS by Russell J Lewis ( Book )
2 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 20 libraries worldwide
Adrenergic beta blockers Aeronautics--Safety measures Aircraft accidents Aircraft accidents--Human factors Aircraft accidents--Investigation Air pilots, Military Air pilots--Drug use Air pilots--Health and hygiene Air pilots--Medical examinations Aviation medicine Aviation toxicology Carbon monoxide Chemistry, Forensic Cocaine Crack (Drug) Drugs--Analysis Drug testing Fluoxetine Forensic hematology Forensic pharmacology Forensic toxicology Gas chromatography Hypertension Hypertension--Treatment Impotence Mass spectrometry Mass spectrometry--Forensic applications Narcotics--Analysis Opium--Analysis Opium poppy Oxycodone Sildenafil United States
Lewis, R. J. (Russell J.)