WorldCat Identities

United States Office of Aerospace Medicine

Works: 319 works in 667 publications in 1 language and 42,865 library holdings
Genres: Classification 
Classifications: RC1054.U5, 363.12414
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Most widely held works about United States
Most widely held works by United States
U.S. airline transport pilot international flight language experiences( Book )

2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 40 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"In 1998, the International Civil Aviation Organization took a heightened interest in the role of language in airline accidents. Member states agreed to take steps to ensure air traffic control personnel and flight crews involved in flight operations in airspace where the use of the English language is required were proficient in conducting and comprehending radiotelephony communications in English. This report is a compilation of written responses and comments by U.S. pilots from American, Continental, Delta, and United Airlines of their difficulties in international operations. In this report, the pilots' responses to questions 46-53 are presented as a compiled narrative. Their responses had eight major thrusts from which we derived the following five recommendations: (1) Adopt a standard dialect for use in ATC communications. (2) All trainees and current certified professional controllers successfully complete instruction and training in the principles of voice production and articulation as it relates to ATC communication. (3) Define an optimal rate of speech for use by certified professional controllers when communicating with pilots. Research is needed to provide guidance on the optimal rate of speech for different populations of speakers - U.S., Foreign. (4) Develop new standard phraseology for non-routine events. Generally, the controller needs to have the pilot answer one question, "What do you need from me?" The controller would coordinate the appropriate actions to provide the pilot with what is needed. (5) Controllers should be discouraged from using local jargon, slang, idiomatic expressions, and other forms of conversational communications when transmitting messages to pilots. Although colorful and fun, they have no place in air traffic control and diminish situational awareness, can lead to requests for repeat, and otherwise disrupt information transfer."--Report documentation page
Toxicological findings in 889 fatally injured obese pilots involved in aviation accidents( Book )

2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 39 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Obesity continues to be a public health concern and its impact on aviation community has not been fully evaluated. Toxicological findings in fatally injured aviation accident obese pilots were examined. Toxicological results and aeromedical histories of these aviators were retrieved from the CAMI toxicology and medical certification databases, and the cause/factors in the related accidents were retrieved from the National Transportation Safety Board's aviation accident database. In 311 of the 889 pilots, carbon monoxide, cyanide, ethanol, and drugs were found. Many of these drugs were for treating overweight, depression, hypertension, and cardiac conditions. Of the 889 pilots, 107 had an obesity-related medical history. The health and/or medical condition(s) of, and/or the use of ethanol and/or drugs by, pilots were the cause/factors in 55 (18%) of the 311 accidents. Findings emphasize monitoring of obesity and diabetes in pilots and understanding the potential implications of these health conditions in relation to flight safety
An analysis of the U.S. pilot population from 1983-2005 : evaluating the effects of regulatory change( Book )

2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 39 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The size of the U.S. civil aviator community has been of interest to researchers, policy makers, and special interest groups. A strict definition for membership in the U.S. pilot population was used that was based on Scientific Information System principles. This approach provides methods for scientists to describe, quantify, and predict changes in this population over the 23-year study period. The Bioinformatics Research Team at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) analyzed and modeled the counts of the U.S. pilot population using a segmented linear regression model. A dataset was constructed, based upon the methods prescribed by Scientific Information System principles of data construction, from 1983 to 2005. This methodology was selected since the data represent the entire population of pilots, rather than just a sample. Thus, the statistical results are population parameters, rather than estimates, and are not subject to sampling error. The airmen population was constructed and examined for each year of the study period. The criterion for membership of the U.S. civil pilot population is based on the medical examination that each airman must pass to hold a pilot certificate. A segmented linear regression model was chosen because of its flexibility in accounting for any policy changes that occurred over the 23-year study period.--P. i
Use of traffic displays for general aviation approach spacing : a human factors study by Eric D Nadler( Book )

3 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 39 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A flight experiment was conducted to assess human factors issues associated with pilot use of traffic displays for approach spacing. [snip] Pilots successfully used the displays to maintain the assigned spacing on visual and instrument approaches. The spacing deviations were significantly lower when using the displays during visual approaches than when attempting to maintain spacing without a traffic display. [snip] While the traffic display reduced visual reacquisition times, this effect was only found with pilots whose displays showed additional traffic (not only the traffic-to-follow). In general, however, the additional traffic was associated with less time between fixations on the display and higher workload. Subjects appeared to have had difficulty identifying an optimal display range that would simultaneously provide traffic awareness and spacing task performance. The traffic display necessarily requires visual attention and reduces the attention available for scanning the instrument panel and on visual approaches, the outside world. --P. iii
Flight attendant fatigue, recommendation II : flight attendant work/rest patterns, alertness, and performance assessment by Peter G Roma( Book )

2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 38 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Impaired performance induced by fatigue may compromise safety in commercial aviation. Given the direct role flight attendants play in passenger safety, the U.S. Congress ordered a comprehensive examination of fatigue in cabin crew, including a field study of actual flight operations. This report provides an overview of the field study results, focusing on objective measures of sleep patterns and neurocognitive performance (Psychomotor Vigilance Test, PVT) over a 3-4 week period in 202 U.S.-based flight attendants of all seniority levels working for network, low-cost, and regional carriers embarking on domestic and international flight operations. On average, flight attendants slept 6.3 hr on days off and 5.7 hr on work days, fell asleep 29 min after going to bed, awoke four times per sleep episode, and spent 77% of each episode actually sleeping. After controlling for reserve status, gender, and age, junior-level flight attendants had the shortest sleep latencies on their days off. Those working international operations slept significantly less (4.9 hr vs. 5.9 hr) and less efficiently (75% vs. 79%), compared with their colleagues in domestic operations. All flight attendants exhibited significant impairments during prework PVT tests when compared to their own optimum baseline performance. Across the workday, regional flight attendants committed fewer premature PVT responses, junior-level participants produced significantly higher post-work reaction times, and those working international flights produced better pre-work reaction times but had a greater increase in lapses. These objective data are consistent with other shift work research and echo subjective survey findings across the U.S. flight attendant community. Additional planned analyses of this dataset may identify the precise operational variables that contribute to fatigue in cabin crew."--Report documentation page
Vitreous fluid and/or urine glucose concentrations in 1,335 civil aviation accident pilot fatalities( Book )

5 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 37 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

For aviation accident investigations at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI), vitreous fluid and urine samples from pilot fatalities are analyzed for glucose, and in those cases wherein glucose levels are elevated, blood hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is measured. These analyses are conducted to monitor diabetic pilots to ensure that their disease was in control at the time of accidents and to discover other pilots with undiagnosed and unreported diabetes. In this study, the prevalence of elevated glucose concentrations in fatally injured civilian pilots is evaluated. Glucose and HbA1c are measured by hexokinase and latex immunoagglutination inhibition methodologies, respectively. The former was adopted at the beginning of 1998, while the latter in the middle of 2001. The analytical results are electronically stored in the CAMI Toxicology Database. This database was searched for pilots from whom samples were received during 1998-2005 and whose vitreous fluid and/or urine glucose concentrations were measured. HbA1c levels and information on diabetic pilots were also retrieved. The probable cause and contributing factors of the associated accidents were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB's) Aviation Accident Database. Out of 1,335 pilots involving 363 vitreous fluid, 365 urine, and 607 vitreous fluid and urine analyses, 43 pilots had elevated glucose in vitreous fluid (> 125 mg/dL) and/or in urine (> 100 mg/dL). Of the 20 pilots whose blood samples were analyzed, 9 had > 6% HbA1c-4 were known diabetics (HbA1c: 7.1; 8.3; 10.8; and 12.4%), and 5 were not known diabetics (HbA1c: 6.2; 8.2; 8.3; 8.6; and 13.0%). Urinary glucose levels were elevated in all 13 known hyperglycemic pilots. One pilot had a history of renal glycosuria (low renal threshold). The disease of the 13 diabetic pilots was not in control at the time of accidents
United States airline transport pilot international flight language experiences( Book )

2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 36 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Drug usage in pilots involved in aviation accidents compared with drug usage in the general population from 1990 to 2005 by Sabra R Botch( Book )

3 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 36 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The purpose of this study was to compare usage of both illegal drugs and abused prescription medications in pilots involved in civil aviation accidents from 1990 to 2005 with that of the general population in the United States. Comparisons included abused drugs routinely screened for by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) such as marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, and ecstasy, as well as prescription medications---barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opiates, and ketamine. The Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's (CAMI's) Forensic Toxicology Research Laboratory analyzes postmortem specimens collected from pilots involved in civil aviation accidents. [snip] Trends in illicit and prescription drug use in pilots of civil aviation accidents are comparable to those seen in emergency departments (ED) and community data from major metropolitan areas collected by DAWN and Community Epidemiology Work Group (CEWG)."--P. i
Flight attendant fatigue by Joy O Banks( Book )

2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 34 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"In 2008, Congress directed the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) to conduct follow-on studies of six recommendation areas noted in an integrated report by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and CAMI regarding flight attendant fatigue. The report concluded that some degree of fatigue-related performance affects were likely under current prescriptive rules. Internationally, fatigue risk is managed almost solely through prescriptive rules based on the maximum hours of work and minimum hours of rest. Traditional prescriptive rules, however, have limited applications to round-the-clock operations, often excluding fatiguecontributing factors such as time zone transitions, layover and recovery, time of day, and circadian rhythms (Cabon et al, 2009). Prescriptive rules directly affect crew scheduling and are critical to operator viability; however, due to economic recession, operators are routinely scheduling up to the regulation limits, which could result in an increased likelihood of fatigue and fatigue-related mishaps (Nesthus, Schroeder, Connors, et al., 2007). In the present study, we obtained regulations (n=38) and collective bargaining agreements (CBA) (n=13) regarding flight attendant duty time and rest from International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) member states using several resources: Civil Aviation Authority Web sites, an international cabin safety symposium, Webbased ICAO information exchange, and FAA international field offices and aviation safety inspectors. We analyzed each regulation and CBA to identify duty time and rest rules related to working hour limits, sleep and rest requirements, circadian rhythms, and other factors. When comparing the United States (U.S.) maximum hours of work and minimum hours of rest with other countries, we concluded that U.S. prescriptive rules are among the least restrictive, representing a greater than typical risk for fatigue related incidents. We recommend the U.S. establish a sanctioned fatigue workgroup of subject matter experts, aviation stakeholders, medical and research scientists, and aviation Safety Management System experts to evaluate current regulations and develop an adaptive fatigue mitigation safety system combining scientific principles and knowledge with operational support."--Report documentation page
Flight attendant fatigue( Book )

2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 34 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Today's aviation industry is a 24/7 operation that produces a variety of challenges for cabin crew members including extended duty periods, highly variable schedules, frequent time zone changes, and increased passenger loads. While these operational requirements may be necessary, they are far from ideal with respect to the human body's biological rhythms for managing sleep and alertness. In fact, acute sleep loss, sustained periods of wakefulness, and circadian factors resulting from this form of misalignment all contribute to fatigue and fatigue related mishaps (Caldwell, 2005; Rosekind et al., 1996). This survey study was conducted to identify the specific operational factors that may contribute to fatigue in cabin crew operations. A retrospective survey was disseminated to flight attendants representing 30 operators (regional = 17, low-cost = 7, and network = 6). The survey addressed 7 main topics: work background, workload and duty time, sleep, health, fatigue, work environment, and general demographics. Participants were 9,180 cabin crew members who voluntarily and anonymously completed the survey and met the criteria to be included in the report (i.e., active flight attendant that had flown the previous bid period with their current airline). This report outlines the results of this survey and provides specific recommendations regarding fatigue issues in cabin crew operations."--Report documentation page
The effects of laser illumination on operational and visual performance of pilots conducting terminal operations by Van B Nakagawara( Book )

2 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 33 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Several hundred incidents involving the illumination of aircrew members by laser light have been reported in recent years. Consequently, FAA Order 7400.2 was revised to establish new guidelines for Flight Safe Exposure Limits (FSEL) in specific zones of navigable airspace. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of test subjects exposed to laser radiation while performing approach and departure maneuvers in the Critical Flight Zone (CFZ). Pilot performance was assessed in a Boeing 727-200, Level C, flight simulator using four levels of laser illumination (0, 0.5, 5, and 50 muW/cm2) and three operational maneuvers (takeoff and departure, visual approach, and instrument landing system ILS approach). Subjective responses were solicited after each trial and during an exit interview. The pilots were asked to rate on a scale from 1 to 5 (1 = none, 2 = slight, 3 = moderate, 4 = great, and 5 = very great) the affect each laser exposure had on their ability to operate the aircraft and on their visual performance. Average subjective ratings were calculated for each exposure level and flight maneuver, and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. Thirty-four pilots served as test subjects for this study. Average subjective ratings for operational and visual performance were 1.57 and 1.74, 1.89 and 2.15, 2.43 and 2.76, for the 0.5, 5 (i.e., CFZ), and 50 muW/cm2 laser exposure levels, respectively. ANOVA found a significant difference (p <0.05) between the subjective ratings for each exposure level. No significant differences were found between the types of flight maneuvers or between the ratings for operational and visual performance themselves for a given maneuver or exposure level. The FSEL of 5 muW/cm2 was validated for pilots illuminated by laser light while conducting terminal operations in the CFZ
A summary of unmanned aircraft accident/incident data : human factors implications by Kevin W Williams( Book )

3 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 33 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"A review and analysis of unmanned aircraft (UA) accident data was conducted to identify important human factors issues related to their use. UA accident data were collected from the U.S. Army, Navy, and Air Force. Classification of the accident data was a two-step process. In the first step, accidents were classified into the categories of human factors, maintenance, aircraft, and unknown. Accidents could be classified into more than one category. In the second step, those accidents classified as human factors-related were classified according to specific human factors issues of alerts/alarms, display design, procedural error, skill-based error, or other. Classification was based on the stated causal factors in the reports, the opinion of safety center personnel, and personal judgment of the author. The percentage of involvement of human factors issues varied across aircraft from 21% to 68%. For most of the aircraft systems, electromechanical failure was more of a causal factor than human error. One critical finding from an analysis of the data is that each of the fielded systems is very different, leading to different kinds of accidents and different human factors issues. A second finding is that many of the accidents that have occurred could have been anticipated through an analysis of the user interfaces employed and procedures implemented for their use. This paper summarizes the various human factors issues related to the accidents."--Abstract
Isolation of RNA from peripheral blood cells : a validation study for molecular diagnostics by microarray and kinetic RT-PCR assays -- application in aerospace medicine( Book )

2 editions published between 2003 and 2004 in English and held by 33 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Increased cannabinoids concentrations found in specimens from fatal aviation accidents between 1997 and 2006( Book )

2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 33 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's toxicology laboratory receives biological specimens from more than 90% of all fatal aviation accidents that occur in the United States and its territories. As a part of the routine analysis of pilot specimens, the laboratory tests all cases for the presence of marijuana (cannabis). The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) reported a 1.5-fold increase in the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of street cannabis seizures from1997-2001 to 2002-2006. This study was conducted to compare the changes, over those years, in blood and urine cannabinoid concentrations with the potency of THC reported in the cannabis plant. In our laboratory, cannabinoids are screened using radioimmunoassay (RIA) for blood and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for urine and confirmed using GC/MS. A total of 95 individuals were found to be using cannabis from a total number of 2769 (3.4%) individuals tested over the period 1997 through 2006. Blood was received for analysis from 1676 fatally injured individuals. Urine was received for analyses from 1650 fatalities. Cannabinoids were found in 88 of the 1676 (5.3%) blood specimens received for analysis, and 64 of the 88 were from pilots. Cannabinoids were found in 68 of the 1650 (4.1%) urine specimens received for analysis, and 57 of the 68 were from pilots. Other impairing drugs were found in 39% of the cannabinoids-positive individuals."--P. i
Flight attendant fatigue by Katrina E Bedell-Avers( Book )

3 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 32 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Today's aviation industry is a 24/7 operation that produces a variety of challenges for cabin crew members, including extended duty periods, highly variable schedules, and frequent time zone changes. While these operational requirements may be necessary, they are far from ideal with respect to the human body's biological rhythms for managing sleep and alertness. In fact, acute sleep loss, sustained periods of wakefulness, and circadian factors resulting from this form of misalignment are all contributors to fatigue and fatigue-related mishaps (Caldwell, 2005; Rosekind et al., 1996). The strategic management of fatigue is necessary for safety improvement throughout the industry. Employee educational programs regarding the dangers of fatigue, the causes of sleepiness, and the importance of proper sleep hygiene to improve sleep quality may be critical for effective fatigue management (Caldwell, 2005). This report outlines specific recommendations regarding fatigue countermeasures training and its potential benefits to flight attendant operations."--Report documentation page
Human error and general aviation accidents : a comprehensive, fine-grained analysis using HFACS by Douglas A Wiegmann( Book )

4 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 32 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is a theoretically based tool for investigating and analyzing human error associated with accidents and incidents. Previous research performed at both the University of Illinois and the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute has successfully shown that HFACS can be reliably used to analyze the underlying human causes of both commercial and general aviation (GA) accidents. These analyses have helped identify general trends in the types of human factors issues and aircrew errors that have contributed to civil aviation accidents. The next step was to identify the exact nature of the human errors identified. The purpose of this research effort therefore, was to address these questions by performing a fine-grained HFACS analysis of the individual human causal factors associated with GA accidents and to assist in the generation of intervention programs. This report details those findings and offers an approach for developing interventions to address them
Understanding the human factors associated with Visual Flight Rules flight into Instrumental Meteorological Conditions( Book )

4 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 31 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Visual Flight Rules (VFR) into Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) accidents are a major concern in the aviation industry. More than 70% of the fatal weather-related accidents involved General Aviation (GA) pilots operating under visual flight rules (VFR) that continued into IMC. The purpose of this study was to pair GA accident causal factors that had been classified with the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) categories and traditional demographic data in an effort to present a more complete picture of VFR flight into IMC accidents."--P. i
Solar Radiation Alert system by Kyle Copeland( Book )

2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 30 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Solar Radiation Alert (SRA) system continuously evaluates measurements of high-energy protons made by instruments on GOES satellites. If the measurements indicate a substantial elevation of effective dose rates at aircraft flight altitudes, the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute issues an SRA via the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Weather Wire Service. This report describes a revised SRA system. SRA issue-criteria remain the same but significant improvements have been made in the calculations. The solar proton fluence to effective dose conversion coefficients have been recalculated using 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the latest release of the Monte Carlo transport code, MCNPX 2.6.0. The shape of the <10 MeV secondary neutron spectrum is now accounted for down to 100 eV. The flux correction based on spectral index has been revised to smooth the flux spectrum of solar protons. Estimates of the >605 MeV spectral shape have been improved by the addition of correction factors for the differential interpretation of the >700 MeV integral flux channel. Estimates of galactic cosmic radiation background count rates in the GOES data are now median rather than mean values. Estimated solar cosmic radiation dose rates are about 10 times higher than those made using the previous version of the SRA system
Fatality and injury rates for two types of rotorcraft accidents by David Palmerton( Book )

3 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 26 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An analysis of the frequency of four different types of rotorcraft accidents was conducted to determine if the number of fatalities and injuries between accident conditions was different. Accidents involving rollover, no rollover, fire, and no fire were studied to determine if accidents with a rollover or fire might be creating evacuation delays that contribute to the fatality and injury rates. A search of the FAA Accident Incident Data System from January1986 to March 1997 produced 2704 accident records for this analysis. A Chi-Square test for independence was used to determine the difference between the rollover and no rollover and fire and no fire accident categories
Reliability of the gas supply in the Air Force Emergency Passenger Oxygen System by Robert P Garner( Book )

4 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 26 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To test for any potential leakage and therefore an inadequate quantity of oxygen, the protective breathing equipment (PBE) procured by the U.S. Air Force as Emergency Passenger Oxygen System (EPOS) units were collected from Air Force bases and submitted by the manufacturer for a series of tests. The primary indicator in the testing was the mass (weight) of oxygen in the cylinder. A total of 92 oxygen cylinders that were manufactured for assembly into EPOS or similar models of PBE were evaluated. Estimated dates of manufacture were between January 1989 and November of 2003. Four tests were conducted. Based on the results of the altitude testing, the loss did not appear to be related to diffusion out of the cylinder. Therefore, other explanations need to be examined as to why these two cylinder shortages existed
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Alternative Names

controlled identityUnited States. Office of Aviation Medicine

United States. Aerospace Medicine, Office of

United States. Federal Aviation Administration. Office of Aerospace Medicine

English (56)