WorldCat Identities

Civil Aerospace Medical Institute

Works: 272 works in 492 publications in 1 language and 18,871 library holdings
Genres: Periodicals 
Classifications: RC1054.U5, 616.9
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Publications about Civil Aerospace Medical Institute Publications about Civil Aerospace Medical Institute
Publications by Civil Aerospace Medical Institute Publications by Civil Aerospace Medical Institute
Most widely held works about Civil Aerospace Medical Institute
Most widely held works by Civil Aerospace Medical Institute
Federal Air Surgeon's medical bulletin ( )
in English and held by 213 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Solar Radiation Alert System by Kyle Copeland ( )
4 editions published between 2005 and 2009 in English and held by 197 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The Solar Radiation Alert (SRA) system continuously evaluates measurements of high-energy protons made by instruments on GOES satellites. If the measurements indicate a substantial elevation of effective dose rates at aircraft flight altitudes, the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute issues an SRA via the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Weather Wire Service. This report describes a revised SRA system. SRA issue-criteria remain the same but significant improvements have been made in the calculations. The solar proton fluence to effective dose conversion coefficients have been recalculated using 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the latest release of the Monte Carlo transport code, MCNPX 2.6.0. The shape of the <10 MeV secondary neutron spectrum is now accounted for down to 100 eV. The flux correction based on spectral index has been revised to smooth the flux spectrum of solar protons. Estimates of the >605 MeV spectral shape have been improved by the addition of correction factors for the differential interpretation of the >700 MeV integral flux channel. Estimates of galactic cosmic radiation background count rates in the GOES data are now median rather than mean values. Estimated solar cosmic radiation dose rates are about 10 times higher than those made using the previous version of the SRA system
Flight attendant fatigue recommendation II flight attendant work/rest patterns, alertness, and performance assessment. by Peter G Roma ( )
2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 187 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Impaired performance induced by fatigue may compromise safety in commercial aviation. Given the direct role flight attendants play in passenger safety, the U.S. Congress ordered a comprehensive examination of fatigue in cabin crew, including a field study of actual flight operations. This report provides an overview of the field study results, focusing on objective measures of sleep patterns and neurocognitive performance (Psychomotor Vigilance Test, PVT) over a 3-4 week period in 202 U.S.-based flight attendants of all seniority levels working for network, low-cost, and regional carriers embarking on domestic and international flight operations. On average, flight attendants slept 6.3 hr on days off and 5.7 hr on work days, fell asleep 29 min after going to bed, awoke four times per sleep episode, and spent 77% of each episode actually sleeping. After controlling for reserve status, gender, and age, junior-level flight attendants had the shortest sleep latencies on their days off. Those working international operations slept significantly less (4.9 hr vs. 5.9 hr) and less efficiently (75% vs. 79%), compared with their colleagues in domestic operations. All flight attendants exhibited significant impairments during pre-work PVT tests when compared to their own optimum baseline performance. Across the workday, regional flight attendants committed fewer premature PVT responses, junior-level participants produced significantly higher post-work reaction times, and those working international flights produced better pre-work reaction times but had a greater increase in lapses. These objective data are consistent with other shift work research and echo subjective survey findings across the U.S. flight attendant community. Additional planned analyses of this dataset may identify the precise operational variables that contribute to fatigue in cabin crew
Toxicological findings in 889 fatally injured obese pilots involved in aviation accidents ( )
2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 179 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Obesity continues to be a public health concern and its impact on aviation community has not been fully evaluated. Toxicological findings in fatally injured aviation accident obese pilots were examined. Toxicological results and aeromedical histories of these aviators were retrieved from the CAMI toxicology and medical certification databases, and the cause/factors in the related accidents were retrieved from the National Transportation Safety Board's aviation accident database. In 311 of the 889 pilots, carbon monoxide, cyanide, ethanol, and drugs were found. Many of these drugs were for treating overweight, depression, hypertension, and cardiac conditions. Of the 889 pilots, 107 had an obesity-related medical history. The health and/or medical condition(s) of, and/or the use of ethanol and/or drugs by, pilots were the cause/factors in 55 (18%) of the 311 accidents. Findings emphasize monitoring of obesity and diabetes in pilots and understanding the potential implications of these health conditions in relation to flight safety
Effects of laser illumination on operational and visual performance of pilots conducting terminal operations by Van B Nakagawara ( )
2 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 177 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Several hundred incidents involving the illumination of aircrew members by laser light have been reported in recent years. Consequently, FAA Order 7400.2 was revised to establish new guidelines for Flight Safe Exposure Limits (FSEL) in specific zones of navigable airspace. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of test subjects exposed to laser radiation while performing approach and departure maneuvers in the Critical Flight Zone (CFZ). Pilot performance was assessed in a Boeing 727-200, Level C, flight simulator using four levels of laser illumination (0, 0.5, 5, and 50 muW/cm2) and three operational maneuvers (takeoff and departure, visual approach, and instrument landing system ILS approach). Subjective responses were solicited after each trial and during an exit interview. The pilots were asked to rate on a scale from 1 to 5 (1 = none, 2 = slight, 3 = moderate, 4 = great, and 5 = very great) the affect each laser exposure had on their ability to operate the aircraft and on their visual performance. Average subjective ratings were calculated for each exposure level and flight maneuver, and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. Thirty-four pilots served as test subjects for this study. Average subjective ratings for operational and visual performance were 1.57 and 1.74, 1.89 and 2.15, 2.43 and 2.76, for the 0.5, 5 (i.e., CFZ), and 50 muW/cm2 laser exposure levels, respectively. ANOVA found a significant difference (p <0.05) between the subjective ratings for each exposure level. No significant differences were found between the types of flight maneuvers or between the ratings for operational and visual performance themselves for a given maneuver or exposure level. The FSEL of 5 muW/cm2 was validated for pilots illuminated by laser light while conducting terminal operations in the CFZ
The effects of NEXRAD graphical data resolution and direct weather viewing on pilots' judgments of weather severity and their willingness to continue a flight by Dennis B Beringer ( )
2 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 176 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A study was conducted to determine how variations in displayed NEXRAD weather data resolution interact with the pilot's direct view of weather. Pilots (32) were assigned to on of four groups; 8km, 4km, or 2km resolution, and a baseline condition without NEXRAD imagery. Each flew the simulator from Santa Rosa, NM with the intent to land at Albuquerque. Heavy precipitation moved into the area during the flight, and pilots were required to decide, using both the NEXRAD data and their out-the-window view, whether to continue or to divert to an alternate airport. Pilots spent more time looking at higher-resolution images than at the lower-resolution ones. Baseline-and 2km-condition pilots deferred their decisions longer than did the other two groups
A summary of unmanned aircraft accident/incident data : human factors implications by Kevin W Williams ( )
3 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 176 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A review and analysis of unmanned aircraft (UA) accident data was conducted to identify important human factors issues related to their use. UA accident data were collected from the U.S. Army, Navy, and Air Force. Classification of the accident data was a two-step process. In the first step, accidents were classified into the categories of human factors, maintenance, aircraft, and unknown. Accidents could be classified into more than one category. In the second step, those accidents classified as human factors-related were classified according to specific human factors issues of alerts/alarms, display design, procedural error, skill-based error, or other. Classification was based on the stated causal factors in the reports, the opinion of safety center personnel, and personal judgment of the author. The percentage of involvement of human factors issues varied across aircraft from 21% to 68%. For most of the aircraft systems, electromechanical failure was more of a causal factor than human error. One critical finding from an analysis of the data is that each of the fielded systems is very different, leading to different kinds of accidents and different human factors issues. A second finding is that many of the accidents that have occurred could have been anticipated through an analysis of the user interfaces employed and procedures implemented for their use. This paper summarizes the various human factors issues related to the accidents
Demographics and vision restrictions in civilian pilots clinical implications : final report by Van B Nakagawara ( )
2 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 174 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) permits airmen with certain medical conditions or diseases to be medically certified, provided that such action does not compromise aviation safety. The FAA Office of Aerospace Medicine helps guide policy decisions through the study of common medical pathologies, including visual disorders and the use of new ophthalmic devices and refractive procedures by airmen. To perform this function properly, an in-depth knowledge of the airman population is required. This study examined demographic statistics for the civil airman population, including vision pathologies, for the period 1976 to 2001 and their relevance to the clinical care of aviators by eyecare practitioners
Flight attendant fatigue by Katrina E Bedell-Avers ( )
3 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 172 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"Today's aviation industry is a 24/7 operation that produces a variety of challenges for cabin crew members, including extended duty periods, highly variable schedules, and frequent time zone changes. While these operational requirements may be necessary, they are far from ideal with respect to the human body's biological rhythms for managing sleep and alertness. In fact, acute sleep loss, sustained periods of wakefulness, and circadian factors resulting from this form of misalignment are all contributors to fatigue and fatigue-related mishaps (Caldwell, 2005; Rosekind et al., 1996). The strategic management of fatigue is necessary for safety improvement throughout the industry. Employee educational programs regarding the dangers of fatigue, the causes of sleepiness, and the importance of proper sleep hygiene to improve sleep quality may be critical for effective fatigue management (Caldwell, 2005). This report outlines specific recommendations regarding fatigue countermeasures training and its potential benefits to flight attendant operations."--Report documentation page
Flight attendant fatigue. national duty, rest, and fatigue survey ( )
2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 170 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Today's aviation industry is a 24/7 operation that produces a variety of challenges for cabin crew members including extended duty periods, highly variable schedules, frequent time zone changes, and increased passenger loads. While these operational requirements may be necessary, they are far from ideal with respect to the human body's biological rhythms for managing sleep and alertness. In fact, acute sleep loss, sustained periods of wakefulness, and circadian factors resulting from this form of misalignment all contribute to fatigue and fatiguerelated mishaps (Caldwell, 2005; Rosekind et al., 1996). This survey study was conducted to identify the specific operational factors that may contribute to fatigue in cabin crew operations. A retrospective survey was disseminated to flight attendants representing 30 operators (regional = 17, low-cost = 7, and network = 6). The survey addressed 7 main topics: work background, workload and duty time, sleep, health, fatigue, work environment, and general demographics. Participants were 9,180 cabin crewmembers who voluntarily and anonymously completed the survey and met the criteria to be included in the report (i.e., active flight attendant that had flown the previous bid period with their current airline). This report outlines the results of this survey and provides specific recommendations regarding fatigue issues in cabin crew operations
An experiment to evaluate transfer of low-cost simulator-based upset-recovery training by Rodney O Rogers ( )
3 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 170 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Many air transport training programs provide simulator-based upset-recovery instruction for company pilots. However, apparently no prior research exists to demonstrate that such training transfers to an airplane in flight. We report on two-phase FAA-funded research experiment to evaluate upset-recovery training transfer. In two separate training/testing evolutions involving two different general aviation aircraft, participant pilots were trained using low-cost desktop flight simulation, then subjected to serious in-flight upsets in an aerobatic airplane. Their performance in upset-recovery maneuvering was compared with the performance of control group pilots who received no upset-recovery training. Data collected during both flight testing periods suggest that simulator-based training improves a pilot's ability to recover an airplane from an upset. However, in the most important measure of upset maneuvering skills-minimizing altitude loss-trained pilots fell well short of the performance routinely achieveable by pilots experienced in all-attitude manuevering. We summarize prior related research, describe the experiments, present and analyze data collected during both flight testing periods, and advance recommendations for future upset maneuvering training. Although we conducted flight testing in a general aviation airplane, our research has important implications for heavy aircraft upset-recovery trainers
Increased cannabinoids concentrations found in specimens from fatal aviation accidents between 1997 and 2006 ( )
3 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 167 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's toxicology laboratory receives biological specimens from more than 90% of all fatal aviation accidents that occur in the United States and its territories. As a part of the routine analysis of pilot specimens, the laboratory tests all cases for the presence of marijuana (cannabis). The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) reported a 1.5-fold increase in the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of street cannabis seizures from1997-2001 to 2002-2006. This study was conducted to compare the changes, over those years, in blood and urine cannabinoid concentrations with the potency of THC reported in the cannabis plant
General unknown screening by ion trap LC/MS/MS by Robert D Johnson ( )
3 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 167 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"During the investigation of aviation accidents, postmortem specimens from accident victims are submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for toxicological analysis. The first, and perhaps most important, step in the analysis process is the initial screening of biological specimens for illicit, medically prescribed, and over-the-counter compounds that may be present and could have been the cause of the accident. Currently, our General Unknown Screening (GUS) procedure involves both gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography/diode array detection (LC/DAD) and fluorescence detection techniques. Both techniques have inherent limitations that prevent the detection of certain types of compounds. LC/DAD, however, is more limited due to poor sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, our laboratory developed and validated an LC/MS/MS procedure that provides far superior sensitivity and specificity to that of LC/DAD. The combination of GC/MS with LC/MS/MS will allow for the detection of more compounds at lower concentrations than our current techniques."--P. i
Drug usage in pilots involved in aviation accidents compared with drug usage in the general population from 1990 to 2005 by Sabra R Botch ( )
4 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 167 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Civil aviation pilots represent a small subsection of the general population. Therefore, one might expect to see the same types of drugs used by pilots that are found in the general population. The purpose of this study was to compare usage of both illegal drugs and abused prescription medications in pilots involved in civil aviation accidents from 1990 to 2005 with that of the general population in the United States. Comparisons included abused drugs routinely screened for by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) such as marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, and ecstasy, as well as prescription medications--barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opiates, and ketamine
Measures of information complexity and the implications for automation design final report by Jing Xing ( )
3 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 167 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The objective of this report was to develop observable metrics of IC for automation displays. This objective raises three basic questions: What is complexity? Why can information be too complex for the human brain? Finally, how do we quantify the complexity of visual displays? This paper is organized into three sections to address the above questions. We will first summarize our understanding of information complexity from an analysis of the literature. Then we will demonstrate that information is processed at three distinctive stages in the human brain, and complexity should be evaluated by the functions at each stage. In the last section, we will describe a set of IC metrics that we propose to use for automation displays in ATC
Usability and effectiveness of advanced general aviation cockpit displays for instrument flight procedures by Kevin W Williams ( )
2 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 167 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A study was conducted to asses the impact of advanced navigation displays on instrument flight procedures for general aviation, single-pilot operations. The study was designed to identify human factors that should be considered during the deployment of this technology to the entire general aviation community and in the development of future displays. The study focuses on single-pilot operations during normal to high workload conditions, including a failure of the vacuum-driven cockpit displays. Sixteen IFR-rated pilots were asked to plan and fly two separate flights in instrument condition, once using conventional instrumentation, and once using a moving-map/GPS display combination. Results show advantages for the advanced displays in flight performance under high-workload conditions. However, training requirements for these displays are likely to be increased relative to conventional navigational instrument
Aerospace toxicology an overview by Arvind K Chaturvedi ( )
2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 166 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The field of aerospace toxicology is composed of aerospace and toxicology. The term aerospace-that is, the environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth-is also used to represent the combined fields of aeronautics and astronautics. Aviation is another term frequently and interchangeably used with aerospace and aeronautics and is explained as the science and art of operating powered aircraft. Toxicology is the basic science of poisons. It deals with the adverse effects of substances on living organisms. Any substance could be poisonous, depending upon its exposure amount and frequency. Although toxicology borrows knowledge from the fields of biology, chemistry, immunology, pathology, physiology, and public health, the most closely related field to toxicology is pharmacology. Economic toxicology, environmental toxicology, and forensic toxicology are 3 main branches of toxicology. Toxicology is a multidisciplinary field. Aerospace toxicology could be considered closely related to aerospace medicine. In this overview, a literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed, covering aerospace toxicology related subject matter. The article is divided into the sections of introduction, agricultural aviation (aerial application), aviation combustion toxicology, postmortem aviation forensic toxicology, cabin air contamination, and references. Further readings are also suggested. It is anticipated that this overview article would be a reference source for the topics related to aerospace toxicology
FAA strategies for reducing operational error causal factors by Julia Pounds ( )
2 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 166 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The FAA has historically tried to understand and mitigate the incidence of operational errors (OEs), focusing on the critical component of the system-the closest person to the air traffic situation and the last point of prevention-the air traffic controller. With the human element as the foundation of such a complex system, several initiatives by the FAA Office of Evaluations and Investigations Staff include: have focused on human performance within, and interacting with, the larger system. These have included implementing a coordinated system of investigations to identify causal factors, fielding automation to re-create events, developing metrics to categorize OE severity, and sponsoring unique performance enhancement programs
Human factors associated with the certification of airplane passenger seats life preserver retrieval by Van Gowdy ( )
2 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 166 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A series of human subject tests were conducted by the Biodynamics Research Team at the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) to investigate human factors associated with the "easy reach" requirement in FAA regulations for under-seat mounted life preservers. The protocol was designed to observe and measure the effects of human physical attributes and life preserver installation features relevant to the retrieval of life preservers. A mockup of a 30-inch pitch, economy class transport passenger seat installation was used to evaluate 4 configurations of life preserver installations. The position of the pull-strap, used to open the life preserver container, was the independent variable. One hundred thirty-two adult subjects were tested. Each subject was seated, restrained by the seat's lap belts, instructed to reach beneath the seat, open the lifer preserver container, and extract the packaged life preserver. The time for retrieval of the life vest was measured from videotapes of each test. The videotapes were also reviewed independently by 11 outside raters, who rated the difficulty for each subject on a scale of 1 (easy) to 7 (very difficult). There was significant agreement (Cronbach's alpha = 0.978) in the "ease" ratings. In comparing the ease ratings and retrieval times, an average ease rating < 3 corresponded to a retrieval time < 10 seconds. An "EASY10" benchmark, derived from these results, indicates that a life preserver retrieval time < 10 seconds should be considered easy. Two of the configurations had average ratings < 3. The installation features that distinguish the two configurations that passed the EASY10 benchmark, compared with the two that failed, were the position of the pull-strap, the pull-angle on the strap necessary to effect a quick opening of the life preserver container, and the position of the stowed life preserver relative to the front frame of the seat. The results indicate that the "easy reach" criteria should be sat
Designing questionnaires for controlling and managing information complexity in visual displays final report by Jing Xing ( )
3 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 165 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"Information complexity of automation displays has become a bottleneck that limits the usefulness of new technologies in air traffic control (ATC). Previously, we developed a set of metrics to measure information complexity in ATC displays. While these metrics provide measures of display complexity, their use is somewhat limited due to required human factors expertise and understanding of the display design. Technology developers and human factors practitioners often desire quick, easy-to-use tools to assess the display during design and acquisition evaluation. Questionnaires provide a quick and inexpensive means to gather data from a potentially large number of respondents. We developed two questionnaires to evaluate ATC display complexity, based on the metric indices. The first questionnaire employs a multiple-choice format and allows quantitative evaluation of complexity. The second questionnaire uses a Likert rating format and is intended for qualitative assessment of complexity. We conducted an initial assessment of the questionnaires with seven subject matter experts on a radar display (STARS). The results indicate that both questionnaires produced consistent complexity evaluations among the subjects. Thus, we recommend that the multiple-choice questionnaire is more suitable for assessing quantitative complexity control during acquisition evaluations, and the Likert rating questionnaire is more suitable for complexity management during design of new ATC technologies."--P. i
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Alternative Names

controlled identity Civil Aeromedical Institute

CAMI Library
Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center
Spojené státy americké. Civil Aerospace Medical Institute
Spojené státy americké. Federal Aviation Administration. Civil Aerospace Medical Institute
United States. Civil Aerospace Medical Institute
United States. Federal Aviation Administration. Civil Aerospace Medical Institute.
English (52)