WorldCat Identities

Lewis, Russell J.

Works: 25 works in 62 publications in 1 language and 2,096 library holdings
Classifications: RC1054.U5,
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Publications about  Russell J Lewis Publications about Russell J Lewis
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Most widely held works by Russell J Lewis
False carbamazepine positives due to 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine breakdown in the GC/MS injector port by Robert D Johnson ( )
3 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 167 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"During the investigation of aviation accidents, postmortem specimens from accident victims are submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for toxicological analysis. A case recently received by CAMI screened positive for the anticonvulsant medication carbamazepine (Tegretol) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The carbamazepine found during the routine screening procedure was subsequently confirmed using a carbamazepine-specific GC/MS procedure. Concurrently, it was discovered that the accident victim had been prescribed oxcarbazepine (Trileptal). Oxcarbazepine is nearly structurally identical to carbamazepine and is metabolized by cytosolic enzymes in the liver to the active compound 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine. The carbamazepine initially found in this case was present due to the breakdown of the active oxcarbazepine metabolite in the GC/MS injector port. In the current study this conversion is investigated, the percentage of carbamazepine formed at various injector port temperatures is determined, and these three compounds are quantified in nine fluid and tissue specimens from the case in question. Lastly, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was used to demonstrate the absence of carbamazepine, and its formation, in the same specimens."--Report documentation page
An accurate method for the determination of carbon monoxide in postmortem blood using GC/TCD by Russell J Lewis ( )
4 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 165 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
During the investigation of aviation accidents, postmortem samples from accident victims are submitted to the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute for toxicological analysis. To determine if the accident victim was exposed to an in-flight/post crash fire or faulty heating/exhaust system, the analysis of carbon monoxide (CO) is conducted. This laboratory encountered difficulties with many of our postmortem samples while employing a commonly used GC method so a new GC method was applied to putrefied and non-putrefied postmortem samples. Postmortem samples were analyzed with our spectrophotometric method, a GC method commonly used without reducing agent, and a new GC method with the addition of sodium dithionite. As expected, we saw errors up to and exceeding 50% when comparing the unreduced GC results with our spectrophotometric method. With our new GC procedure, which incorporates a reducing agent, the error was virtually eliminated
Distribution of butalbital in biological fluids and tissues by Russell J Lewis ( )
3 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 163 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The distribution of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in postmortem fluids and tissues by Russell J Lewis ( )
4 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 163 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
During aviation accident investigations, postmortem specimens from the flight crews are submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute for toxicological analysis. Our laboratory has determined the distribution of fluoxetine and its desmethyl metabolite, norfluoxetine, in various postmortem tissues and fluids from 10 fatal aviation accident cases. Most cases fell within the expected therapeutic range for patients that regularly take this drug
Postmortem concentrations of Tramadol and O-Desmethyltramadol in 11 aviation accident fatalities ( )
3 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 162 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic used to treat moderate-to-severe pain. Side effects of this medication include dizziness, confusion, drowsiness, seizures, and respiratory depression. Any of these side effects could negatively affect a pilot's performance and become a factor in an aviation accident. Due to the severity of aviation accidents, blood samples are often not available, and frequently, only tissue specimens are available for analysis. Therefore, understanding the distribution of a drug throughout all fluids and tissues of the body is important when trying to interpret drug impairment and/or intoxication. Our laboratory has determined the distribution of tramadol and its main active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol, in various postmortem tissues and fluids obtained from 11 fatal aviation accident cases. Whole blood tramadol concentrations obtained from these 11 cases ranged from 81-2720 ng/mL. When available, 10 specimen types were analyzed for each case, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, muscle, heart, and brain. Distribution, expressed as specimen/blood ratio, for tramadol was 69 ± 74 in urine, 2.58 ± 3.26 in vitreous humor, 4.90 ± 3.32 in liver, 3.43 ± 2.31 in lung, 3.05 ± 1.49 in kidney, 5.15 ± 2.66 in spleen, 1.18 ± 0.85 in muscle, 2.33 ± 1.21 in brain, and 1.89 ± 1.01 in heart. Distribution coefficients obtained had coefficient of variations (CV) ranging from 49-126%. With such large CV's, the distribution coefficients have little use in predicting blood concentrations from the analysis of a tissue specimen. This study indicates that tramadol concentrations undergo significant postmortem changes."--Report documentation page
Poppy seed consumption or opiate use the determination of thebaine and opiates of abuse in postmortem fluids and tissues : final report by Robert D Johnson ( )
5 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 159 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Thebaine is a naturally occurring opiate that is introduced into the body, along with morphine and codeine, following the consumption of poppy seeds. Scientific literature has clearly demonstrated the distinct possibility of a morphine and/or codeine positive due to poppy seed consumption. The potential legal consequences of an opiate positive necessitates that laboratories, both drug testing and forensic, differentiate between an opiate positive due to morphine or codeine use and an opiate positive due to poppy seed consumption. Identification and quantitation of opiates in postmortem fluids and tissues are important aspects of forensic toxicology and may provide crucial information in determining the cause of impairment and/or death. This report describes a rapid, automated procedure for the single-step extraction and simultaneous determination of hydrocodone, dihydrocodeine, codeine, oxycodone, hydromorphone, 6-MAM, morphine, and thebaine in postmortem fluids and tissues using a Zymark RapidTrace automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) system and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry
Determination of etomidate in human postmortem fluids and tissues by Robert D Johnson ( )
4 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 156 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"Following an aviation accident, biological specimens from the operator of the aircraft are submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute for toxicological analysis. During the course of medical treatment following an aviation accident, pilots who later died as a result of their injuries may have been administered etomidate as an intravenous anesthetic. Our laboratory has developed a sensitive method for the identification and quantitation of etomidate in the biological specimens received from these pilots. Furthermore, we have evaluated the distribution of this compound in various postmortem tissues and fluids from 3 fatal aviation accident cases."--Report documentation page
Simultaneous quantitation of atenolol, metoprolol, and propranolol in biological matrices via LC/MS by Robert D Johnson ( )
4 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 154 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Hypertension is a growing medical concern in the United States. With an increasing number of Americans suffering from hypertension every year, the use of antihypertensive medications such as beta-blockers has increased as well. Three beta-blocker medications--atenolol, metoprolol, and propranolol--were among the 200 most prescribed drugs in the United States in 2003, ranked 4, 14, and 165, respectively. Pilots that successfully manage their hypertension either with diet, exercise, and/or medication may remain medically certified to operate an aircraft. However, these pilots are closely monitored to ensure that their hypertension is properly controlled. The FAA classifies approximately 8% of all active civil aviation pilots as "hypertensive with medication." Toxicological evaluation of postmortem samples obtained from pilots is an important part of the investigation of fatal civil aviation accidents. During this evaluation it is not uncommon to detect beta-blocker compounds such as atenolol, metoprolol, or propranolol in the submitted biological samples. In forensic toxicology laboratories, these compounds are most commonly confirmed and/or quantitated by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection (LC/MS), however, is becoming increasingly more prevalent in the field of forensic toxicology and is considered a superior alternative to GC/MS for the analysis of many compounds. There are very few analytical LC/MS methods published for the determination of beta-blockers from biological specimens. Furthermore, we were unable to find any citation for the toxicological determination of beta-blockers in postmortem fluid and tissue specimens using LC/MS; in particular, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in conjunction with ion trap MS. This manuscript describes the validation and application of such a method
Identification of Sildenafil (Viagra) and its metabolite (UK-103,320) in six aviation fatalities final report by Robert D Johnson ( )
4 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 153 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This report presents a rapid and reliable method for the identification and quantitation of sildenafil and its active metabolite UK-103,320 in postmortem fluid and tissue specimens collected from 6 fatal aviation accident victims. The FAA is responsible for investigating "general aviation and air carrier accidents and search for biomedical and clinical causes of the accidents, including evidence of ... chemical [use]."
Analysis of cocaine, its metabolites, pyrolysis products, and ethanol adducts in postmortem fluids and tissues using Zymark automated solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( )
2 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 150 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Cocaine (COC) is one of the most widely abused illicit drugs in America. COC abuse transcends all social, racial, and economic boundaries. Following the introduction in the mid-1980s of a new form of cocaine called crack, cocaine use has been on the rise. Because of its intense high, crack smoking has become very popular. Despite its popularity, crack smoking is a particularly dangerous form of COC use. Additionally, COC and ethanol are frequently used together, resulting in the formation of a biologically active molecule that is nearly as psycoactive as COC but produces a longer lasting and toxic effect. Demonstrating the presence or absence of COC and COC-related molecules in postmortem fluids and/or tissues can have serious legal consequences and may help determine the cause of impairment and/or death. We have developed a simple method for the simultaneous determination of COC and the COC metabolites benzoylecgonine, norbenzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, ecgonine, and norcocaine, as well as anhydroecgonine methyl ester (a unique byproduct of COC smoking), cocaethylene (a molecule formed by the concurrent use of COC and ethanol) and their related metabolites, anhydroecgonine, norcocaethylene, and ecgonine ethyl ester. This method incorporates a Zymark RapidTrace automated solid-phase extraction system, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and PFP/PFPA derivatives. The lower limits of detection ranged from 0.78 - 12.5 ng/mL, and the linear dynamic range for most analytes was 0.78 3200 ng/mL. The extraction efficiencies were from 26 - 84%, with the exception of anhydroecgonine and ecgonine, which were from 1 - 4%. We applied this method to 5 aviation fatalities. This method has proven to be simple, robust, and accurate for the simultaneous determination of COC and 11 COC metabolites in postmortem fluids and tissues
Formation of an interfering substance, 3,4-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1,3-oxazolidine, during a pseudoephedrine urinalysis ( Book )
5 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 146 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
During fatal aviation accident investigations, biosamples from the victims are submitted to the FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAMI) for drug analysis. In the process of one such analysis by CAMI, an unknown substance was found in a urine sample. Simultaneous screening by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography/FID (GC/FID) suggested the presence of pseudoephedrine. A subsequent routine confirmation analysis of a separate urine aliquot by GC Fourier transform infrared (GC/FTIR) and GC mass spectrometry (GC/MS) indicated that the retention times of the unknown substance matched with those of pseudoephedrine. However, its infrared and mass spectra were different--the -OH and -NH groups were missing, a C-O-C group was present, and the molar mass was 12 atomic mass units (amu) more than that of pseudoephedrine. A subsequent literature search suggested that ephedrine-like amines react with aldehydes to form oxazolidines. Therefore, the 12-amu increase could be accounted for by condensation of pseudoephedrine with formaldehyde. Since this aldehyde is present in various grades of methanol and ethyl acetate, and these solvents were used during the solid-phase extraction, 3,4-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1,3-oxazolidine was synthesized by using (+)-pseudoephedrine HCl and formaldehyde. The analytical findings of the synthesized compound were consistent with those of the unknown interfering substance, confirming that it was the oxazolidine. Aldehyde contaminants in solvents or specimens can transform drugs of interest and may result in misidentification of a compound originally present in specimens. Therefore, chemicals used in analyses should be of the highest available purity, and a multi-analytical approach should be adopted to maintain a high degree of quality assurance
A novel method for the determination of sildenafil (Viagra) and its metabolite (UK-103,320) in postmortem specimens using LC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS/MS final report by Russell J Lewis ( Book )
3 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 145 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The LC/MS quantitation of vardenafil (Levitra®) in postmortem biological specimens final report by Robert D Johnson ( )
4 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 145 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
During the investigation of aviation accidents, postmortem specimens from accident victims are submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for toxicological analysis. As new medications are introduced to the market and are subsequently used by aviation accident victims, CAMI's forensic toxicology laboratory is tasked with developing analytical methods for the determination of these compounds. This report presents a rapid and reliable method for the identification and quantitation of vardenafil (Levitra®) in biological specimens. This procedure utilizes sildenafil-d8, which structurally is closely related to vardenafil, as an internal standard for more accurate and reliable quantitation. The method incorporates solid phase extraction and LC/MS/MS and MS/MS/MS utilizing an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometer in the positive chemical ionization mode. Solid-phase extraction proved to be exceptionally efficient providing recoveries that ranged from 94-97%. The limit of detection for vardenafil was determined to be 0.19 ng/mL. The linear dynamic range for this compound was 0.39-200 ng/mL. This method was successfully applied to postmortem fluid and tissue specimens obtained from an aviation accident victim. This novel analytical procedure proved to be simple, accurate, and robust for the identification and quantitation of vardenafil in postmortem specimens
Distribution of oxycodone in postmortem fluids and tissues by Sabra R Botch ( Book )
2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 35 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Oxycodone is a heavily used and abused analgesic agent. Its pharmacological effects, including euphoria, respiratory depression, nausea, and drowsiness, have the potential to adversely affect performance. The postmortem distribution of oxycodone has not been well characterized, particularly at sub-lethal levels. Therefore, an attempt was made to evaluate the distribution of oxycodone in postmortem specimens collected from aviation accidents. Methods: A search of our database identified 4 oxycodone-positive fatalities from separate civil aviation accidents that occurred during a period of 6 years that had numerous biological tissues and fluids available (blood, urine, vitreous humor, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, lung, spleen, heart muscle, and brain). These specimens were extracted using solid-phase extraction and were analyzed for oxycodone by GC/MS. Results: Oxycodone concentration ranges ( g/mL, g/g) found in the different tissues and fluids were: blood 0.027-0.742, urine 2.20 - 12.5, vitreous humor 0.048 - 0.118, liver 0.103-3.35, lung 0.047-1.35, kidney 0.045-3.12, spleen 0.115-2.43, muscle 0.017-0.400, brain 0.032-1.36, and heart 0.038-3.19. Conclusion: The blood concentrations found indicate that the oxycodone in these cases ranged from therapeutic to above therapeutic, but all were below lethal levels. Tissue/fluid to blood distribution coefficients were found to have large coefficients of variation (ranging from 26-128%), thereby rendering them unreliable for estimating a blood oxycodone concentration from a tissue value when no blood is available for analysis
Comparison of pilot medical history and medications found in postmortem specimens final report by Dennis V Canfield ( Book )
2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 23 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Pilots are required by FAA regulations to report all medications and medical conditions to the FAA Office of Aerospace Medicine for review as to the overall suitability of the pilot for flight activities. Following a fatal aviation accident, specimens from deceased pilots are collected by local pathologists and sent to the Bioaeronautical Sciences Research Laboratory (BSRL) for toxicological analysis. The results of such tests are entered into the BSRL Forensic Case Management System. This database was searched to identify all pilots found positive for medications used to treat cardiovascular, psychological, or neurological conditions over the period 1 Jan 1993 through 31 Dec 2003. These medical conditions were selected because of their potential to rapidly incapacitate a pilot inflight. Some of the medications found may have been administered by health care workers as part of emergency medical treatment after the accident. The laboratory conducted toxicological evaluations on 4,143 pilots during the study period. Psychotropic drugs were found in 223 pilots (5%), 14 of whom reported a psychological condition on their medical application. Only 1 of these 14 pilots reported the psychotropic medication found after the accident. Cardiovascular medications were found in 149 pilots (4%), 69 of whom reported a cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular medications were reported by 29 of these 69 pilots. Neurological medications were found in 15 cases (0.4%), only 1 of whom reported having a neurological condition. None of these 15 pilots had reported the neurological drugs on his/her medical application. Based on the drugs screened for by the laboratory, the authors successfully identified 93% of the medications reported by the pilots. Pilots involved in fatal accidents taking psychotropic or neurological medications rarely reported the medication or their underlying medical condition with the FAA Aerospace Medical Certification program, as required
Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric differentiation of atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol, and an interfering metabolite product of metoprolol final report by Mike K Angier ( Book )
1 edition published in 2004 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"Pilots who successfully control their hypertension with medications, diet, and/or exercise can be medically certified to fly an aircraft. At the present time, approximately 8% of active pilots are designated as "hypertensive with medication" by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). One of the groups of antihypertensives is the beta-blocker. Of this group, atenolol, metoprolol, and propranolol are commonly prescribed, and they also have chemical and structural similarities. The FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) toxicologically evaluates postmortem biological samples collected from pilots involved in fatal civil aviation accidents. Over the 10-year period, 1993-2002, CAMI has identified 50 pilot fatalities wherein atenolol was found in 24 pilots, metoprolol in 19 pilots, and propranolol in 7 pilots, which is consistent with the fact that these drugs have been in the lists of the top 200 most-prescribed drugs in the United States. [snip] By using the unique mass fragments, none of the re-examined pilot fatality cases were found to contain more than 1 beta-blocker. Several unique mass fragments reported in this study can be used for the positive identification of the 3 commonly used and chemically/structurally similar beta-blockers and a co-eluting interfering metabolite product of metoprolol. Therefore, these mass ions can be used for differentiating and simultaneously analyzing these beta-blockers in biological samples."--P. i
A study of chemical and clay mineralogical properties of soils of the Memphis catena by Russell J Lewis ( Book )
1 edition published in 1957 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Aeromedical aspects of findings from aircraft-assisted pilot suicides in the United States, 1993-2002 ( )
1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
All aviation accidents are tragic, but few are more avoidable than aircraft-assisted suicide. Aircraft-assisted suicide may precipitate as a result of clinical depression, marital or financial difficulties, or numerous other problems. While aircraft-assisted suicide attempts almost always result in pilot fatalities, they also have the serious and unfortunate potential to cause collateral damage to property and life. The Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) was interested in evaluating the epidemiological, toxicological, and aeromedical findings from pilots involved in aircraft-assisted suicides. Case histories, accident information, and the declaration of suicide as the probable cause in the aviation accidents were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). Toxicological information was obtained from CAMI's Bioaeronautical Sciences Research Laboratory. Other relevant information was obtained from medical certification data systems. Over a 10-year period, 1993-2002, there were 3,648 fatal aviation accidents. Of these, the NTSB determined that 16 were aircraft-assisted suicides. Of these 16 accidents, 15 were from intentional crashing of an aircraft, and 1 was due to a student pilot exiting the aircraft while inflight. All 16 aircraft were operated as general aviation. All pilots involved in these aircraft-assisted suicides were male, with a median age of 40 (range 15-67) years. The pilot was the sole occupant of each aircraft that was intentionally crashed. Toxicological findings for 7 of the 14 pilots for which test specimens were available were negative for disqualifying substances, whereas 4 contained ethanol at various levels, 2 were found positive for benzodiazepines, 1 was positive for marijuana, 1 was positive for cocaine, and 1 was positive for venlafaxine. These limited data indicate that 50% of accidents classified by the NTSB as aircraft-assisted pilot suicide involve at least one, if not more, disqualifying drug(s)
Accurate Assignment of Ethanol Origin in Postmortem Urine: A Case Study ( )
1 edition published in 2004 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Specimens from fatal aviation accident victims are submitted to the FAA Civil Aerospace Medical Institute for toxicological analysis. During toxicological evaluations, ethanol analysis is performed on all cases. Care must be taken when interpreting a positive ethanol result due to the potential for postmortem ethanol formation. Several indicators of postmortem ethanol formation exist; however, none are completely reliable. The consumption of ethanol has been shown to alter the concentration of two major serotonin metabolites, 5-hydroxytryptophol (5-HTOL) and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA). While the 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio is normally very low, previous studies using living subjects have demonstrated that the urinary 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio is significantly elevated for 11-19 hours after acute ethanol ingestion. Recently, our laboratory developed and validated an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of both 5-HTOL and 5-HIAA in forensic urine samples using a simple liquid/liquid extraction and LC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS/MS. In this previous work, a 15 pmol/nmol serotonin metabolite ratio cutoff was established in postmortem urine, below which it could be conclusively determined that no recent antemortem ethanol consumption had occurred. In the current study, this newly validated analytical method was applied to five ethanol-positive aviation fatalities where the origin of the ethanol present could not previously be conclusively determined
Sublimation rate of dry ice packaged in commonly used quantities by the air cargo industry final report by Douglas C Caldwell ( )
1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Dry ice is used as a refrigerant for the shipment of perishable goods in the aviation industry. The sublimation of dry ice can, however, lead to incapacitating levels of carbon dioxide in the aircraft cabin environment, as exemplified by the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB's) probable cause determination in a 1998 Brownsville, Texas, incapacitation incident. This incident prompted the NTSB to request that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) revisit the dry ice sublimation rate published in FAA Advisory Circular AC 103-4. The sublimation rate used in AC 103-4 to calculate permissible dry ice loads was based on a study where a single, large piece of dry ice (100 lb block) was used. Today, the majority of dry ice shipments contain smaller amounts of dry ice obtained in pellet form (<5 lb). This study focuses on the sublimation rate of dry ice packed in such commonly encountered amounts. In this study, approximately 5 lb of dry ice, in pellet form, was added to each of 20 pre-weighed TheromoSafe shipping containers. The boxes were then weighed to obtain "preflight" weights and placed in an altitude chamber located at the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute. The chamber was depressurized to an altitude of 8000 ft at a rate of 1000 ft/min. The total "flight" time was 6 h. The containers were then removed and immediately weighed to obtain "post-flight" measurements. Using the differences in weight as well as the total flight time, an average sublimation rate of 2.0 +/- 0.3%/h was determined. Results indicate that the sublimation rate is greater when dry ice is packaged in pellet form in small quantities. These results contrast the Pan American Airlines study that employed one solid 100-lb block of dry ice. The current study improves air cargo safety by providing a sublimation rate for dry ice shipped in small, more representative quantities. The updated sublimation rate can be used to calculate safe dry ice loads for containers commonly used today
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Alternative Names
Lewis, R. J. (Russell J.)
English (57)