WorldCat Identities

United States Office of Aerospace Medicine

Works: 314 works in 666 publications in 1 language and 39,408 library holdings
Classifications: RC1054.U5, 617.715402462913
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Most widely held works by United States
Caring for precious cargo final report by Cynthia L Corbett ( Book )
5 editions published between 2001 and 2005 in English and held by 313 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Fatality and injury rates for two types of rotocraft accidents final report by David Palmerton ( )
3 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 216 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This study analyzes the frequency of rotorcraft accidents involving fatalities and injuries to determine if certain types of accidents are inherently more dangerous in relation to rapid evacuation capability. Four categories of accidents were analyzed: those involving a fire, those without a fire, those in which the rotorcraft rolled over, and those without a rollover. It was hypothesized that rollover accidents create evacuation delays that produce more fatalities, particularly in situations involving a rollover and post-crash fire, where evacuation delays may expose occupants to toxic fumes longer than they would be if the rotorcraft remained upright and the evacuation only required occupants to quickly step out of the rotorcraft
Reliability of the gas supply in the Air Force Emergency Passenger Oxygen System final report by Robert P Garner ( )
4 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 213 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
To test for any potential leakage and therefore an inadequate quantity of oxygen, the protective breathing equipment (PBE) procured by the U.S. Air Force as Emergency Passenger Oxygen System (EPOS) units were collected from Air Force bases and submitted by the manufacturer for a series of tests. The primary indicator in the testing was the mass (weight) of oxygen in the cylinder. A total of 92 oxygen cylinders that were manufactured for assembly into EPOS or similar models of PBE were evaluated. Estimated dates of manufacture were between January 1989 and November of 2003. Four tests were conducted. Based on the results of the altitude testing, the loss did not appear to be related to diffusion out of the cylinder. Therefore, other explanations need to be examined as to why these two cylinder shortages existed
Reexamination of color vision standards by Jing Xing ( )
3 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 200 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This report is a continuing effort to examine the FAA's color vision standards, focused on understanding how individuals with color deficiencies use color-coded information. First, literature about the effectiveness of color relative to achromatic visual cues was reviewed and synthesized. Next, several algorithms were developed to assess the effects of color for individuals with color deficiencies. Using a computational algorithm that simulates how color deficient individuals perceive color, the effectiveness of color in task performance was able to be calculated. By considering together the effectiveness of redundant visual cues and the perception of those with color vision deficiencies, a method is provided to assess the potential effects of color deficiencies in using color displays
Flight attendant fatigue recommendation II flight attendant work/rest patterns, alertness, and performance assessment. by Peter G Roma ( )
2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 198 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Impaired performance induced by fatigue may compromise safety in commercial aviation. Given the direct role flight attendants play in passenger safety, the U.S. Congress ordered a comprehensive examination of fatigue in cabin crew, including a field study of actual flight operations. This report provides an overview of the field study results, focusing on objective measures of sleep patterns and neurocognitive performance (Psychomotor Vigilance Test, PVT) over a 3-4 week period in 202 U.S.-based flight attendants of all seniority levels working for network, low-cost, and regional carriers embarking on domestic and international flight operations. On average, flight attendants slept 6.3 hr on days off and 5.7 hr on work days, fell asleep 29 min after going to bed, awoke four times per sleep episode, and spent 77% of each episode actually sleeping. After controlling for reserve status, gender, and age, junior-level flight attendants had the shortest sleep latencies on their days off. Those working international operations slept significantly less (4.9 hr vs. 5.9 hr) and less efficiently (75% vs. 79%), compared with their colleagues in domestic operations. All flight attendants exhibited significant impairments during pre-work PVT tests when compared to their own optimum baseline performance. Across the workday, regional flight attendants committed fewer premature PVT responses, junior-level participants produced significantly higher post-work reaction times, and those working international flights produced better pre-work reaction times but had a greater increase in lapses. These objective data are consistent with other shift work research and echo subjective survey findings across the U.S. flight attendant community. Additional planned analyses of this dataset may identify the precise operational variables that contribute to fatigue in cabin crew
An analysis of the U.S. pilot population from 1983-2005 evaluating the effects of regulatory change ( )
2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 195 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The size of the U.S. civil aviator community has been of interest to researchers, policy makers, and special interest groups. A strict definition for membership in the U.S. pilot population was used that was based on Scientific Information System principles. This approach provides methods for scientists to describe, quantify, and predict changes in this population over the 23-year study period. The Bioinformatics Research Team at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) analyzed and modeled the counts of the U.S. pilot population using a segmented linear regression model. A dataset was constructed, based upon the methods prescribed by Scientific Information System principles of data construction, from 1983 to 2005. This methodology was selected since the data represent the entire population of pilots, rather than just a sample. Thus, the statistical results are population parameters, rather than estimates, and are not subject to sampling error. The airmen population was constructed and examined for each year of the study period. The criterion for membership of the U.S. civil pilot population is based on the medical examination that each airman must pass to hold a pilot certificate. A segmented linear regression model was chosen because of its flexibility in accounting for any policy changes that occurred over the 23-year study period. The CAMI Scientific Information System provided the foundation to build a segmented linear regression model pertaining to the counts of the U.S. civil pilot population; from these results it was possible for the first time to explain the changing frequencies over time and make fact-based predictions concerning future population numbers. The capability now exists to categorize the population by gender, medical class, age, and experience over a two-decade time period. The model constructed clearly shows a decline in the overall U.S. civil aviator community
Flight attendant fatigue by Joy O Banks ( )
2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 194 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In 2008, Congress directed the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) to conduct follow-on studies of six recommendation areas noted in an integrated report by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and CAMI regarding flight attendant fatigue. The report concluded that some degree of fatigue-related performance affects were likely under current prescriptive rules. Internationally, fatigue risk is managed almost solely through prescriptive rules based on the maximum hours of work and minimum hours of rest. Traditional prescriptive rules, however, have limited applications to round-the-clock operations, often excluding fatigue-contributing factors such as time zone transitions, layover and recovery, time of day, and circadian rhythms (Cabon et al, 2009). Prescriptive rules directly affect crew scheduling and are critical to operator viability; however, due to economic recession, operators are routinely scheduling up to the regulation limits, which could result in an increased likelihood of fatigue and fatigue-related mishaps (Nesthus, Schroeder, Connors, et al., 2007). In the present study, we obtained regulations (n=38) and collective bargaining agreements (CBA) (n=13) regarding flight attendant duty time and rest from International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) member states using several resources: Civil Aviation Authority Web sites, an international cabin safety symposium, Web-based ICAO information exchange, and FAA international field offices and aviation safety inspectors. We analyzed each regulation and CBA to identify duty time and rest rules related to working hour limits, sleep and rest requirements, circadian rhythms, and other factors. When comparing the United States (U.S.) maximum hours of work and minimum hours of rest with other countries, we concluded that U.S. prescriptive rules are among the least restrictive, representing a greater than typical risk for fatigue related incidents
Demographics and vision restrictions in civilian pilots clinical implications : final report by Van B Nakagawara ( )
2 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 191 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) permits airmen with certain medical conditions or diseases to be medically certified, provided that such action does not compromise aviation safety. The FAA Office of Aerospace Medicine helps guide policy decisions through the study of common medical pathologies, including visual disorders and the use of new ophthalmic devices and refractive procedures by airmen. To perform this function properly, an in-depth knowledge of the airman population is required. This study examined demographic statistics for the civil airman population, including vision pathologies, for the period 1976 to 2001 and their relevance to the clinical care of aviators by eyecare practitioners
The effects of NEXRAD graphical data resolution and direct weather viewing on pilots' judgments of weather severity and their willingness to continue a flight by Dennis B Beringer ( )
2 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 191 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Use of traffic displays for general aviation approach spacing a human factors study by Eric D Nadler ( )
3 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 190 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A flight experiment was conducted to assess human factors issues associated with pilot use of traffic displays for approach spacing. [snip] Pilots successfully used the displays to maintain the assigned spacing on visual and instrument approaches. The spacing deviations were significantly lower when using the displays during visual approaches than when attempting to maintain spacing without a traffic display. [snip] While the traffic display reduced visual reacquisition times, this effect was only found with pilots whose displays showed additional traffic (not only the traffic-to-follow). In general, however, the additional traffic was associated with less time between fixations on the display and higher workload. Subjects appeared to have had difficulty identifying an optimal display range that would simultaneously provide traffic awareness and spacing task performance. The traffic display necessarily requires visual attention and reduces the attention available for scanning the instrument panel and on visual approaches, the outside world. --P. iii
Toxicological findings in 889 fatally injured obese pilots involved in aviation accidents ( )
2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 189 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Obesity continues to be a public health concern and its impact on aviation community has not been fully evaluated. Toxicological findings in fatally injured aviation accident obese pilots were examined. Toxicological results and aeromedical histories of these aviators were retrieved from the CAMI toxicology and medical certification databases, and the cause/factors in the related accidents were retrieved from the National Transportation Safety Board's aviation accident database. In 311 of the 889 pilots, carbon monoxide, cyanide, ethanol, and drugs were found. Many of these drugs were for treating overweight, depression, hypertension, and cardiac conditions. Of the 889 pilots, 107 had an obesity-related medical history. The health and/or medical condition(s) of, and/or the use of ethanol and/or drugs by, pilots were the cause/factors in 55 (18%) of the 311 accidents. Findings emphasize monitoring of obesity and diabetes in pilots and understanding the potential implications of these health conditions in relation to flight safety
Performance criteria for development of extended use protective breathing equipment by Robert P Garner ( )
2 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 189 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Field evaluation of whole airliner decontamination technologies wide-body aircraft with dual-use application for railcars by W. F Gale ( )
4 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 189 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"The outcome of a field evaluation of decontamination of a wide-body aircraft using AeroClave's thermal decontamination system both as a stand-alone technology and as a means of delivering STERIS vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP®) is discussed. The report is submitted in the context of a decontamination technology selection exercise, laboratory work conducted on the efficacy of thermal decontamination, and as a follow-on to a field evaluation performed previously on a McDonnell Douglas DC-9 aircraft. The thermal decontamination system appears to be capable of reproducing temperatures needed for an efficacious antiviral process. However, work will be required to improve the temperature control and humidity levels attainable. The thermal decontamination + VHP add-in combination was found to be sporicidal at numerous locations within the cabin. The impact of issues relating to the failure to deactivate Biological Indicators (BIs) in certain locations with limited peroxide penetration, condensation of peroxide within the cabin, and more generally, issues related to the presence of residual peroxide in the cabin after aeration need to be addressed. Serious weather-related disruptions and a limited budget, coupled with a tight schedule, precluded these concerns being addressed on this occasion. Overall, the field evaluation of both the stand-alone thermal decontamination system and the VHP add-in can be described as successful."--P.i
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast/cockpit display of traffic information innovations in pilot-managed departures by O. Veronika Prinzo ( )
3 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 188 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Understanding the human factors associated with visual flight rules flight into instrumental meteorological conditions ( )
4 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 188 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"Visual Flight Rules (VFR) into Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) accidents are a major concern in the aviation industry. More than 70% of the fatal weather-related accidents involved General Aviation (GA) pilots operating under visual flight rules (VFR) that continued into IMC. The purpose of this study was to pair GA accident causal factors that had been classified with the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) categories and traditional demographic data in an effort to present a more complete picture of VFR flight into IMC accidents."--P. i
Solar Radiation Alert System by Kyle Copeland ( )
2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 187 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The Solar Radiation Alert (SRA) system continuously evaluates measurements of high-energy protons made by instruments on GOES satellites. If the measurements indicate a substantial elevation of effective dose rates at aircraft flight altitudes, the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute issues an SRA via the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Weather Wire Service. This report describes a revised SRA system. SRA issue-criteria remain the same but significant improvements have been made in the calculations. The solar proton fluence to effective dose conversion coefficients have been recalculated using 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the latest release of the Monte Carlo transport code, MCNPX 2.6.0. The shape of the <10 MeV secondary neutron spectrum is now accounted for down to 100 eV. The flux correction based on spectral index has been revised to smooth the flux spectrum of solar protons. Estimates of the >605 MeV spectral shape have been improved by the addition of correction factors for the differential interpretation of the >700 MeV integral flux channel. Estimates of galactic cosmic radiation background count rates in the GOES data are now median rather than mean values. Estimated solar cosmic radiation dose rates are about 10 times higher than those made using the previous version of the SRA system
Effects of laser illumination on operational and visual performance of pilots conducting terminal operations by Van B Nakagawara ( )
2 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 187 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Several hundred incidents involving the illumination of aircrew members by laser light have been reported in recent years. Consequently, FAA Order 7400.2 was revised to establish new guidelines for Flight Safe Exposure Limits (FSEL) in specific zones of navigable airspace. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of test subjects exposed to laser radiation while performing approach and departure maneuvers in the Critical Flight Zone (CFZ). Pilot performance was assessed in a Boeing 727-200, Level C, flight simulator using four levels of laser illumination (0, 0.5, 5, and 50 muW/cm2) and three operational maneuvers (takeoff and departure, visual approach, and instrument landing system ILS approach). Subjective responses were solicited after each trial and during an exit interview. The pilots were asked to rate on a scale from 1 to 5 (1 = none, 2 = slight, 3 = moderate, 4 = great, and 5 = very great) the affect each laser exposure had on their ability to operate the aircraft and on their visual performance. Average subjective ratings were calculated for each exposure level and flight maneuver, and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. Thirty-four pilots served as test subjects for this study. Average subjective ratings for operational and visual performance were 1.57 and 1.74, 1.89 and 2.15, 2.43 and 2.76, for the 0.5, 5 (i.e., CFZ), and 50 muW/cm2 laser exposure levels, respectively. ANOVA found a significant difference (p <0.05) between the subjective ratings for each exposure level. No significant differences were found between the types of flight maneuvers or between the ratings for operational and visual performance themselves for a given maneuver or exposure level. The FSEL of 5 muW/cm2 was validated for pilots illuminated by laser light while conducting terminal operations in the CFZ
Vitreous fluid and/or urine glucose concentrations in 1,335 civil aviation accident pilot fatalities ( )
5 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 187 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
For aviation accident investigations at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI), vitreous fluid and urine samples from pilot fatalities are analyzed for glucose, and in those cases wherein glucose levels are elevated, blood hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is measured. These analyses are conducted to monitor diabetic pilots to ensure that their disease was in control at the time of accidents and to discover other pilots with undiagnosed and unreported diabetes. In this study, the prevalence of elevated glucose concentrations in fatally injured civilian pilots is evaluated. Glucose and HbA1c are measured by hexokinase and latex immunoagglutination inhibition methodologies, respectively. The former was adopted at the beginning of 1998, while the latter in the middle of 2001. The analytical results are electronically stored in the CAMI Toxicology Database. This database was searched for pilots from whom samples were received during 1998-2005 and whose vitreous fluid and/or urine glucose concentrations were measured. HbA1c levels and information on diabetic pilots were also retrieved. The probable cause and contributing factors of the associated accidents were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB's) Aviation Accident Database. Out of 1,335 pilots involving 363 vitreous fluid, 365 urine, and 607 vitreous fluid and urine analyses, 43 pilots had elevated glucose in vitreous fluid (> 125 mg/dL) and/or in urine (> 100 mg/dL). Of the 20 pilots whose blood samples were analyzed, 9 had > 6% HbA1c-4 were known diabetics (HbA1c: 7.1; 8.3; 10.8; and 12.4%), and 5 were not known diabetics (HbA1c: 6.2; 8.2; 8.3; 8.6; and 13.0%). Urinary glucose levels were elevated in all 13 known hyperglycemic pilots. One pilot had a history of renal glycosuria (low renal threshold). The disease of the 13 diabetic pilots was not in control at the time of accidents
A summary of unmanned aircraft accident/incident data : human factors implications by Kevin W Williams ( )
3 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 186 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A review and analysis of unmanned aircraft (UA) accident data was conducted to identify important human factors issues related to their use. UA accident data were collected from the U.S. Army, Navy, and Air Force. Classification of the accident data was a two-step process. In the first step, accidents were classified into the categories of human factors, maintenance, aircraft, and unknown. Accidents could be classified into more than one category. In the second step, those accidents classified as human factors-related were classified according to specific human factors issues of alerts/alarms, display design, procedural error, skill-based error, or other. Classification was based on the stated causal factors in the reports, the opinion of safety center personnel, and personal judgment of the author. The percentage of involvement of human factors issues varied across aircraft from 21% to 68%. For most of the aircraft systems, electromechanical failure was more of a causal factor than human error. One critical finding from an analysis of the data is that each of the fielded systems is very different, leading to different kinds of accidents and different human factors issues. A second finding is that many of the accidents that have occurred could have been anticipated through an analysis of the user interfaces employed and procedures implemented for their use. This paper summarizes the various human factors issues related to the accidents
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Alternative Names

controlled identity United States. Office of Aviation Medicine

United States. Aerospace Medicine, Office of
United States. Federal Aviation Administration. Office of Aerospace Medicine
English (59)